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See detailIs there a global procedural learning deficit in children with Specific Language Impairment ?
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg; Lejoly, Kelly ULg et al

Poster (2014, November 13)

The study of procedural learning abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (Procedural Deficit Hypothesis, PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) remains a relatively unexplored field of research ... [more ▼]

The study of procedural learning abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (Procedural Deficit Hypothesis, PDH; Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) remains a relatively unexplored field of research. Since most evidence comes from studies using tasks which involve learning of sequenced patterns, research using other procedural learning paradigms (like motor adaptation tasks) is needed to further evaluate the PDH in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Therefore, in this study, we examined the ability of children with and without SLI to learn, consolidate and generalize a mirror-tracing task, a paradigm that does not involve sequence learning and had never been used in SLI. Children with SLI and typical developing (TD) matched children participated in the study. Children with SLI were included if they scored below -1.25 SD of the expected normative performance in at least 2 language areas. Both groups had to trace ten 5-pointed stars seen only in mirror-reversed view in two learning sessions separated by a one-week delay. The transfer phase consisted in tracing a new figure. The time required to complete the tracing, and the number of errors committed were recorded. Full results will be presented and discussed during the presentation of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailIs There a Link Between Past Performance and Fund Failure?
Cogneau, Philippe ULg; Bodson, Laurent ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Terraza, Virginie; Razafitombo, Hery (Eds.) Understanding Investment Funds (2013)

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See detailIs there a relationship between perseverations and spatial short-term memory deficits in unilateral neglect?
Wansard, Murielle ULg; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Gillet, Sophie ULg et al

in Abstract Book Belgian Brain Congress (2012, October 27)

Introduction Spatial neglect is a multicomponent syndrome characterized by an inability to orient or to respond to stimuli arising in the hemispace contralateral to a brain lesion. According to many ... [more ▼]

Introduction Spatial neglect is a multicomponent syndrome characterized by an inability to orient or to respond to stimuli arising in the hemispace contralateral to a brain lesion. According to many authors, spatial neglect can be explained by an attentional deficit, and more specifically by a lateral attentional bias towards the right (magnetic attraction) and/or difficulties in disengaging attention from items to the right side. However, attentional theories are not sufficient to explain some behaviors such as revisiting and perseverations. Recently, it has been suggested that revisiting and perseveration behaviors in visual search tasks shown in parietal neglect could be related to impairments in visuo-spatial working memory (Husain et al., 2001; Malhotra et al., 2005; Malhotra, Mannan, Driver, & Husain, 2004). This hypothesis is supported by studies (1) in which a contrast is made between cancellation tasks with and without visual control, the absence of visual feedback increasing left neglect (omissions) and repeated cancellations (perseverations) towards the ipsilesional space, and (2) in which the Corsi test is administrated in a vertical way. However, Ronchi et al. (2009) did not confirm the link between impairments in spatial short-term memory and perseverations. Indeed, these authors found no correlation between perseverations in star cancellation and spatial memory performance in the Corsi test. Nevertheless, they did not use a condition without visual feedback, which is considered as involving more spatial short-term memory than a condition with visual feedback. This methodological choice could explain the lack of relationship between short-term memory and perseverations in the Ronchi et al.’s study. The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis of a spatial short-term memory deficit being an explanatory factor of perseverations in unilateral neglect. Methods We assessed twenty right-damaged patients suffering from left neglect. Neglect signs were evaluated with the Batterie d’Evaluation de la Négligence (BEN) (Azouvi et al., 2002). Twenty healthy older participants matched for age and sociocultural level served as controls. In order to explore the relationship between perseverations and spatial short-term memory, two different tasks were administrated: a computerized version of the Corsi test and a cancellation task. All tests were computerized and presented on a touchscreen. The subject’s spatial span corresponded to the longest sequence in which at least three out of four sequences were correctly reproduced. The cancellation task consisted of 32 “O” presented in two conditions: with (visible) and without (invisible) visual feedback. Patients were instructed to cancel out all targets only once. The number of omissions and perseverations was calculated for each participant in both conditions. Results Control participants performed better than neglect patients in the Corsi test; eleven neglect patients showed a deficit in spatial short-term memory. In the cancellation tasks, Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks tests highlighted that perseverations and omissions were greater in the invisible condition for each group. In this condition, neglect patients made more omissions and perseverations (all ps <.05) than control subjects, while in the visible condition there was only a significant difference for the omissions. However, spatial short-term memory did not explain perseverations in invisible condition (R² = .17, F(1,18) = 3.66, p = .07). Discussion These findings suggest that a spatial short-term memory deficit cannot be considered as an explanatory factor for the perseveration behavior in unilateral neglect. Moreover, perseverations and omissions were greater in the invisible condition than in the visible one; therefore, the hypothesis of the magnetic attraction is not confirmed either. In the neglect patients’ group, the visual feedback decreases, and even eliminates the neglect symptoms (omissions and perseverations) compared to the invisible condition. In other words, the presence of visual feedback can help patients to explore their visual environment. We propose that, in the invisible condition, difficulties to plan a visual search could exacerbate both omissions and perseverations, leading to recursive search towards the right side of the space and thus promote failure to explore left space. However, further investigations will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a role for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Scheen, André ULg

