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See detailApplication of mechanoregulatory models to simulate peri-implant tissue formation in an in vivo bone chamber
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Vandamme, Katleen; Naert, Ignace et al

in Journal of Biomechanics (2008), 41(1), 145-154

Several mechanoregulatory tissue differentiation models have been proposed over the last decade. Corroboration of these models by comparison with experimental data is necessary to determine their ... [more ▼]

Several mechanoregulatory tissue differentiation models have been proposed over the last decade. Corroboration of these models by comparison with experimental data is necessary to determine their predictive power. So far, models have been applied with various success rates to different experimental set-ups investigating mainly secondary fracture heating. In this study, the mechanoregulatory models are applied to simulate the implant osseointegration process in a repeated sampling in vivo bone chamber, placed in a rabbit tibia. This bone chamber provides a mechanically isolated environment to study tissue differentiation around titanium implants loaded in a controlled manner. For the purpose of this study, bone formation around loaded cylindrical and screw-shaped implants was investigated. Histologically, no differences were found between the two implant geometries for the global amount of bone formation in the entire chamber. However, a significantly larger amount of bone-to-implant contact was observed for the screw-shaped implant compared to the cylindrical implant. In the simulations, a larger amount of bone was also predicted to be in contact with the screw-shaped implant. However, other experimental observations could not be predicted. The simulation results showed a distribution of cartilage, fibrous tissue and (im)mature bone, depending on the mechanoregulatory model that was applied. In reality, no cartilage was observed. Adaptations to the differentiation models did not lead to a better correlation between experimentally observed and numerically predicted tissue distribution patterns. The hypothesis that the existing mechanoregulatory models were able to predict the patterns of tissue formation in the in vivo bone chamber could not be fully sustained. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Metabolomic Approaches to the Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
De Tullio, Pascal ULg

Conference (2009, January 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
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See detailApplication of Microtremor Measurements for Geological Mapping and Comparison with Other Geophysical Methods
Teerlynck, H.; Jongmans, D.; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 7th Meeting on ‘Environmental and Engineering Geophysics (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (3 ULg)
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See detailApplication of Miller's theorem to the stability analysis of numerical schemes; some useful tools for rapid inspection of discretisations in ocean modelling
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Ocean Modelling (1999), 1

An old theorem about the roots of a polynomial is resurfaced and examined, focusing on the practical question of determining stability criteria for numerical schemes. Is is demonstrated that the theorem ... [more ▼]

An old theorem about the roots of a polynomial is resurfaced and examined, focusing on the practical question of determining stability criteria for numerical schemes. Is is demonstrated that the theorem can be useful both for analytical studies of the stability limits, as well as numerical searches for stability regions. It is particularly important that when deciding whether the scheme is stable or not, it is not necessary to search for the roots of the polynomial. Indeed, such a decision may be reached through a finite and small number of arithmetic operations and verifications of inequalities. In addition to the analysis of the theorem, some practical conditions for polynomial of different orders are presented, as well as some useful tips on how simply necessary or sufficient stability conditions can be obtained. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of mixed polygenic model to control for cryptic/genuine relatedness and population stratification.
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Mahachie John, Jestinah ULg; Isaacs, Aaron et al

Poster (2012, March 12)

In genome-wide association studies (GWAs), population stratification may cause inflated type I errors and overly-optimistic test results, when not properly corrected for. During the past decade, several ... [more ▼]

In genome-wide association studies (GWAs), population stratification may cause inflated type I errors and overly-optimistic test results, when not properly corrected for. During the past decade, several methods have been proposed for association testing in the presence of population stratification. Among these, principal components-based approaches are the most popular. Principal component analysis (PCA) allows data transformation to a new coordinate system such that the projection of the data along the first new coordinate (called the PC1) has the largest variance; the second PC has the second largest variance, and so on. In practice, two components are usually enough to adjust or to control for population stratification. They can easily be included in parametric association models as covariates. Despite the success of this strategy, there are still some caveats which need further attention. Among these are that principal component-based methods generally do not account for cryptic relatedness (kinship) between supposedly unrelated individuals, are not straightforwardly adapted to accommodate family-based designs or mixtures of families and unrelated individuals, and do not always take proper account of the trait under investigation. In this work, we present an easy-to-use alternative that addresses the aforementioned issues. For quantitative traits, we propose to first use the mixed polygenic model (possibly taking into account important non-genetic confounders as covariates), second to derive “polygenic” residuals from this model – hereby removing genomic kinship relationships, and third to consider these residuals as new traits in a classical genome-wide QTL analysis for “unrelated individuals”. The polygenic component of the aforementioned mixed polygenic model describes the contribution from multiple independently segregating genes, all having a small additive effect on the trait under investigation. Via an extensive simulation study, with various settings of population stratification and admixture, we show that this approach not only removes most of the “relatedness” between individuals (cryptic relatedness or known relatedness), but also removes most of the remaining substructures caused by population stratification or admixture. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the efficiency of this robust method to control for population stratification on real-life genome-scale data from the SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) Asthma Resource project (SHARP) (dbGaP accession number phs000166.v2.p1). We also provide leads to extend this method to dichotomous traits. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of molecular imaging in combination with quantitative proteomic approaches to determine the molecular players of adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy in breast cancer.
Cimino, Jonathan ULg; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Calligaris, David ULg et al

