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See detailAn analysis of the role played by habits in urban transportation insights from Veblenian Evolutionary Economics
Maréchal, Kevin ULg

in Journal of Transport Economics and Policy (2016), 50(2), 205-221

This paper intends to provide a complementary account of the importance of habits in transportation behaviour. The study looks at the respective influence of the different dimensions that characterise ... [more ▼]

This paper intends to provide a complementary account of the importance of habits in transportation behaviour. The study looks at the respective influence of the different dimensions that characterise habits, using Veblenian Evolutionary Economics (VEE) as the analytical perspective. The data come from a field experiment in two districts of Brussels, where new residents were given free passes for public transport. Confirming that habits are perceived as a strong driver of modal choice, our results also provide complementary evidence regarding the precise influence of habit strength. Most notably, the extent of effort required seems to play a major role. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the sensivity of FEM predictions to numerical parameters in deep drawing simulations
Duchene, Laurent ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg

in European Journal of Mechanics A : Solids (2005), (24), 614-629

In this study, deep drawing finite element (FE) simulations are compared with experimental results. The steel grade, the geometry and the parameters of the experimental deep drawing processes are detailed ... [more ▼]

In this study, deep drawing finite element (FE) simulations are compared with experimental results. The steel grade, the geometry and the parameters of the experimental deep drawing processes are detailed in this paper. Particular attention is paid to numerical models. The main part of the article is dedicated to a broad sensitivity study. The influence of several numerical parameters on the predicted punch force and earing profile is analysed. A quadratic [Hill, R., 1948. A theory of the yielding and plastic flow of anisotropic metals. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 193, 281–297] constitutive law is compared with more sophisticated micro-macro constitutive laws. The sensitivity of these laws to the initial data characterizing material behaviour is presented. A significant influence of the FE type and the number of FE layers is noticed. Finally, it also appears that friction parameters (penalty coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient) have a significant influence on numerical results. The low anisotropy of the steel sheet increases the influence of several numerical parameters. That influence would not be observed with a highly anisotropic steel. [less ▲]

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See detailAn analysis of the SFSTP guide on validation of chromatographic bioanalytical methods: progresses and limitations
Boulanger, Bruno ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Dewé, Walthère ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2003), 32(4-5), 753-765

The Societe Francaise des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques (SFSTP) published in 1997 a guide on the validation of chromatographic bio-analytical methods, which introduces new concepts in three ... [more ▼]

The Societe Francaise des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutiques (SFSTP) published in 1997 a guide on the validation of chromatographic bio-analytical methods, which introduces new concepts in three different areas: stages of the validation, test of acceptability of a method and design of experiments to perform. In 'stages of validation', the SFSTP guide requires two phases to validate a method. The first phase, called 'prevalidation', is intended to (1) identify the model to use for the calibration curve; (2) evaluate the limits of quantitation; and (3) provide good estimates of the precision and bias of the method before designing the 'validation' phase per se. In the 'test of acceptability', the use of the interval hypotheses is envisaged by the SFSTP guide, not on the parameters of bias and precision, but on individual results by mixing mean bias and intermediate precision in a single test. The SFSTP guide also avoids the use of Satterthwaite's df for testing the acceptability. The reasons for those choices are discussed extensively. In 'design of experiments', much effort has been devoted to improving the quality of results by optimally designing and sizing the experiments to perform in validation. The rationale for using near D-optimal designs for the calibration curve is demonstrated and sample sizes are proposed to correctly size the validation experiments. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Shrinkage Effect on Mass Transfer During Convective Drying of Sawdust/Sludge Mixtures
Li, Jie ULg; Bennamoun, Lyes; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Drying Technology (2014), 32

Convective drying of wastewater sludges and sawdust/sludge mixtures was studied. The first part of this work was an experimental study performed in a cross-flow convective dryer using 500 g of wet ... [more ▼]