in Drugs (2003), 63(10), 933-51

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health problem associated with excess morbidity and mortality. As the prevalence of this metabolic disorder is rapidly increasing and current treatment fails to ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major health problem associated with excess morbidity and mortality. As the prevalence of this metabolic disorder is rapidly increasing and current treatment fails to stabilise the disease in most patients, prevention should be considered as a key objective in the near future. People who develop type 2 diabetes pass through a phase of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Defects in the action and/or secretion of insulin are the two major abnormalities leading to development of glucose intolerance. Any intervention in the impaired glucose tolerance phase that reduces resistance to insulin or protects the beta-cells, or both, should prevent or delay progression to diabetes.Acarbose, miglitol and voglibose act by competitively inhibiting the alpha-glucosidases, a group of key intestinal enzymes involved in the digestion of carbohydrates. They decrease both postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, and thereby may improve sensitivity to insulin and release the stress on beta-cells. These compounds do not induce hypoglycaemia and have a good safety profile, although gastrointestinal adverse effects may limit long-term compliance to therapy.The recent placebo-controlled prospective STOP-noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) trial demonstrated that acarbose 100mg three times daily reduces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in patients with IGT (relative risk reduction of 25% after a mean follow-up of 3.3 years). The 6-year Early Diabetes Intervention Trial (EDIT), comparing the effect of acarbose 50mg three times daily to that of metformin, showed a trend to a positive effect of acarbose compared with placebo, in a mid-term 3-year analysis, which should be confirmed in the final analysis.To our knowledge, no such prevention intervention trials have been or are currently being performed with miglitol or voglibose. In conclusion, because of its absence of toxicity and its particular mechanism of action on gastrointestinal tract and indirect consequences on both insulin action and beta-cell function, acarbose may be used to prevent type 2 diabetes. If the ongoing EDIT trial confirms the positive results of the recent STOP-NIDDM trial, acarbose could be used, either as an alternative or in addition to changes in lifestyle, to delay development of diabetes in patients with IGT. However, the best dosage of acarbose for this specific indication remains to be specified, especially when all three important parameters, efficacy, tolerance and cost, are taken into consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there a role for intra-arterial therapy or isolated liver perfusion?
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2014, October 10)

IS THERE A ROLE FOR INTRA-ARTERIAL THERAPY OR ISOLATED LIVER PERFUSION? Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, CHU Liege, University of Liege, The liver is the most common ... [more ▼]