Poster (2012, May 04)

The recognition of the “angiogenic switch” as a rate-limiting secondary step in tumorigenesis led to extensive pre-clinical researches on angiogenesis and finally the approval of VEGF-neutralizing ... [more ▼]

The recognition of the “angiogenic switch” as a rate-limiting secondary step in tumorigenesis led to extensive pre-clinical researches on angiogenesis and finally the approval of VEGF-neutralizing antibodies (bevacizumab) and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKs:Sunitinib). The Sunitinib has been used clinically in patients with breast cancer refractory to other therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, like the cytotoxic therapies, these drugs do not produce lasting effects and resistance to treatment appeared clinically. Questions have emerged about the failure of anti-angiogenic therapy in clinic and the limitations of predictive preclinical models, and also about the molecular assessment of all stages of tumor adaptation and metastatic disease. To this end, we applied a quantitative proteomics and imaging mass spectrometry tools to visualize and study the profiles of proteins and small molecules associated with tumor treated or not with Sunitinib using a novel preclinical model of breast carcinoma cells. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of molecular modeling to the study of cyproterone acetate stability in the presence of cyclodextrin derivatives
Henry de Hassonville, Sandrine; Dive, Georges ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology (2004), 14(5, SEP-OCT), 357-362

The ability of cyclodextrins (CDs) to increase the solubility of cyproterone acetate (CPA) was previously shown by phase-solubility and NMR studies [1]. In the present work, the influence of various CDs ... [more ▼]

The ability of cyclodextrins (CDs) to increase the solubility of cyproterone acetate (CPA) was previously shown by phase-solubility and NMR studies [1]. In the present work, the influence of various CDs on the stability of CPA was studied in pH 6 and pH 8 aqueous solutions at 25degreesC. Different CDs were tested: hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD), randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HPgammaCD) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gammaCD). At pH 6, the presence of these CDs reduces the degradation of CPA. Nevertheless, at pH 8, the gamma-CD derivatives are ineffective against the degradation of CPA, whereas the beta-CD derivatives (HPbetaCD and RAMEB) allow decreasing CPA hydrolysis. Molecular modeling was performed to theoretically calculate some of the most energetically favorable conformations for gamma-CD and RAMEB complexes with CPA. The position of the ester group in the CD caivity seems to be the most important factor influencing the hydrolysis of CPA. Other factors, such as the size of the cavity, the substitution of the CD hydroxyls and the stability constant also have a strong incidence on CPA stability. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of molecular techniques to monitor the evolution of bacterial consortia composed of Clostridium sp. in a hydrogen producing bioreactor
Calusinska, Magdalena ULg; Savichtcheva, Olga; Joris, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2009, December 11)

Our current dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source contributes to global climate change, environmental degradation and health problems. Hydrogen offers a tremendous potential as a clean ... [more ▼]

Our current dependence on fossil fuels as the primary energy source contributes to global climate change, environmental degradation and health problems. Hydrogen offers a tremendous potential as a clean, renewable energy currency and it is compatible with electrochemical and combustion processes for energy conversion without producing carbon – based emissions. Many microorganisms, especially photosynthetic as well as facultative and anaerobic bacteria have been reported to produce large amounts of hydrogen from soluble and insoluble biomass. Clostridia, being obligate anaerobes, are capable of biogas production during ‘dark fermentation’ of a wide range of carbohydrates. In this ARC project, entitled Micro – H2 we have focused on a new direction in bio – hydrogen production systems which is the use of mixed cultures of microorganisms (consortia). We expect that the combination of complementary metabolisms could significantly increase the efficiencies of mixed systems compared to monocultures. However, a few fundamental studies need to be carried out in order to investigate and improve the stability of microbial populations involved in the processes. It is now recognised that molecular microbial ecology tools provide the scientific basis to monitor the processes used in environmental biotechnology. To characterize the diversity of bacterial communities, quantitative techniques such as Real – Time Quantitative PCR and FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization) and semi – quantitative DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) have been optimized and applied on different bioreactor samples. This approach enabled for the temporal monitoring of the evolution of bacterial consortia, both in terms of species dominance and their metabolic activity. Molecular analysis of bacterial consortia allowed for careful examination of interactions between different bacterial species within a consortium, which is crucial in the stabilization of the hydrogen production process. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of molecular tools to study the hydrogen production by the bacteria of the genus Clostridium
Calusinska, Magdalena ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