Convective drying of wastewater sludges and sawdust/sludge mixtures was studied. The first part of this work was an experimental study performed in a cross-flow convective dryer using 500 g of wet material extruded through a disk with circular dies of 12 mm. The results showed that the sawdust addition has a positive impact on the drying process from a mass ratio of 2/8, on a dry basis, with observed drying rates higher than the original sludge. The second part of this work consisted of developing a drying model in order to identify the internal diffusion coefficient and convective mass transfer coefficient from the experimental data. A comparison was made between fitted drying curves, well represented by the Newton’s model, and the analytical solutions of the diffusion equation applied to a finite cylinder. Variations of dimensional characteristics such as the volume and exchange surface of the sample bed were obtained by X-ray tomography. This technique allowed confirm that shrinkage, which is an important phenomenon occurring during sludge and sawdust/mixture drying, must be taken into account. The results showed that both the internal diffusion coefficient and convective mass transfer coefficient were affected by mixing and sawdust addition. The internal diffusion coefficient changed from 7.77×10-9 m2/s for the original sludge to 7.01×10-9 m2/s for the mixed sludge and then increased to 8.35×10-9 m2/s for the mixture of a mass ratio of 4/6. The convective mass transfer coefficient changed from 9.70×10-8 m/s for the original sludge to 8.67×10-8 m/s for the mixed sludge and then increased to 12.09×10-8 m/s for the mixture of a mass ratio of 4/6. These results confirmed that sawdust addition was beneficial to the sludge drying process as the mass transfer efficiency between the air and material increased. Reinforcing the texture of sludge by adding sawdust can increase the drying rate and decrease the drying time, and then the heat energy supply will be reduced significantly. The study also showed that neglecting shrinkage phenomenon resulted in an overestimation for the internal diffusion coefficient for the convective drying of sludges and sawdust/sludge mixtures. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Skyros pony breed: population structure and genetic variability
Bömcke, Elisabeth ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2008, November)

Due to its geographic location, Greece is a crossroad between three continents and its mountainous landscape and numerous islands have lead to the creation of many small populations of distinct and ... [more ▼]

Due to its geographic location, Greece is a crossroad between three continents and its mountainous landscape and numerous islands have lead to the creation of many small populations of distinct and isolated breeds. On the basis of phenotypes and genotypes, seven native breeds were identified. The Skyros pony has a distinct phenotype from those of other breeds. This phenotypic difference seems to be linked to the fact that the Skyros pony is less genetically similar to the other Greek breed than the other breeds are to each other as shown in previous studies. Furthermore, the Skyros pony breed risk status is described as endangered according to the criteria of the Food and Agricultural Organization (DAD-IS). The main reason is that the population is concentrated only in three herds of reduced size. This study analyses the population structure and describes the genetic variability of the breed using 15 microsatellite markers and available genealogical information. The molecular characterization and the pedigree were also used to investigate the presence of bottleneck. Factorial correspondence analysis and analysis of molecular variance showed that the three herds seemed to be genetically distinct even if the genetic variance between herds was low (5.75%). For the whole population, the mean total number of allele per locus was 5.93. The average Polymorphism Information Content value was relatively high (~ 0.60) as the observed heterozygosity (0.64) and the expected heterozygosity (0.62). The comparison with other studies showed that these values were well within the range for domestic horses but were at the lower end of that range, i.e. with the values from breeds with small population size or recent bottlenecks. However, these values indicated a still substantial genetic diversity in the Skyros breed that could be useful for planning future breeding strategies for the breed conservation. This is consistent with the results of various bottleneck tests, which detected no evidence of bottleneck when considering the whole population but suggested that there was bottleneck in two of the three main herds of Skyros pony. Comparisons between DNA-based and pedigree-based results showed that the loss of genetic diversity has probably occurred before the beginning of breed registration. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the spatial expression pattern of seven kip related proteins (KRPs) in the shoot apex of Arabidopsis thaliana
Ormenese, Sandra ULg; de Almeida Engler, J.; De Groodt, R. et al

in Annals of Botany (2004), 93(5), 575-580

Background and aims Kip-related-proteins (KRPs), negative regulators of cell division, have recently been discovered in plants but their in planta function is as yet unclear. In this study the spatial ... [more ▼]

