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See detailIsotope Analysis Reveals Foraging Area Dichotomy for Atlantic Leatherback Turtles
Caut, Stéphane ULg; Guirlet, Elodie ULg; Angulo, Elena et al

in PLoS ONE (2008), 3(3), 1845

Background: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries ... [more ▼]

Background: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI). Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal) and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively). Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. Conclusions/Significance: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by commercial fisheries. Our results also emphasize the use of eggs, a less-invasive sampling material than blood, to assess isotopic data and feeding habits for adult female leatherbacks. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotope coded protein label quantification of serum proteins--comparison with the label-free LC-MS and validation using the MRM approach.
Turtoi, Andrei ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Talanta (2010), 80(4), 1487-95

Protein quantification based upon mass spectrometry is gaining ground in diverse applications of biological and clinical relevance. The present article focuses on one of the most complex biological fluids ... [more ▼]

Protein quantification based upon mass spectrometry is gaining ground in diverse applications of biological and clinical relevance. The present article focuses on one of the most complex biological fluids - serum - and provides a novel ICPL based quantification protocol. The results are compared to a label-free (data independent alternate scanning) absolute quantification method. The validation is performed using MRM based protein quantification technique. Regarding the ICPL approach, serum samples used in this study were depleted of high abundant proteins, labeled with ICPL and fractionated according to their respective pI (3-5, 5-7 and 7-12). The samples were further subjected to tryptic digestion followed by treatment with the Glu-C enzyme. The peptides were analyzed on a 2D-nano-LC system using four different concentrations of salt injections (45, 75, 150 and 500 mM ammonium acetate). The LC system was connected on-line with the electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometer. For the label-free quantification the serum samples were depleted and digested with trypsin. A proteome-wide comparison was performed using highly reproducible LC and data independent alternate scanning in conjunction with a high mass accuracy orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Selected proteins, found by both methods, were validated using the MRM approach. For this purpose non-depleted tryptically digested serum samples were analyzed by LC coupled with a triple-quadrupole MS. The relative protein quantification using ICPL and mass spectrometry allowed for the detection of approximately 200 proteins, whereas about 2/3 of those contained the ICPL label and could therefore be quantified. Label-free approach used no fractionation, less sample and was able to identify and quantify over 110 proteins. The identified proteins covered generally 3-4 orders of magnitude of protein concentration in human serum. Changes in relative abundance of eight proteins were validated using MRM. This study, for the first time, shows the ability of the relative protein quantification based upon ICPL and 2D-LC-MS/MS to quantify serum biomarkers. It provides two additional label-free approaches that could validate and bring additional value to the label-based results, offering a starting point for comprehensive proteomics studies aiming at revealing biomarkers of clinical relevance. [less ▲]

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See detailThe isotope ratios [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C and [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)
Arpigny, Claude ULg; Schulz, R.; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2000, October 01)

The abundance ratios of stable isotopes of the light elements in comets may provide clues of cosmogonical significance. Measuring isotopic ratios in an optical cometary spectrum is, however, a rather ... [more ▼]

The abundance ratios of stable isotopes of the light elements in comets may provide clues of cosmogonical significance. Measuring isotopic ratios in an optical cometary spectrum is, however, a rather difficult task for different reasons. Such measurements require, in particular, very high spectral resolution and are feasible so far only on bright objects. In 1997 we observed comet Hale-Bopp with the 2.6 m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, Canary Islands, with a view to estimating the [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C abundance ratio. About twenty high-resolution (λ /Πλ ~ 70000) spectra of the strong CN Violet (0,0) band were secured with the SOFIN spectrograph from 7 to 13 April. The heliocentric and geocentric distances of the comet were then close to 0.9 AU and 1.4 AU, respectively. While the data do show the expected lines of the [SUP]13[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N isotopic molecule, we have been surprised to find in addition a number of very weak features, which are real and turn out to be positioned very near to the theoretical wavelengths of lines pertaining to the R branch of [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]15[/SUP]N. After a short description of the reduction and analysis of the data our paper discusses the results derived for [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C and [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N as well as their possible implications. We also present a brief review of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in various solar system objects and consider the question whether any nucleosynthesis site(s) is (are) known where pairs of values similar to those we measure in comet Hale-Bopp could be produced. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the Fe I 358.1 nm line
Huet, Nicolas ULg; Pettens, Manon; Krins, Stéphanie ULg et al

Conference (2013)

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See detailIsotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the Fe I 372-nm resonance line
Oppel, S.; Krins, Stéphanie ULg; Huet, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2010)

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See detailIsotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the Fe I 372-nm resonance line
Krins, Stéphanie ULg; Oppel, S.; Huet, Nicolas ULg et al

in Physical Review. A (2009), 80

We report measurements of the isotope shifts of the 3d64s2 a 5D4 − 3d64s4p z 5Fo 5 Fe I resonance line at 372 nm between all four stable isotopes 54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe and 58Fe, as well as the complete ... [more ▼]

We report measurements of the isotope shifts of the 3d64s2 a 5D4 − 3d64s4p z 5Fo 5 Fe I resonance line at 372 nm between all four stable isotopes 54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe and 58Fe, as well as the complete hyperfine structure of that line for 57Fe, the only stable isotope having a non-zero nuclear spin. The field and specific mass shift coefficients of the transition have been derived from the data, as well as the experimental value for the hyperfine structure magnetic dipole coupling constant A of the excited state of the transition in 57Fe : A(3d64s4p z 5Fo 5 ) = 81.69(86) MHz. The measurements were carried out by means of high-resolution Doppler-free laser saturated absorption spectroscopy in a Fe-Ar hollow cathode discharge cell using both natural and enriched iron samples. The measured isotope shifts and hyperfine constants are reported with uncertainties at the percent level. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotope splitting of the zero-phonon line of Fe2+ in cubic III-V semiconductors
Colignon, David ULg; Mailleux, Éric; Kartheuser, Eduard ULg et al

in Solid State Communications (1998), 105(4), 205-209

A theoretical study of the isotopic-mass dependence of the internal transitions of Fe2+ at a cation site in a cubic zinc-blende semiconductor is presented. The model used is based on crystal-field theory ... [more ▼]

A theoretical study of the isotopic-mass dependence of the internal transitions of Fe2+ at a cation site in a cubic zinc-blende semiconductor is presented. The model used is based on crystal-field theory and includes the spin-orbit interaction and a weak dynamic Jahn-Teller coupling between the (5) Gamma(5) excited manifold of Fe2+ and a local vibrational mode (LVM) of Gamma(5) symmetry. The mass dependence of the LVM frequency is described, in the harmonic approximation, within two different limits: the rigid-cage model and a molecular model. In the rigid-cage model, the Fe2+ ion undergoes a displacement but the rest of the lattice is fixed. In this case, a simple M-1/2 dependence of the frequency is obtained and the Jahn-Teller energy, E-JT, is independent of the mass. In the molecular model, the four nearest neighbors of the magnetic ion are allowed to move and the LVM then behaves as the Gamma(5) mode of a MX4 tetrahedral molecule leading to a more complicated dependence of the frequency on the isotopic mass and to a mass-dependence of E-JT. The theoretical results obtained with these two models are compared with the observed isotopic shifts of the zero-phonon lines in InP:Fe and GaP:Fe corresponding to an optical transition between the vibronic Gamma(1) ground state and the lowest Gamma(5) state originating from the (5) Gamma(5) excited orbital multiplet. A prediction of the isotopic shifts of the zero-phonon line in GaAs:Fe is also presented. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailL'isotope stable 15N et le lysimètre, des outils complémentaires pour l'étude de la lixiviation de l'azote dans les sols agricoles.
Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Fonder, Nathalie ULg; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg et al

in Vandenberghe, Christophe; Marcoen, Jean Marie (Eds.) Atelier Nitrate-Eau. Evaluation du Programme de Gestion Durable de l'Azote. (2010)

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See detailL'isotope stable 15Net le lysimètre, des outils complémentaires pour l'étude de la lixiviation de l'azote dans les sols agricoles
Destain, Jean-Pierre ULg; Fonder, Nathalie; Xanthoulis, Dimitri ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(S1), 91-96

L’isotope stable 15N a été utilisé dans des expérimentations en cases lysimétriques visant à étudier la lixiviation de l’azote dans les sols agricoles. À Gembloux, un apport de nitrate l’ammoniaque ... [more ▼]

L’isotope stable 15N a été utilisé dans des expérimentations en cases lysimétriques visant à étudier la lixiviation de l’azote dans les sols agricoles. À Gembloux, un apport de nitrate l’ammoniaque présentant une abondance isotopique de 2,161 At%15N a été appliqué à raison de 200 kg N.ha-1 dans deux lysimètres, avant une culture d’épinard suivie de haricot et d’un froment d’hiver. La récupération de l’azote par les cultures a été de 39,8 % dans le premier lysimètre et de 62,2 % dans le second. Les concentrations en azote nitrique des eaux percolées du second ont été constamment plus élevées que dans le premier, probablement à cause d’une moindre immobilisation microbienne. À Remicourt et Omal, un reliquat de 150 kg N.ha-1 (simulé par un apport de 15NH4 15NO3 en automne) a complètement disparu du profil du sol (0-90 cm) dès juillet de l’année suivante. Une culture de froment d’hiver à Omal n’a récupéré qu’environ 9 % de l’azote apporté à l’automne. La mesure de la teneur en azote nitrique des eaux percolées a montré des valeurs nettement plus élevées à Remicourt (jusqu’à plus de 70 mg N.l-1) suite à un apport important de compost riche en azote, qu’à Omal. L’isotope 15N n’a pu être détecté dans aucune des eaux lysimétriques, probablement par un manque de sensibilité de l’appareil. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic abundance in the CN coma of comets: Ten years of measurements
Schulz, R.; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Planetary and Space Science (2008), 56

Over the past 10 years the isotopic ratios of carbon ([SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C) and nitrogen ([SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N) have been determined for a dozen comets, bright enough to allow obtaining ... [more ▼]

Over the past 10 years the isotopic ratios of carbon ([SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C) and nitrogen ([SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N) have been determined for a dozen comets, bright enough to allow obtaining the required measurements from the ground. The ratios were derived from high-resolution spectra of the CN coma measured in the B[SUP]2[/SUP]â [SUP]+[/SUP]â X[SUP]2[/SUP]â [SUP]+[/SUP] (0, 0) emission band around 387 nm. The observed comets belong to different dynamical classes, including dynamically new as well as long- and short-period comets from the Halley- and Jupiter-family. In some cases the comets could be observed at various heliocentric distances. All values determined for the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios were consistent within the error margin irrespective of the type of comet or the heliocentric distance at which it was observed. Our investigations resulted in average ratios of [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C=91±21 and nitrogen [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N=141±29. Whilst the value for the carbon isotopic ratio is in good agreement with the solar and terrestrial value of 89, the nitrogen isotopic ratio is very different from the telluric value of 272. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic abundance of nitrogen and carbon in distant comets
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 432(Letters), 5-8

The [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]15[/SUP]N and [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]13[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N isotopic ratios have been determined in comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/2001 Q4 ... [more ▼]

The [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]15[/SUP]N and [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]13[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N isotopic ratios have been determined in comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) and C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) at heliocentric distances of, respectively, 2.7, 3.7 and 2.6 AU. These ratios have also been measured at rË 1 AU. No significant differences were found between all determinations, nor with the value obtained for other comets. If confirmed, the discrepancy between the nitrogen isotopic ratios from optical and millimeter measurements on CN and HCN would rule out HCN as a major parent of the cometary CN radicals. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programmes 270.C-5043, 073.C-0525 and 274.C-5015). [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic abundances of carbon and nitrogen in Jupiter-family and Oort Cloud comets
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 440(Letters), 21-24

The [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]15[/SUP]N and [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]13[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N isotopic ratios are determined for the first time in a Jupiter-family comet, 88P ... [more ▼]

The [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]15[/SUP]N and [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]13[/SUP]C[SUP]14[/SUP]N isotopic ratios are determined for the first time in a Jupiter-family comet, 88P/1981 Q1 Howell, and in the chemically peculiar Oort Cloud comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). By comparing these measurements to previous ones derived for six other Oort Cloud comets (including one of Halley-type), we find that both the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios are constant within the uncertainties. The mean values are [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C ~= 90 and [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N ~=145 for the eight comets. These results strengthen the view that CN radicals originate from refractory organics formed in the protosolar molecular cloud and subsequently incorporated in comets. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic and geochemical constraints on the evolution of the Mazury granitoids (NE Poland)
Baginski, Boguslaw; Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg; Martin, Hervé et al

in Koslowski, A.; Wiszniewska, Janina (Eds.) Granitoids in Poland (2007)

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See detailIsotopic Composition and sources of Organic Carbon Pools within the Tana River Basin, (Kenya)
Tamooh, F.; Van Den Meersche, K.; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

Poster (2011)

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See detailIsotopic constraints on the Cenozoic evolution of the carbon cycle
François, Louis ULg; Godderis, Y.

in Chemical Geology (1998), 145(3-4), 177-212

In the last few years, several models have been built to explore the Cenozoic evolution of the carbon and strontium cycles. Of particular interest is the study of the impact on the carbon cycle of major ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, several models have been built to explore the Cenozoic evolution of the carbon and strontium cycles. Of particular interest is the study of the impact on the carbon cycle of major mountain uplifts such as the Himalayan orogeny. To explain the Cenozoic increase in the measured seawater strontium isotopic ratio, it was recently proposed that the Himalyan uplift could be responsible for an enhanced consumption of atmospheric CO2 by continental silicate weathering. Here, a new model of the carbon cycle evolution over Cenozoic times is presented. It calculates the various fluxes involved in the organic and inorganic components of the carbon cycle from the seawater delta C-13, the biological isotopic fractionation in the ocean and the seafloor spreading rate. The model equilibrates the budgets of the carbon and alkalinity cycles on the million year timescale, assuming as many previous investigators that the system remains close to equilibrium. The validity of this equilibrium approximation is examined critically. Various sensitivity experiments are performed in order to test the impact of the model parameters on the results. The calculated history of the carbonate deposition rate is consistent with the available reconstruction. The continental silicate weathering rate calculated by the model appears to be widely insensitive to the model parameters, showing three distinct evolutions over the Cenozoic. The model indeed suggests a time of relative constancy of the silicate weathering flux before 40 Ma, followed by a period of slow decrease until 15 Ma and finally a marked increase up to the present. In a progressively cooler world, this evolution may be interpreted as a change from a 'chemically' controlled to a 'physically' controlled weathering regime. The evolution of continental silicate weathering thus partly appears decoupled from the increase in the observed seawater strontium isotopic ratio. For this reason, the evolution of the calculated riverine Sr-87/ Sr-86 ratio shows a strong increase over the Cenozoic, from about 0.710 to 0.712. However, this increase may largely be reduced by considering the recycling of a pelagic carbonate reservoir increasing over the Cenozoic or by assuming that seafloor basalt weathering is a CO2- or climate-dependent process. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic constraints on the genesis of the anorthosite suite of rocks
Demaiffe, Daniel; Weis, Dominique; Michot, Jean et al

in Chemical Geology (1986), 57

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See detailIsotopic ratios and elemental contents as indicators of seagrass C processing and sewage influence in a tropical macrotidal ecosystem (Madagascar, Mozambic channel)
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Gobert, Sylvie ULg et al

in Scientia Marina (2008), 72(1), 109-117

Isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations of carbon and nitrogen were measured in seven seagrass species colonising different tidal flats near Toliara (SW Madagascar) in order to determine the ... [more ▼]

Isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations of carbon and nitrogen were measured in seven seagrass species colonising different tidal flats near Toliara (SW Madagascar) in order to determine the potential use of these parameters for assessing C processing and sewage use by tropical seagrasses. Nitrogen concentrations measured in upper intertidal seagrasses near Toliara were almost twice those measured on the tidal flat near a healthy mangrove situated 20 km away from Toliara town. At Toliara Beach, δ15N values were correlated with the N concentrations of Halodule sp., one of the dominant species on the tidal flat. This correlation did not exist for Halophila ovalis, the other dominant species. An increase in N concentrations and δ15N values demonstrates the influence of sewage coming directly onto Toliara Beach on the N cycles of intertidal seagrasses. Nevertheless, this influence seems restricted to the upper littoral zone and was not the main cause of seagrass die-off. On the other hand, at the mangrove site, δ15N values were not correlated with the N concentrations of Halodule sp. or Thalassia hemprichii, showing that natural δ15N variability is driven by other factors than the δ15N of N sources. Moreover, inter-individual variability of δ15N values was greater than inter-specific or inter-site variability, making the δ15N difficult to interpret in the context of human-disturbance influence on the N cycle of tropical seagrasses. δ13C values were close to -9‰, indicating the use of HCO 3– as an inorganic carbon source by the seven investigated species. Contrary to our hypothesis, variation between sites and location on the tidal flat was limited, suggesting limited impact on δ13C values of sewage, emersion duration and mechanisms for HCO 3– incorporation. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic Ratios in Comets: Status and Perspectives
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Earth, Moon, and Planets (2009), 105

Isotopic abundance ratios are excellently suited to probe the origin of solar system matter. We review the recent measurements of the isotopic ratios of the light elements (D/H, [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13 ... [more ▼]

Isotopic abundance ratios are excellently suited to probe the origin of solar system matter. We review the recent measurements of the isotopic ratios of the light elements (D/H, [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C, [SUP]16[/SUP]O/[SUP]18[/SUP]O, [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N, [SUP]32[/SUP]S/[SUP]34[/SUP]S) in cometary dust and gas and discuss briefly their implications. Special emphasis will be put on the determinations and progress performed in the field over the past years thanks to high resolution spectroscopy of cometary comae obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope. Future perspectives from space missions and ground-based observations with new large and extremely large telescopes operating in the optical, infrared and submillimeter wavelengths will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic tracing of sediment components that are assimilated by epibiontic juveniles of Holothuria scabra (Holothuroidea)
Plotieau, Thomas; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Lavitra, Thiery et al

in Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (in press)

Despite H. scabra’s wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic ... [more ▼]

Despite H. scabra’s wide distribution and status as one of the best candidates for sustaining the development of tropical sea cucumber aquaculture, very few data are available regarding the organic fraction it assimilates in practice. In this study we report experimental results where H. scabra’s diet was supplemented with various 15N-labelled organic fractions of sediment. We used juveniles weighing between 38- 88 mg at the beginning of the experiment (ca. 2 cm long and 30 days old). Their growth was measured over a four week period and their 15N composition recorded. The results showed that H. scabra juveniles assimilated all added organic components from both dissolved and particulate fractions of the sediment. Bacteria seem to be an important food source for juveniles, even more so than microphytobenthos (diatoms). [less ▲]

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