L’hydrogène moléculaire a un potential énorme comme futur vecteur énergétique car sa combustion n’est pas polluante. Cependant, les processus industriels actuels de production contribuent ... [more ▼]

L’hydrogène moléculaire a un potential énorme comme futur vecteur énergétique car sa combustion n’est pas polluante. Cependant, les processus industriels actuels de production contribuent substantiellement à l’effet de serre. Au contraire, une production d’H2 qui est neutre en CO2 peut être obtenue par la fermentation anaérobique obscure. Les bactéries du genre Clostridium peuvent fermenter les sucres en H2 et CO2 avec production d’ acide acétique et butyrique qui servent d’accepteurs principaux d’électrons. Cependant, en fonction de la souche/co-culture utilisée et des conditions de culture, des composés plus réduits peuvent être obtenus, par ex. l’éthanol, le lactate, ce qui réduit substantiellement le rendement final en H2. De plus, les différentes voies métaboliques et les circuits de régulation conduisant à la production d’H2 dans les clostridies ne sont pas bien connus. Dans cette étude, nous avons étudié deux sujets principaux. D’une part, nous avons étudié différentes co-cultures de Clostridium spp. dans des bioréacteurs produisant de l’H2. En suivant les co-cultures de C. butyricum et C. pasteurianum par FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridisation) et qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR), nous avons montré que les deux espèces co-existent de manière stable durant la fermentation de différents sucres dans deux bioréacteurs. D’autre part, en utilisant Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009 comme modèle, nous avons étudié le métabolisme complexe de l’H2 chez les clostridies. La découverte de gènes nouveaux codant pour des hydrogènases [FeFe] dans les génomes séquencés a changé notre vue de la façon dont ces microbes produisent l’ H2. En effet, en utilisant différents outils moléculaires (2D-DIGE, RT-qPCR et RNA-seq), nous avons montré que dans différents conditions de milieu, différentes hydrogénases contribuent à la production d’H2. De plus, sous atmosphère d’N2 pendant la fermentation du glucose dans des conditions de pH non régulées, nous observons que la nitrogénase contribue à la production globale d’H2. De manière surprenante, alors que les clostridies semblent bien équipées pour produire de l’H2, elles n’ont probablement développé cette capacité que pour s’adapter rapidement aux variations de conditions, cad la diminution du pH. Donc, pour maintenir un pH intracellulaire constant, elles rejettent les protons (sans doute sous forme de H2) dans le milieu. Ainsi, elles se débarrassent de l’excès d’équivalents réducteurs produits pendant la fermentation du glucose. En résumé, nos résultats contribuent à une meilleure connaissance du métabolisme complexe de l’H2 chez les clostridies. Cependant, un défi pour le futur consiste à caractériser les enzymes responsables de ce métabolisme et, par bioengineering métabolique, de développer des systèmes microbiens optimaux pour la conversion de la biomasse en H2. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of MRI for improved local control in complex radiotherapy of cervical cancer
Janaki, Hadjiev; Zsolt, Cselik; Péter Bogner et al

in Archive of Oncology (2006), 14(3-4), 95-100

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a modern medical imaging technique in radiotherapy with special emphasis on the integration of MRI and a ... [more ▼]