Background and aims Kip-related-proteins (KRPs), negative regulators of cell division, have recently been discovered in plants but their in planta function is as yet unclear. In this study the spatial expression of all seven KRP genes in shoot apices of Arabidopsis thaliana were compared. Methods In situ hybridization analyses were performed on longitudinal sections of shoot apices from 2-month-old Arabidopsis plants. Key Results The study provides evidence for different expression pattern groups. KRP1 and KRP2 expression is restricted to the endoreduplicating tissues. In contrast, KRP4 and KRP5 expression is mainly restricted to mitotically dividing cells. KRP3, KRP6 and KRP7 can be found in both mitotically dividing and endoreduplicating cells. Conclusion The results suggest differential roles for the distinct KRPs. KRP1 and KRP2 might specifically be involved in the establishment of polyploidy. In contrast, KRP4 and KRP5 might be involved in regulating the progression through the mitotic cell cycle. KRP3, KRP6 and KRP7 might have a function in both types of cell cycle. (C) 2004 Annals of Botany Company. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the speed of convergence
Artige, Lionel ULg

Learning material (2010)

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See detailAnalysis of the Structure and Function of FOX-4 Cephamycinase
Lefurgy, S.T.; Malashkevich, V.N.; Aguilan, J.T. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2016), 60(2), 717-728

Class C β-lactamases poorly hydrolyze cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin, cefotetan, and moxalactam). In the past 2 decades, a new family of plasmid-based AmpC β-lactamases conferring resistance to cefoxitin ... [more ▼]

Class C β-lactamases poorly hydrolyze cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin, cefotetan, and moxalactam). In the past 2 decades, a new family of plasmid-based AmpC β-lactamases conferring resistance to cefoxitin, the FOX family, has grown to include nine unique members descended from the Aeromonas caviae chromosomal AmpC. To understand the basis for the unique cephamycinase activity in the FOX family, we determined the first X-ray crystal structures of FOX-4, apo enzyme and the acyl-enzyme with its namesake compound, cefoxitin, using the Y150F deacylation-deficient variant. Notably, recombinant expression of N-terminally tagged FOX-4 also yielded an inactive adenylylated enzyme form not previously observed in β-lactamases. The posttranslational modification (PTM), which occurs on the active site Ser64, would not seem to provide a selective advantage, yet might present an opportunity for the design of novel antibacterial drugs. Substantial ligand-induced changes in the enzyme are seen in the acyl-enzyme complex, particularly the R2 loop and helix H10 (P289 to N297), with movement of F293 by 10.3 Å. Taken together, this study provides the first picture of this highly proficient class C cephamycinase, uncovers a novel PTM, and suggests a possible cephamycin resistance mechanism involving repositioning of the substrate due to the presence of S153P, N289P, and N346I substitutions in the ligand binding pocket. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the structure of a questionnaire about hospital worker'swell being at work
Muller, Michel; Vandoorne, Chantal; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in ICOH 2006 Proceedings (2006, June)

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See detailAnalysis of the support provided to student-athletes in Wallonia. The case of higher education
Cloes, Marc ULg; Lenzen, Benoit; Polis, Ariane

in Diniz, J. A.; Carreiro da Costa, F.; Onofre, M. (Eds.) Active lifestyles: The impact of education and sport. Proceedings of the AIESEP 2005 World Congress (2007)

In this paper, the first aspect to keep in mind deals with the student-athletes’status. Indeed, the European culture is rather different than the North America’s one. US students, for example, have many ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the first aspect to keep in mind deals with the student-athletes’status. Indeed, the European culture is rather different than the North America’s one. US students, for example, have many advantages to become top athletes. Those who are selected in school, college or university teams are well supported by their institution. The NCCA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) is trying to limit the participation of the freshmen to the university competitions in order to provide them a better teaching context. An overview of the situation of studentathletes in 12 European countries revealed that not all of them have developed a positive climate in favour of their student-athletes. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the technical / economic performance of four cropping systems involving Jatropha curcas L. in the Kinshasa Region (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
Minengu, J.D.; Mobambo, P.; Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Tropicultura (2015), 33(2),

