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See detailInfiniment petits en économie
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente, l'aventure mathématique (2014), 156

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans ... [more ▼]

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans leurs raisonnements. Dans cet article est donné un aperçu des premières apparitions de l'analyse infinitésimale en économie. [less ▲]

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See detailLes infiniment petits selon Fermat : prémisses de la notion de dérivée
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2008)

Il s'agit d'une analyse, à la lumière des développements récents de l'analyse non standard, du texte original de Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 1665), présentant sa célèbre "Méthode pour la recherche de minimum ... [more ▼]

Il s'agit d'une analyse, à la lumière des développements récents de l'analyse non standard, du texte original de Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 1665), présentant sa célèbre "Méthode pour la recherche de minimum et de maximum". [less ▲]

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See detailLes infiniment petits selon Fermat : prémisses de la notion de dérivée
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Moatti, Alexandre (Ed.) Regards sur les textes fondateurs de la science, volume I, de l'écriture au calcul - théorie des nombres (2010)

Il s'agit de l'analyse d'un texte original de Fermat, avec un regard contemporain. Il y est mis en évidence l'aspect novateur de l'auteur qui peut-être considéré comme un précurseur de l'analyse ... [more ▼]

Il s'agit de l'analyse d'un texte original de Fermat, avec un regard contemporain. Il y est mis en évidence l'aspect novateur de l'auteur qui peut-être considéré comme un précurseur de l'analyse mathématique, et spécialement de son approche non standard [less ▲]

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See detailInfinite Depth: du Movie Ride à la 3D relief, l'expérience de la profondeur.
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

Conference (2013, November 10)

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See detailInfinite self-shuffling words
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Kamae, Teturo; Puzynina, Svetlana et al

in Journal of Combinatorial Theory - Series A (2014), 128

In this paper we introduce and study a new property of infinite words: An infinite word x, with values in a finite set A, is said to be k-self-shuffling (k≥2) if there exists a shuffle of k copies of x ... [more ▼]

In this paper we introduce and study a new property of infinite words: An infinite word x, with values in a finite set A, is said to be k-self-shuffling (k≥2) if there exists a shuffle of k copies of x which produces x. We are particularly interested in the case k=2, in which case we say x is self-shuffling. This property of infinite words is shown to be independent of the complexity of the word as measured by the number of distinct factors of each length. Examples exist from bounded to full complexity. It is also an intrinsic property of the word and not of its language (set of factors). For instance, every aperiodic word contains a non-self-shuffling word in its shift orbit closure. While the property of being self-shuffling is a relatively strong condition, many important words arising in the area of symbolic dynamics are verified to be self-shuffling. They include for instance the Thue–Morse word fixed by the morphism 0↦01, 1↦10. As another example we show that all Sturmian words of intercept 0<ρ<1 are self-shuffling (while those of intercept ρ=0 are not). Our characterization of self-shuffling Sturmian words can be interpreted arithmetically in terms of a dynamical embedding and defines an arithmetic process we call the stepping stone model. One important feature of self-shuffling words stems from their morphic invariance: The morphic image of a self-shuffling word is self-shuffling. This provides a useful tool for showing that one word is not the morphic image of another. In addition to its morphic invariance, this new notion has other unexpected applications particularly in the area of substitutive dynamical systems. For example, as a consequence of our characterization of self-shuffling Sturmian words, we recover a number theoretic result, originally due to Yasutomi, on a classification of pure morphic Sturmian words in the orbit of the characteristic. [less ▲]

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See detailLes infinitésimaux pour l'analyse
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Bibliothèque Tangente HS (2013), 49

Les créateurs de l’analyse mathématique, tels que Newton, exploitaient déjà des quantités qui, élevées au carré, deviennent négligeables. Leurs raisonnements étaient toutefois critiquables, notamment ... [more ▼]