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a modern medical imaging technique in radiotherapy with special emphasis on the integration of MRI and a novel technique in brachytherapy to optimize treatment outcome in cervical cancer. Methods: In addition to the CT based shrinking volume conformal teletherapy in 31 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, MRI examination with a special adjustable applicator at the treatment site was performed for the brachytherapy planning. To avoid excessive doses to the healthy structures during complex cervical radiotherapy isodose curves were calculated upon the information of the MR image and dose distribution was evaluated. Results: The consecutive application of CT and MRI limited the possibility for overdosage of the critical organs and undertreatment of the advanced tumor spread in all cases. The overall response rate for the complex treatment was 74.2% with complete regression in 25.8% of the cases. Based on the exact information of the three dimensional digital data radiation doses could be optimized without increasing the possibility of acute complications rate. Conclusion: The introduction of 3D treatment planning for teletherapy pelvic and boost irradiation of cervical carcinoma as well as for the brachytherapy part of the complex treatment is to be recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of multi-scale variography for inferring the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity of a sandy aquifer
Rogiers, Bart; Vienken, Thomas; Gedeon, M et al

Poster (2014, April 28)

In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel (Belgium), extensive characterization of the hydraulic ... [more ▼]

In the framework of the disposal of short-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in a near-surface disposal facility in Dessel (Belgium), extensive characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) in the shallow Neogene aquifer has been performed at a regional scale. In the last few years the small-scale heterogeneity has been additionally characterized by outcrop analogue, hydraulic direct push, and borehole core air permeameter studies. The gathered data now include a) more than 350 hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from 8 cored boreholes, mostly reaching depths of 50 m and data at 2 m intervals, b) more than 5000 air permeability measurements on the same borehole cores, c) more than 250 cone penetration tests (CPTs) with depths down to 40 m and data at 2 cm intervals, d) over 100 dissipation tests performed during the CPT campaigns, e) 17 direct push injections loggings, 6 hydraulic profiling tool logs, and 6 direct push slug tests, f) several hundreds of air permeability measurements on outcrop analogues of the aquifer sediments, and g) numerous grain size analyses. The current study aims to quantify the heterogeneity of K from the centimetre- to the kilometre-scale and to check the compatibility of the spatial variability revealed by the different datasets. This is achieved through gathering all K values (either direct measurements, calibrated relative K values, or K estimates from secondary data), and the use of variography to quantify spatial variability in terms of two-points geostatistics. The results are discussed, and the main differences between the different data sources are explained. In a final step, different multi-scale variogram models are proposed for capturing the main characteristics of multi-scale variability within the shallow Neogene aquifer in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of multiple-point geostatistics on groundwater flow and transport in media with complex geological heterogeneity: lessons learnt and remaining challenges
Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Proceedings (2014, July 09)

Multiple-point geostatistics has been increasingly applied on groundwater problems in the last ten years. Several case studies have been published indicating simulating realistic geological heterogeneity ... [more ▼]

Multiple-point geostatistics has been increasingly applied on groundwater problems in the last ten years. Several case studies have been published indicating simulating realistic geological heterogeneity using multiple-point geostatistics can significantly improve groundwater flow and solute transport predictions. There are however several remaining challenges when applying multiple-point geostatistics to groundwater problems often suffering from data scarcity. These challenges might be the reason why multiple-point has been used to a much lesser extent by practitioners than by researchers. This paper gives an overview of the current challenges and discusses new advancements to overcome them. The following questions will be discussed: How to obtain 3D training images? Can the representativity of the used training image be validated ? How sensitive are groundwater calculations to the selection of the training image? Is it worth incorporating fine scale geological heterogeneity in groundwater problems or are other features (boundary conditions, data uncertainty/quality, …) more important for improving predictions? How can multiple-point geostatistics be used without suffering from very long computation times for the numerical models? Is overparametrization of groundwater models an issue ? What are the practical obstacles to apply multiple-point geostatistics by groundwater practitioners? [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of multiple-point geostatistics on modelling groundwater flow and transport in a cross-bedded aquifer
Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Hydrogeology Journal (2009), 17(8), 1901-1911

Sedimentological processes often result in complex three-dimensional subsurface heterogeneity of hydrogeological parameter values. Variogram-based stochastic approaches are often not able to describe ... [more ▼]