In order to assess the sustainability of cultivating Jatropha curcas L. in rural areas in the Kinshasa region, four cropping systems were compared : cultivation of J. curcas as a sole crop with and ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the sustainability of cultivating Jatropha curcas L. in rural areas in the Kinshasa region, four cropping systems were compared : cultivation of J. curcas as a sole crop with and without fertilisers, a combination of J. curcas with subsistence crops (maize - Zea mays L., the common bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with and without fertilisers. The major attacks by pests (mainly Aphthona sp.) suffered by J. curcas plants in the region make it vital to conduct at least two insecticide treatments per year. Dry seed yields of J. curcas obtained in the 4th year of cultivation amounted to 753 kg ha-1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop without fertilisers, 797 kg ha-1 for intercropping without fertilisers, 1158 kg ha-1 when J. curcas was cultivated as a sole crop with fertilisers and 1173 kg ha-1 for intercropping with fertilisers. Yields from the two annual crops were not improved by the application of mineral fertilisers on the J. curcas plants. They amounted to an average of 815 kg ha-1 for maize and 676 kg ha-1 for the beans. It is more profitable to cultivate J. curcas with maize and beans than to cultivate it as a sole crop. By combining crops in this way, a one-hectare farm can earn 1102 USD ha-1 without fertilisers and 1049 USD ha-1 with fertilisers. Sustainable cultivation of J. curcas under the test conditions requires the development of efficient weed / pest control methods and improved soil fertility management, in order to minimise the use of mineral fertilisers. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the temporal dynamics of suspended sediment fluxes using discrete sampling and continuous turbidity measurements in the Meuse and Scheldt watersheds (Wallonia, Belgium)
Van Campenhout, Jean ULg

Conference (2016, June 27)

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several ... [more ▼]

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several projects were conducted to estimate the erosion rates in watersheds ranging from 16 to 2900 km². Both discrete sampling methods (allowing the coverage of a large area through field campaigns during major floods or moderate hydrological events) and continuous turbidity measurements devices (studying a small number of locations with a small sampling interval and a wide range of sampled flow rates) were tested in these projects. At the region scale (Figure 1), the mean annual sediment erosion rate reaches several hundreds of tons per square kilometre and per year in the loess belt (Senne, Dyle and Gette watersheds) with a huge sensibility to extreme hydrological events while the mean annual sediment transport value reaches 20 t.km-2.yr-1 in Lorraine, 34 t.km-2.yr-1 in Ardenne and 69 t.km-2.yr-1 in Entre-Vesdre-et-Meuse. The aims of our researches are 1) the determination of the effect of the sampling frequency on the annual sediment transport rate estimation ; 2) the definition of the prerequisites to perform efficient turbidity measurements in rivers with high suspended load concentrations ; 3) the identification of the sources of errors due to the interpolation methods through a comparison of several methods proposed in the literature allowing the quantification of long-term erosion rates using a small number of discrete samples ; 4) the observation and explanation of clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops in relationship with the sequence of floods occurring in large watersheds and 5) the highlighting of the regional differentiation in the erosion rates, particle size and proportion of organic matter in the suspended load samples due to spatial variations of the soil substrate and the land cover characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the time-dependent electrical current in reverse-biased p-GeSn/n-Ge mesa diodes
Baert, Bruno ULg; Gupta, Somya; Gencarelli, Federica et al

Poster (2015, September)

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See detailAn Analysis of the Urban Consumption of Charcoal by Household: The Case of the City of Bujumbura in Burundi
Sabuhungu, Emery Gaspard ULg; Ndimanya, Patrice; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in International Review of Research in Emerging Markets and the Global Economy (2015), 1(1), 206-2017

A study of charcoal consumption, involving 240 households, was conducted in three different districts of the city of Bujumbura in Burundi. These districts were selected according the standard of living ... [more ▼]