Les créateurs de l’analyse mathématique, tels que Newton, exploitaient déjà des quantités qui, élevées au carré, deviennent négligeables. Leurs raisonnements étaient toutefois critiquables, notamment parce qu’il semble a priori impossible que le carré d’un nombre non nul soit égal à 0. Depuis lors, des progrès ont été accomplis et il est devenu possible d’exploiter l’idée intuitive et efficace des anciens tout en restant cohérent et rigoureux. Nous présentons succinctement la théorie moderne de la SIA (Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis) : elle s’inscrit dans cette direction. [less ▲]

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See detailInfix
Münzberg, Franziska ULg

in Schierholz, Stefan J.; Dürscheid, Christa (Eds.) Grammatik - Formenlehre (2014)

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See detailInflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes
ESSER, Nathalie ULg; Legrand, Sylvie ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2014)

It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic ... [more ▼]

It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic inflammatory markers are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and its macrovascular complications. Adipose tissue, liver, muscle and pancreas are themselves sites of inflammation in presence of obesity. An infiltration of macrophages and other immune cells is observed in these tissues associated with a cell population shift from an anti-inflammatory to a pro-inflammatory profile. These cells are crucial for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which act in an autocrine and paracrine manner to interfere with insulin signaling in peripheral tissues or induce β-cell dysfunction and subsequent insulin deficiency. Particularly, the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The objectives of this review are to expose recent data supporting the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and to examine various mechanisms underlying this relationship. If type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease, anti-inflammarory therapies could have a place in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammation as the key link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

Conference (2012, April 23)

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See detailInflammation des voies respiratoires chez les équidés
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg

in Proceedings : Congrès de l'Association Vétérinaire Equine Française (AVEF) "Médecine & Chirurgie au quotidien" (2001)

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See detailInflammation et atherosclerose: etat de la question en 2004-2005
Gach, Olivier ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(4), 235-41

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis; being present in all steps of the pathology, from initiation to the progression of the lesions to the development of vulnerable plaques and clinical ... [more ▼]

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis; being present in all steps of the pathology, from initiation to the progression of the lesions to the development of vulnerable plaques and clinical destabilisation. Therefore, systemic markers of inflammation have emerged to predict future cardiovascular events in patients initially admitted for unstable syndromes, but also in healthy subjects. These markers can identify high risk patients and they are used to adapt ideal treatment to the patient's profile. The implication of the inflammation process in the treatment strategies is described in the last part of the article. [less ▲]

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See detailL’inflammation induite par les acides gras libres
L'Homme, Laurent ULg

Conference (2012, April 19)

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See detailL’inflammation subclinique des petites voies respiratoires est associée à une perturbation de la fonction pulmonaire évaluée par oscillométrie à impulsions
RicharD, E.; Fortier, G.; Dupuis, M. C. et al

in 36èmes Journées AVEF (2008)

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See detailInflammatory Effect of Intratracheal Instillation of Ultrafine Particles in the Rabbit: Role of C-Fiber and Mast Cells
Nemmar, A.; Delaunois, Annie ULg; Nemery, B. et al

in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (1999), 160(3), 250-61

The effects of ultrafine polystyrene carboxylate-modified (fluorospheres) on inflammatory processes are being investigated in rabbit lungs. One milliliter of sterile NaCl (0.9%) containing 4 mg of ... [more ▼]

The effects of ultrafine polystyrene carboxylate-modified (fluorospheres) on inflammatory processes are being investigated in rabbit lungs. One milliliter of sterile NaCl (0.9%) containing 4 mg of ultrafine particles (UFP) was intratracheally instilled into anesthetized rabbits. The control animals were only instilled with sterile NaCl (0.9%). Twenty hours after being instilled, the rabbits were killed and their lungs were excised and then tracheally perfused with phosphate-buffered physiological solution (PBS). The lung effluents, collected from small holes made in the pleura, were analyzed for substance P (SP) and histamine content by radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods, after administration of drugs. In addition, in other groups of rabbits, the lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio was monitored, as were the cellular and protein contents in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Electron microscopy examination was also performed. In tracheally superfused experiments, UFP induced a significant enhancement of both SP and histamine releases after administration of capsaicin (10(-4) M), to stimulate C-fiber, and carbachol (10(-4) M), a cholinergic agonist. A significant increase in histamine release was also recorded in the UFP-instilled group following the administration of both SP (10(-6) M) plus thiorphan (10(-5) M) and compound 48/80 (C48/80) (10(-3) M) to stimulate mast cells. In addition, the BAL fluid analysis of UFP groups showed an influx of neutrophils and an increase in total protein concentration. An increase in the lung WW/DW ratio was also recorded. Both epithelial and endothelial injuries were observed in the lungs of UFP-instilled rabbits. The pretreatment of rabbits in vivo with a mixture of either SR 140333 and SR 48368, a tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptor antagonist, or a mixture of terfenadine and cimetidine, a histamine H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonist, prevented UFP- induced neutrophil influx and increased total proteins and lung WW/DW ratio. Therefore, it can be concluded that chemicaly inert, electrically charged UFP induce a pulmonary inflammatory process during which the release of SP and histamine from C-fibers and mast cells was enhanced after various stimuli. These latter mediators can also modulate the inflammatory process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Hypothesis of Ageing: Fascinating Concept or Confusing Dogma?
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2004), 3(4), 246

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See detailInflammatory pseudotumors of the central nervous system: Report of 3 cases and a literature review
Häusler, M.; Schaade, L.; Ramaekers, Vincent ULg et al

in Human Pathology (2003), 34(3), 253-262

Inflammatory pseudotumors (IPs), mostly benign lesions characterized by fibrotic ground tissue and polyclonal mononuclear infiltrate, may affect all organ systems. IPs originating in the central nervous ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory pseudotumors (IPs), mostly benign lesions characterized by fibrotic ground tissue and polyclonal mononuclear infiltrate, may affect all organ systems. IPs originating in the central nervous system (IP-CNS) are very rare, and their distinct histopathologic features are poorly characterized. Three otherwise healthy patients (age 8, 15, and 17 years) presented with focal neurologic symptoms (seizures, n = 2; headaches, n = 1), corresponding to a left temporal, left occipital, and left frontal IP, respectively, extending from meningeal structures into brain tissue. After resection, no recurrence was observed in patient 1 during 5 years of follow-up, whereas patient 2 developed a rapidly progressive local recurrence and a second intracerebral lesion despite antiviral, immunosuppressive, antibiotic, and radiation therapy. In patient 3, who also showed local recurrences, sequential histopathologic investigations revealed transformation to a semimalignant fibrohistiocytic tumor. In this patient, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) expression was also positive, whereas it was negative in patient 1. A detailed literature analysis confirmed that most IP-CNS arise from dural/meningeal structures (n = 34). Intraparenchymatous (n = 7), mixed intraparenchymatous/meningeal (n = 4), and intraventricular lesions (n = 7) or IP extending per continuitatem from intracerebral to extracerebral sites (n = 5) were rare. The recurrence rate was 40% within 2 years in general. It was increased after incomplete resection and in female patients (multivariate Cox regression model, P < 0.02). Although rare, IP-CNS are important differential diagnoses among tumor-like intracranial lesions. Their potential risk of malignant transformation and high risk of recurrence necessitate close follow-up, especially when resection is incomplete. Prospective multicenter trials are needed to optimize classification and treatment of this rare inflammatory lesion. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates undergoing cardiac operations
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Grabitz, R. G.; Duchateau, J. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (1996), 112(3), 687-697

We studied the inflammatory reaction related to cardiopulmonary bypass in 24 neonates (median age 6 days) undergoing the arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries, with ... [more ▼]

We studied the inflammatory reaction related to cardiopulmonary bypass in 24 neonates (median age 6 days) undergoing the arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries, with respect to the development of postoperative capillary leak syndrome. Complement proteins, leukocyte count, tumor necrosis factor-α, and histamine levels were determined before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Additionally, protein movement from the intravascular into the extravascular space during cardiopulmonary bypass was assessed by the measurement of plasma concentrations of proteins with molecular weights ranging from 21,200 to 718,000. Capillary leak syndrome developed in 13 of the 24 neonates. Patients with capillary leak syndrome, as compared with those without, had preoperatively higher C5a levels (C5a, 3.0 ± 0.6 μg/L vs 0.9 ± 0.2 μg/L) (mean ± standard error of the mean) (p < 0.05) and higher leukocyte counts (leukocytes, 17.9 ± 2.1 x 10 3 cells/ml versus 11.7 ± 0.8 x 10 3 cells/ml) (p < 0.05), suggesting in these neonates a preoperative inflammatory state. Preoperative clinical and operative data were identical in both patient groups. Before cardiopulmonary bypass, serum protein concentrations were similar in all patients. Ten minutes after institution of cardiopulmonary bypass, protein concentrations fell to significantly lower values in patients with capillary leak syndrome than in those without: albumin (19% ± 1.5% vs 30% ± 6% of the prebypass value, p < 0.05), immunoglobulin G (17% ± 1.5% vs 29% ± 5.5%, p < 0.001), and α 2-macroglobulin (15% ± 1.2% vs 25% ± 4%, p < 0.02). During cardiopulmonary bypass, albumin concentrations remained significantly lower in patients with capillary leak syndrome than in those without, whereas hematocrit values were similar in both groups. During cardiopulmonary bypass, patients with capillary leak syndrome also had lower concentrations of complement proteins C3 and C4 but not C1 inhibitor. C3d/C3 ratio and C5a levels were similar in both patient groups. In contrast, histamine liberation during cardiopulmonary bypass was significantly more pronounced in patients with capillary leak syndrome than in those without (725.2 ± 396.7 pg/ml vs -54.1 ± 58.4 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α levels after protamine administration were also significantly higher in patients with capillary leak syndrome (38.1 ± 10.0 pg/ml vs 15.3 ± 3.4 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Leukocyte count during and after cardiopulmonary bypass was similar in both patient groups. This study demonstrates increased protein leakage as early as 10 minutes after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients having clinical signs of postoperative capillary leak syndrome. Patients with capillary leak syndrome displayed more pronounced histamine liberation and tumor necrosis factor-α liberation than patients without capillary leak syndrome, suggesting a relationship between cardiopulmonary bypass-related inflammatory reaction and perioperative capillary damage. A preoperative inflammatory state in patients with capillary leak syndrome could have enhanced the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Formalin in the Rat Paw
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (1999), 359(3), 220-7

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower ... [more ▼]

The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower dose induced the development of an immediate oedema associated with a progressive accumulation of 125I-labelled albumin in the paws. These changes were suppressed by pretreatment with capsaicin or xylocaine. They were abolished by RP67580, a NK1 receptor antagonist, and increased by phosphoramidon or diprotin A. They were not affected by HOE140, a bradykinin B2 antagonist, captopril, methysergide, mepyramine, indomethacin, ketoprofen or L-N(G)-nitroarginine. The higher dose of formalin induced a swelling of the paws which took place in two phases associated with two periods of increase in vascular permeability. This oedema was reduced by pretreatment with capsaicin but not with xylocaine. It was reduced by RP67580 injected before or 30 min after formalin. It was inhibited by mepyramine, methysergide, indomethacin and NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. It was not modified by HOE140. Its development was similar in normal and kininogen-deficient rats. We concluded that formalin administered at a low dose induces an oedema which mainly results from a neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides such as substance P. At higher doses, formalin induces an oedema which mainly depends on the release of substance P, prostanoids, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine. Bradykinin plays no significant role in the vascular changes whereas this peptide has been reported to participate in the stimulation of nociceptive afferent neurons. This discrepancy could be explained by a difference in the threshold of stimulation of the nociceptive neurons and that of the cells of the vascular walls, or by a formation of kinins in close contact of the neurons. [less ▲]

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