IS THERE A ROLE FOR INTRA-ARTERIAL THERAPY OR ISOLATED LIVER PERFUSION? Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, CHU Liege, University of Liege, The liver is the most common visceral site of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and recurrence. Approximately 25% of CRC patients present with synchronous hepatic metastases at time of initial diagnosis, and further 50% will develop metachronous metastases during the course of their illness. Unfortunately, only 25% of patients with hepatic CRC metastases are suitable for R0 resection at time of diagnosis or after chemotherapy. Intra‐arterial locoregional therapies are evolving tools in the management of CRC liver metastases. Although these therapies were initially used for salvage and palliation, they are becoming therapeutic options earlier in the course of disease in selected populations, to increase the rate of curative surgical resection, and to improve survival and quality of life. Furthermore, intra‐arterial therapies may serve as viable first‐line treatments for the large majority of patients who present with unresectable liver metastases, and as neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to hepatectomy to minimize systemic effects. Hyperthermic isolated liver perfusion (HILP) has also been proposed by some groups as a mean to treat patients with unresectable liver metastases. Significant anti-tumoral effect has been demonstrated but HILP is a complicated procedure with a high morbidity. There remains a lack of robust, prospective randomized data for fair and balanced comparisons to be made between locoregional and modern systemic therapeutic modalities, as well as between locoregional therapies. Future RCTs addressing overall patient survival, tumor response and toxicity are required before any of these locoregional intra‐arterial treatments can be definitively recommended as the standard of care for hepatic colorectal liver mestastases. At the CHU of Liege, intra-arterial chemotherapy is now the usual way of administrating chemotherapy in patients with multiple CRC metastases limited to the liver after R0 liver resection. [less ▲]

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See detailIs There an Alignment of Quasars Near NGC 520?
Gosset, Eric ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg; Swings, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Hewitt, Adelaide; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Fang, Li Zhi (Eds.) IAU Symposium, No. 124 "Observational Cosmology" (1987)

Three statistical tests applied to 65 UV excess objects in the field of NGC 520 lead to no detection of any significant alignment.

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See detailIs there an interest to determine the gait’s profile of MCI subjects to predict the risk of Alzheimer disease?
Gillain, Sophie ULg; Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Wojtasik, Vinciane ULg et al

in Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (The) (2009, June), 13(Supp 1),

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See detailIs there an urban Underclass in Belgium ?
Martiniello, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (1994, April 14)

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See detailIs there any interest in combining treatments in osteoporosis?
Rabenda, Véronique ULg; Hanssens, Linda; De Ceulaer, Frédéric et al

in Current Rheumatology Reviews (2005), 1

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See detailIs There Any Place for Salmon Calcitonin in Prevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Deroisy, Rita ULg; Denis, D. et al

in Gynecological Endocrinology : The Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (1988), 2(3), 195-204

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See detailIs there any rationale for prescribing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to prevent or to treat osteoarthritis?
Kvasz, Angela ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Neuprez, Audrey ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002, November), 13(Suppl.3), 59

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See detailis there any rationale for prescribing hormone replacement therapy (HTR) to prevent or to treat osteoarthritis?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Kvasz, Angela ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2003), 11(2), 87-91

Background: During the last two decades of the 20th century, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been considered as the sole pharmacological approach for counterbalancing or mitigating the effects of ... [more ▼]

Background: During the last two decades of the 20th century, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been considered as the sole pharmacological approach for counterbalancing or mitigating the effects of estrogens deprivation in post-menopausal women. Subsequently, HRT has been widely recommended for the management of chronic diseases occurring, in women during the second half of their life. The overall risk/benefit ratio of estrogens has been recently reassessed in the light of long-term prospective studies failing to demonstrate the expected benefit of HRT on cardiovascular diseases incidence. Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the chronic conditions for which HRT has been suggested to provide beneficial outcomes. Results: The presence of estrogen receptors in human cartilage is no longer debated. However, cellular or animal models of OA do not provide an unequivocal pathway for the influence of gonadal steroids on cartilage. Similarly, studies attempting to correlate serum or urinary levels of sex steroids to the onset or progression of OA gave conflicting results. No randomized, prospective, controlled trial was designed to specifically assess the impact of hormone replacement therapy on symptomatic or structural progression of OA. Large-scale observational studies or trials designed to assess other potential benefits of estrogens suggest that HRT use does not provide symptomatic relief in OA but may interfere with its long-term structural progression, particularly in the lower limbs. Conclusion: Based on the recent results of the Women Health Initiative suggesting that HRT health risks may outweigh benefits, one can hardly recommend, with the current level of evidence, HRT as a first-line treatment against progression of OA. (C) 2003 OsteoArthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there any scientific evidence for the use of glucosamine in the management of human osteoarthritis?
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Mobasheri, Ali; Marty, Marc