Sedimentological processes often result in complex three-dimensional subsurface heterogeneity of hydrogeological parameter values. Variogram-based stochastic approaches are often not able to describe heterogeneity in such complex geological environments. This work shows how multiple-point geostatistics can be applied in a realistic hydrogeological application to determine the impact of complex geological heterogeneity on groundwater flow and transport. The approach is applied to a real aquifer in Belgium that exhibits a complex sedimentary heterogeneity and anisotropy. A training image is constructed based on geological and hydrogeological field data. Multiple-point statistics are borrowed from thistraining image to simulate hydrofacies occurrence, while intrafacies permeability variability is simulated using conventional variogram-based geostatistical methods. The simulated hydraulic conductivity realizations are used as input to a groundwater flow and transport model to investigate the effect of small-scale sedimentary heterogeneity on contaminant plume migration. Results show that small-scale sedimentary heterogeneity has a significant effect on contaminant transport in the studied aquifer. The uncertainty on the spatial facies distribution and intrafacies hydraulic conductivity distribution results in a significant uncertainty on the calculated concentration distribution. Comparison with standard variogram-based techniques shows that multiple-point geostatistics allow better reproduction of irregularly shaped low-permeability clay drapes that influence solute transport. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of multiple-point geostatistics on modelling groundwater flow and transport in a cross-bedded aquifer
Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Atkinson, P. M. M.; Lloyd, C. D. D. (Eds.) GeoENV VII – Geostatistics for Environmental Applications, Quantitative Geology and Geostatistics (2010)

In this work, the problem of modelling groundwater flow and transport in a heterogeneous environment with complex geological structures is addressed. This study demonstrates how a training image can be ... [more ▼]

In this work, the problem of modelling groundwater flow and transport in a heterogeneous environment with complex geological structures is addressed. This study demonstrates how a training image can be constructed based on geological and hydrogeological field data and how multiple-point geostatistics can be applied to determine the impact of complex geological heterogeneity on groundwater flow and transport in a real aquifer. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of multiple-point geostatistics on modelling pumping tests and tracer tests in heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures
Huysmans, Marijke; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2014, April 28)

In heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures, analysis of pumping and tracer tests is often problematic. Standard interpretation methods do not account for heterogeneity or simulate ... [more ▼]

In heterogeneous environments with complex geological structures, analysis of pumping and tracer tests is often problematic. Standard interpretation methods do not account for heterogeneity or simulate this heterogeneity introducing empirical zonation of the calibrated parameters or using variogram-based geostatistical techniques that are often not able to describe realistic heterogeneity in complex geological environments where e.g. sedimentary structures, multi-facies deposits, structures with large connectivity or curvi-linear structures can be present. Multiple-point geostatistics aims to overcome the limitations of the variogram and can be applied in different research domains to simulate heterogeneity in complex environments. In this project, multiple-point geostatistics is applied to the interpretation of pumping tests and a tracer test in an actual case of a sandy heterogeneous aquifer. This study allows to deduce the main advantages and disadvantages of this technique compared to variogram-based techniques for interpretation of pumping tests and tracer tests. A pumping test and a tracer test were performed in the same sandbar deposit consisting of cross-bedded units composed of materials with different grain sizes and hydraulic conductivities. The pumping test and the tracer test are analyzed with a local 3D groundwater model in which fine-scale sedimentary heterogeneity is modelled using multiple-point geostatistics. To reduce CPU and RAM requirements of the multiple-point geostatistical simulation steps, edge properties indicating the presence of irregularly-shaped surfaces are directly simulated. Results show that for the pumping test as well as for the tracer test, incorporating heterogeneity results in a better fit between observed and calculated drawdowns/concentrations. The improvement of the fit is however not as large as expected. In this paper, the reasons for these somewhat unsatisfactory results are explored and recommendations for future applications of multiple-point geostatistics on pumping tests and tracer tests are formulated. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for predicting chemical composition, cellulase digestiblity of organic matter and energy values of compound feedstuffs for ruminants.
Verheggen, S.; Dardenne, Pierre; Thewis, André ULg et al

in Biston, Robert; Barthiaux-Thill, Nicole (Eds.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol.1 (1990)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
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See detailApplication of neural networks in quality control of 'Jonagold' apples
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Bieuvelet, Frédéric; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Bellon-Maurel, Véronique (Ed.) Sensoral 98 - International workshop on sensing quality of agricultural products (1998, February)

This paper studies the possibilities to grade the 'Jonagold', a bicolour apple, using neural networks and Fisher"s linear discriminant analysis. In a first step the pixels are sorted into three areas, the ... [more ▼]

This paper studies the possibilities to grade the 'Jonagold', a bicolour apple, using neural networks and Fisher"s linear discriminant analysis. In a first step the pixels are sorted into three areas, the blush colour area, the intermediate colour area and the ground colour area; the accuracy reached 95% with the neural networks. Int the second step the fruit are graded into four categories on their ground colour basis; the accuracy reached 68%whatever the method used. It si also shown that there is no need to separate the ground colour and the intermediate colour to compute the ground colour classification parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of new Eurocode 3 formulae for beam-columns to class 3 hollow section members
Boissonnade, Nicolas; Weynand, K.; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Tubular Structures (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULg)