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See detailThe governance of fair trade social enterprises in Belgium
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Social Enterprise Journal (2010), 6(2), 110-124

Purpose – This article addresses the governance of “Fair Trade Social Enterprises” (FTSEs), i.e., the organisations exclusively dedicated to the import, distribution and/or labelling of fairly traded ... [more ▼]

Purpose – This article addresses the governance of “Fair Trade Social Enterprises” (FTSEs), i.e., the organisations exclusively dedicated to the import, distribution and/or labelling of fairly traded products. The aims are (1) to describe and categorise the types of persons and stakeholder groups represented in FTSEs’ governance structures and (2) to look at the link between stakeholder involvement and other organisational features such as resources, goals and activities. Design/methodology/approach – These questions are investigated through a qualitative field study based on face-to-face interviews with the managers of 15 Belgian FTSEs. Findings – I distinguish three governance models each entailing different governance paradigms: the managerial model, the volunteer-based model and the multi-stakeholder model. In the three governance models, it is possible to link, to a certain extent, the composition of the governance structures, the access to resources and the goal priorities regarding the different dimensions of the FT activity. In brief, governance appears as an organisational entry revealing much information about the vision and the strategy of the FTSEs. Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to Belgian FTSEs and must be considered as one of the first attempts in characterising the specific features and challenges of organisational governance in the FT context. International comparative studies exploring FTSE’s governance in a more longitudinal perspective, combining the standpoints of diverse organisational actors, would be most welcome in the future. Originality/value – As this article shows, the multidimensional nature of FT and the coexistence of different types of FTSEs in the same country make this a very interesting field to investigate the challenges of governance in social enterprises. Social enterprises and those researching them should pay more attention to the importance of adopting and conceiving governance schemes that are adapted to their multiple missions and enable the access to multiple resources. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Governance of Mixed Companies: Policy Implications for Local Governments
Marra, A; Cruz, N.F.; Marques, R.C. et al

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics (2014), 85(1), 1-164

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (12 ULg)
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See detailGoverning anticipation through flexibility. The use of models for the regulation of chemicals
Thoreau, François ULg; Laurent, Brice

Conference (2015, November 18)

As the use of models is increasing within regulatory bodies, it is important to grasp both the empirical practices of producing and using them, and their political meaning. At stake here is the ... [more ▼]

As the use of models is increasing within regulatory bodies, it is important to grasp both the empirical practices of producing and using them, and their political meaning. At stake here is the possibility of identifying the characteristics of a way of governing anticipations that would be based on models. In this paper, we engage in such an exploration by focusing on models developed to predict the potential risks of chemicals. These models, called “Quantitative Structure-Activities Relationship” (QSAR), are based on statistical correlations between a set of descriptors (e.g. chemical composition, crystalline structures…) and a set of physicochemical properties, including potential toxicity. They are developed using a limited number of substances that serve as reference points, so that the properties of other chemicals could later be predicted by the model, according to their proximities to the reference points. QSAR models have been promoted by regulatory agencies for over twenty years, but have been recently gaining momentum in Europe, in the wake of the REACH regulation. As the regulation on chemicals is becoming more constraining on private companies, usual experimental approaches raise many concerns (which are lengthy, costly and often requires animal testing). Based on the analysis of the relevant documentation, interviews with scientists and regulators, as well as the ethnographic observation of a recent research project attempting to developed QSAR models for nanomaterials, this paper provides the preliminary elements for describing the mode of governing anticipation that emerges from the use of such models. We contend that QSAR approaches offer empirical examples to identify a mode of governing anticipation based on flexibility, understood at the epistemic and political levels. [less ▲]

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See detailGoverning biodiversity
Mougenot, Catherine ULg; Mormont, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Environment and Pollution (1999), 12(4), 78-99

he hypothesis of this paper is that the value conferred on nature designates both the ''objects of nature'' that are the subject of consideration, and the human beings for whom they are intended or who ... [more ▼]

he hypothesis of this paper is that the value conferred on nature designates both the ''objects of nature'' that are the subject of consideration, and the human beings for whom they are intended or who are responsible for them. These designation processes are dynamic and linked, but also interdependent. In order to examine these processes more closely, we make use of the concept of network, which integrates the action of different players in their specific world, as well as ''objects'' that can be as different as scientific nomenclatures, available sites, management plans, funds, etc. In other words, protection practices link up different universes, scientific models and practices, institutional practices, nature conservation practices and, finally, the evolution of species and natural sites that are not passive entities. The fact that we speak of ''socio-natural'' networks indicates that nature conservation is ''based'' on chains of equivalences that integrate these different players and universes. The processes are dynamic ones. The paper therefore examines how they can be stabilised or expanded, and also how they can be transformed in a much more radical manner. The study is applied to the Walloon Region (in Belgium). The paper first looks at what could be considered as the ''classical nature conservation network'', and then examines how it is called to evolve. The fact is that contemporary situations lead us to take account of different types of networks for conserving and maintaining nature. These are compared, and the paper examines how each of them attempts to take account of the increasingly complex and also increasingly open concept of biodiversity. This perspective of networking also leads us to conclude that none of these networks (scientific, economic, legislative, institutional, etc.) that go to make up nature conservation is capable on its own of giving value to nature. This is acquired - or not - only by building a hybrid chain that cuts across or integrates these different worlds. [less ▲]

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See detailGoverning by numbers or democratizing measurement : The policy and practices of quality management in universities
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Conference (2014, July 04)

Quality management frequently appeals to performance indicators (PI) without questioning their constructed and contextual dimension and the reduction of the social complexity they induce. Practices and ... [more ▼]

Quality management frequently appeals to performance indicators (PI) without questioning their constructed and contextual dimension and the reduction of the social complexity they induce. Practices and discourses in this field tend to swing between two antinomic registers: strenghtening of a managerial approach by the authorities and new participatory expectations by stakeholders. Quality-oriented approaches and performance measurement advocates a quantitative practice based on a top-down, standardised approach focused on statistical knowledge and advocating a desire of transparency and increasing efficiency. The indicator-based measurement also endorses a legitimacy and accountability function (Zittoun 2009). Quantification of social phenomenon leads to a double reductionism : PI reduce social complexity to a single figure, and contribute at the same time to a normative twist of public action when pushing forward the search for performance and efficiency as main objective of policies while downplaying other less measurable social or environmental dimensions (Salais, 2010). In the last decade, public governance focused so much on numbers and benchmarking that the digits and indicators seem to structure the whole decision making process instead of being a simple adjuvant to it (Dahler-Larsen 2012, Ogien 2009). Simutaneously, local actors have to translate in local practices the policy indicators that where defined by experts far away from local concerns. This top down approach puts the autonomy of local professionals under pressure (Chauvière 2007). These tensions could be resolved by defining new modes of coordination between experts and the knowledge of stakeholders. Beyond the criticism of “governing by numbers” the hypothesis is to test the emergence of new families of context rich operational indicators, supporting local participation (Didier et al 2013). This paper proposes to analyze these tensions in the case of the development of quality management processes in universities in Belgium and show how the development of quantification mechanisms resisted participatory processes in the definition of indicators and statistical models (Fallon & Leclercq 2013). It will question how can stakeholders be involved in the definitions of measures, contribution to the framing of the convention of what is locally important and what is not. [less ▲]

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See detailGoverning food security globally - stakeholders` opinions
Paveliuc Olariu, Codrin ULg

Scientific conference (2013, April 27)

While more than 850 million people are starving (FAO, 2012) around the world, agricultural production grew at about 2.3% per year in the past 50 years and access to food increased with an even higher rate ... [more ▼]

While more than 850 million people are starving (FAO, 2012) around the world, agricultural production grew at about 2.3% per year in the past 50 years and access to food increased with an even higher rate. By 2012, almost 65% of all implemented agricultural policies (focused at national, regional and global level) that have a reference on food security only aim on solving present day crisis, without integrating policies for preventing future ones. While the League of Arab States (LAS) called for an integrated Arab approach to agricultural policy to the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD), the League of African Nations did not yet agree on common objectives in matters regarding agriculture and rural development despite AGRA Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, a network of US based iNGOs` who`s board is chaired by Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, took on the challenge of reforming this continent`s agriculture. Although the European Union has the Common Agricultural Policy that works on a 7 years framework with a wide budgetary support from the European Commission and all 27 Member States and China has an agricultural policy working under the ridged 5-years system, food security and food quality are becoming the main concerns in the world leaders minds with the population reaching 7 billion on October 31st 2011 and resources becoming scarce. This paper analyses the stakeholders` opinions on the possibility of changing the policy instruments status quo that would enable a coherent exchange of good practices and information throughout the world to a global approach to food security and food quality that is necessary for overcoming problems like famine in Africa, obesity in North America and high risk and vulnerability for human health and the environment. The key questions that are answered in this paper are: What are the common elements of agricultural policies with regional reach that can constitute objectives for a Global Agricultural Policy (GAP)? Which organization could manage a GAP and what would be its main driving mechanisms? What kind of impact would have a global mechanism in agriculture and rural development acting at different levels? What are the determinants for the successful creation and implementation of a GAP? [less ▲]

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See detailGoverning Parameters of Long-Range Intramolecular S‑to‑N Acyl Transfers within (S)‑Acyl Isopeptides
Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULg; Dive, Georges ULg; Stevens, Christian et al

in Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (2013), 9(2), 927934

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See detailGovernment Debt Denomination Policies Before and After the EMU Advent
Hübner, Georges ULg; Joliet, Robert

in Open Economies Review (2013), 24

Through a cost-minimizing approach, this paper derives joint indicators to assess the efficiency of the mix of sovereign debt currencies between the countries belonging to the European Monetary Union (EMU ... [more ▼]

Through a cost-minimizing approach, this paper derives joint indicators to assess the efficiency of the mix of sovereign debt currencies between the countries belonging to the European Monetary Union (EMU). This theoretical insight enables us to explain why and how the introduction of the euro and the adoption of a common monetary policy may have led to significant changes in debt structure among EMU members, notably in favor of further euro-denominated debt. The interplay of intrinsic and strategic variables yields stylized facts that are consistent with country-specific empirical evidence. Following the sovereign debt crisis, we further emphasize the value-added of a coordinated debt issuance policy among EMU countries. [less ▲]

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See detailGovernor General of the Catholic Netherlands' confessor and Madrid's politics.
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2015, December 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
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See detailGower. Selections from the Confessio Amantis, edited by G. C. Macaulay
Hamélius, Paul ULg

in Revue de l'Instruction Publique en Belgique (1904), 47

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See detailGP’s engagement in detecting and managing abuse of alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics and tranquilizers in the Belgian adult population
Ketterer, Frédéric ULg; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Symons, Linda et al

in European Journal of General Practice (2013, September), 19(3), 162-184

Background General practitioners (GPs) Occupational physicians (OPs) can play an important role in detecting and managing substance abuse in the working population. The UP TO DATE project aims at ... [more ▼]