in Arthritis Research & Therapy (2012), 14(1), 201

ABSTRACT: Glucosamine in its acetylated form is a natural constituent of some glycosaminoglycans (for example, hyaluronic acid and keratan sulfate) in the proteoglycans found in articular cartilage ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: Glucosamine in its acetylated form is a natural constituent of some glycosaminoglycans (for example, hyaluronic acid and keratan sulfate) in the proteoglycans found in articular cartilage, intervertebral disc and synovial fluid. Glucosamine can be extracted and stabilized by chemical modification and used as a drug or a nutraceutical. It has been approved for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) in Europe to promote cartilage and joint health and is sold over the counter as a dietary supplement in the United States. Various formulations of glucosamine have been tested, including glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride. In vitro and in vivo studies have uncovered glucosamine's mechanisms of action on articular tissues (cartilage, synovial membrane and subchondral bone) and justified its efficacy by demonstrating structure-modifying and anti-inflammatory effects at high concentrations. However, results from clinical trials have raised many concerns. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that glucosamine is easily absorbed, but the current treatment doses (for example, 1,500 mg/day) barely reach the required therapeutic concentration in plasma and tissue. The symptomatic effect size of glucosamine varies greatly depending on the formulation used and the quality of clinical trials. Importantly, the effect size reduces when evidence is accumulated chronologically and evidence for the structure-modifying effects of glucosamine are sparse. Hence, glucosamine was at first recommended by EULAR and OARSI for the management of knee pain and structure improvement in OA patients, but not in the most recent NICE guidelines. Consequently, the published recommendations for the management of OA require revision. Glucosamine is generally safe and although there are concerns about potential allergic and salt-related side effects of some formulations, no major adverse events have been reported so far. This paper examines all the in vitro and in vivo evidence for the mechanism of action of glucosamine as well as reviews the results of clinical trials. The pharmacokinetics, side effects and differences observed with different formulations of glucosamine and combination therapies are also considered. Finally, the importance of study design and criteria of evaluation are highlighted as new compounds represent new interesting options for the management of OA. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there anybody in there? Detecting awareness in disorders of consciousness.
Demertzi, Athena; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie et al

in Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics (2008), 8(11), 1719-30

The bedside detection of awareness in disorders of consciousness (DOC) caused by acquired brain injury is not an easy task. For this reason, differential diagnosis using neuroimaging and ... [more ▼]

The bedside detection of awareness in disorders of consciousness (DOC) caused by acquired brain injury is not an easy task. For this reason, differential diagnosis using neuroimaging and electrophysiological tools in search for objective markers of consciousness is being employed. However, such tools cannot be considered as diagnostic per se, but as assistants to the clinical evaluation, which, at present, remains the gold standard. Regarding therapeutic management in DOC, no evidence-based recommendations can be made in favor of a specific treatment. The present review summarizes clinical and paraclinical studies that have been conducted with neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques in search of residual awareness in DOC. We discuss the medical, scientific and ethical implications that derive from these studies and we argue that, in the future, the role of neuroimaging and electrophysiology will be important not only for the diagnosis and prognosis of DOC but also in establishing communication with these challenging patients. [less ▲]

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See detailIs there anything to expect from 3D views in sketching support tools ?
Darses, Françoise; Mayeur, Anaïs; Elsen, Catherine ULg et al

in Gero, John S.; Goel, Ashok K. (Eds.) Design Computing and Cognition '08 : Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition. (2008)

This paper describes a research project which aims at studying the ergonomic and cognitive value of EsQUIsE, a freehand design environment for architects. This sketch-based modeling software is ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a research project which aims at studying the ergonomic and cognitive value of EsQUIsE, a freehand design environment for architects. This sketch-based modeling software is implemented on a Tablet PC. The EsQUIsE software provides architects with the possibility to generate automatically 3D views from the freehand drawings. The first part of the paper deals with the usability of such a digital environment for sketching, and especially the use of the drawing areas. The second part of the paper is dedicated to the analysis of how 3D views are generated and used for exploring alternative solutions. Although in interviews architects rate 3D highly, in fact they do not produce a large volume of 3D sketches. Issues about visual and spatial reasoning in design are thus highlighted. Finally, the benefit of such a tool for creativity is questioned. [less ▲]

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