A study of charcoal consumption, involving 240 households, was conducted in three different districts of the city of Bujumbura in Burundi. These districts were selected according the standard of living for residents and the level of property taxes received by district. The main objective of this study was to show the different aspects of charcoal consumption by households in the city of Bujumbura. Specific requirements to identify were: charcoal consumption patterns, the amount of daily cooking, an analysis of charcoal expenditures, the coefficient of charcoal consumption (kg per person per day), and the relationship between charcoal consumption and socio- economic and demographic parameters. The results indicate that households in Bujumbura fall into three categories according to charcoal consumption patterns: those households that only use charcoal (83%), those that combine charcoal and firewood (5 %) and those that combine charcoal and electricity (12%). These results show that charcoal is the main cooking fuel for households in Bujumbura. Average spending per person per day totalled 299 BIF. A person consumes 0.78 kg of charcoal per day. The following factors influence household expenditure on charcoal: household income, the charcoal price, the household size, the number of cooking sessions per day in the household and the preparation of time consuming foods (such as cassava leaves). Charcoal consumption can lead to deforestation in areas of supply. The dissemination of improved cooking stoves can help alleviate this situation. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the vegetation trends using low resolution remote sensing data in Burkina Faso (1982-1999) for the monitoring of desertification
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Sokpon, N.; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2006), 27(5-6), 871-884

After about two decades of dramatic rainfall deficits that started in the late 1960s, the Sahel of West Africa has experienced increasing precipitation since the early 1990s. The implementation of the ... [more ▼]

After about two decades of dramatic rainfall deficits that started in the late 1960s, the Sahel of West Africa has experienced increasing precipitation since the early 1990s. The implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) needs the identification of areas that record declining vegetation productivity over long-time periods. In this scope, we analyse the state of the vegetation productivity using long-term time series of NOAA AVHRR NDVI data and compare it to rainfall data. For this, 128 rain gauge data (RR) were compared with the integrated NDVI during the growing period (iNDVI) values in Burkina Faso from 1982 to 1999. During the analysed period, most of the studied stations in the country were stable for the iNDVI/RR (57.8%). However, 39.8% showed a weak to strong negative trend in the iNDVI/RR while only 2.4% showed a weak positive trend. These negative trends may reflect ongoing desertification processes in Burkina Faso and could be a starting point for the identification of hot-spots areas to determine where to take action to combat desertification. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the vegetation trends using low resolution remote sensing data in the Sahel (1982-1999) for the monitoring of desertification
Hountondji, Yvon ULg; Sokpon, Nestor; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Röder, Achim; Hill, Joachim (Eds.) Abstract Book - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Processing in the Assessment and Monitorinf of Land Degradation and Desertification (2005)

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See detailAnalysis of the volleyball spike: relationships between several parameters and the speed of the ball
Cloes, Marc ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Barsin, M. et al

in Proceedings of the 2004 Pre-Olympic Congress Sport Science through the Ages (2004, August)

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See detailAnalysis of the volleyball spike: relationships between several parameters and the speed of the ball
Cloes, Marc ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Barsin, M. et al

Poster (2004, August)

In volleyball, the spike's effectiveness is a determining element of the team's success. To perform at a high level, a player must be able to produce spikes characterized by a speed of the ball that ... [more ▼]

In volleyball, the spike's effectiveness is a determining element of the team's success. To perform at a high level, a player must be able to produce spikes characterized by a speed of the ball that increase the defence's uncertainly. A high speed spike needs technical and muscular qualities. ... [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Yuntaishan Geology by Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Liu, Linmei; Lin, Zhaoxiang; Li, Jie ULg et al

in Applied Laser (2008), 28(5), 386389

The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm on the surface of sample and detected by an echelle spectrograph and an intensified charge coupled device(ICCD).The qualitative ... [more ▼]

The plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm on the surface of sample and detected by an echelle spectrograph and an intensified charge coupled device(ICCD).The qualitative analysis of the spring rock and soil were performed using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy(LIBS).The Ca and Mg elements were found to be in spring comparing the spectra of spring and purified water.Measured the spectra of Zhuyufeng rock and Tanpuxia rock indicated a significant difference between the concentrations of tWO rocks.There were more compositions in Tanpuxia rock than that of Zhuyufeng rock.Furthermore,the experiments of Zhuyufeng soil and the soil near the Southern Central University for Nationalities (SCUEC)were carried on.The result demonstrated that Ni element that is needfull tO plant was included in Zhuymcng soil, and Zn、Cu and Hg were found in the soil near SCUEC. [less ▲]

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