Background General practitioners (GPs) Occupational physicians (OPs) can play an important role in detecting and managing substance abuse in the working population. The UP TO DATE project aims at identifying the difficulties these professionals encounter in this area, and to explore ways of collaboration in providing appropriate care. Research question What are the experiences, attitudes and decision making of GPs and OPs regarding to alcohol, illegal drugs, hypnotics and tranquilizers abuse from a physician’s perspective? Method In this qualitative study, with a phenomenological perspective, 20 GPs and 16 OPs, experienced with substance abuse in daily practice, got a face to face in-depth interview. (October until December 2012). Along with the data collection process the analysis started with a constant comparison between the data and the chosen integrated model of change (De Vries), using coding techniques of grounded theory. Results GPs meet important barriers to detect misuse of all substances. To address this issue and the patient’s motivation for change, the doctor-patient relationship is crucial. The risk to disturb the relationship, and loose the patient’s trust, is a major concern. An attitude of patient-centeredness, collaboration and empowerment of the patient is needed to make any progress, to get results and to overcome as a GP the burden of those demanding encounters. Self-care is an important concern. Collaboration with specialised health providers confronted GPs with various problems: not enough services, long waiting lists, unclear methods and criteria. GPs lack an insight in the OP’s role, and experience problems to contact them. Whether the OP is a trustful health advocate for their patient is a major concern. Some OPs are perceived too linked to the employer, raising legitimate concerns about professional confidentiality. Conclusion These are preliminary results. At the conference, a comprehensive overview on the qualitative analysis will be given. [less ▲]

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See detailGPA: dialogue entre aspects légaux et psychologiques
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Scientific conference (2015, December)

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See detailGPCRs in immunity: atypical receptors and novel concepts
Hanson, Julien ULg; Chevigné, Andy

in Biochemical Pharmacology (in press)

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See detailGPR detection of saturated areas into concrete in the presence of a water gradient
Louis, Arnaud ULg; Van der Wielen, Audrey ULg; Courard, Luc ULg et al

in 2012 14th International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) (2012, June)

In the concrete, saturated areas are most of the time limited by a transition zone, presenting a water gradient. This transition zone can affect the GPR wave’s reflection and decrease the reflection ... [more ▼]

In the concrete, saturated areas are most of the time limited by a transition zone, presenting a water gradient. This transition zone can affect the GPR wave’s reflection and decrease the reflection coefficient by comparison to the coefficient that would be obtained on a sharp interface. To quantify the impact of the water gradient on the reflection coefficient, we performed finite differences simulations. They showed that the reflection coefficient was reduced by 70% if the thickness of the transition zone was larger than 2/5 of the wavelength. Laboratory experiments, using hygrometric sensors for the water content control, confirmed this trend. [less ▲]

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See detailGPR Limits for Thin Layers in Concrete Detection: Numerical and Experimental Evaluation
Van der Wielen, Audrey ULg; Courard, Luc ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

in Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, March 20-23, 2011 (2011, March)

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a nondestructive technique increasingly used in civil structures inspection. In those structures, thin layers, presenting a relatively small thickness compared to ... [more ▼]

The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a nondestructive technique increasingly used in civil structures inspection. In those structures, thin layers, presenting a relatively small thickness compared to their area, are common and induce a complex multiple reflection scheme of the GPR waves on the two interfaces limiting the layer. The theoretical relationships predicting the reflected amplitude are based on multiple simplifying assumptions that are not matched by most commercial GPR impulse machines. In the first part of this study, we confronted the theoretical curves with numerical finite difference simulations performed with GprMax2D, with both a continuous sine wave and a realistic pulse derived from measurements. In the second part, we performed experiments on two concrete slabs, separated with an air space of variable thickness. The measured amplitude appeared to be different from the predictions, probably due to surface noise. [less ▲]

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See detailGPR101 mutations are not a frequent cause of congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency
Castinetti, F; Daly, Adrian ULg; Stratakis, CA et al

in Hormone & Metabolic Research (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (9 ULg)
See detailGPS : A tool to study the Earth Atmosphere
Warnant, René ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
See detailGPS activities at the Royal Observatory of Belgium
Bruyninx, Carine; Warnant, René ULg; Pâquet, Paul

in Veröffentlichungen der Bayerischen Kommission für die Internationale Erdmessung, Astronomisch - Geodätische Arbeiten, Heft 52 (1992)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
See detailA GPS based prototype service for monitoring the ionospheric irregularities and scintillations at a global scale
Valette, J.-J.; Yaya, P.; Prévost, P.-L. et al

Conference (2005)

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See detailLe GPS et la Physique
Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Strivay, David ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg

in Science and Culture (2002), 380

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (6 ULg)