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See detailFire resistance of DELTABEAM® composite beams: a numerical investigation
Maraveas, Chrysanthos ULg

in Journal of Structural Fire Engineering (2017)

Purpose – The DELTA® beam composite floor system is a recently developed shallow floor type that has seen many applications in contemporary construction. It involves partially encasing DELTA® steel beams ... [more ▼]

Purpose – The DELTA® beam composite floor system is a recently developed shallow floor type that has seen many applications in contemporary construction. It involves partially encasing DELTA® steel beams in concrete, with the lower flange remaining exposed. Besides the satisfactory behavior of the system at ambient conditions, understanding its response under elevated temperatures is critical in evaluating its overall performance. Despite certification from the manufacturing company that the system has adequate fire resistance, its behavior under fire conditions has neither been investigated to depth nor reported in detail. The purpose of this paper is the detailed numerical investigation of their behavior in fire. For this reason, the finite element method was implemented in this paper to simulate the response of such beams subjected to fire. Material properties were modeled according to the Eurocodes. The coupled thermal-structural parametric analyses involved four different variations of the “shortest” and “deepest” cross-section (eight case studies in total) specified by the manufacturing company. Other simulations of these cross-sections, in which either the thermal expansion or the structural load were not taken into account, were carried out for comparison purposes. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology for simulating such systems, which has been successfully implemented and validated against fire test results elsewhere (Maraveas et al., 2012) was also followed here. To investigate the statement made by Maraveas et al. (2014) and the equations proposed by Zaharia and Franssen (2012) that the insulation is not so effective for “short” cross-sections, two beams, one with a D20-200 (Deltabeam Technical Manual, 2013) cross-section (shallowest section) and one with a D50-600 (Deltabeam Technical Manual, 2013) cross-section (deepest section), were simulated in this paper for comparison purposes. Additionally, reasonable assumptions were made for the cross-sectional dimensions not specified by the manufacturer (Deltabeam Technical Manual, 2013) and parametric analyses were carried out to investigate their effect on the structural response of the system. Findings – Composite DELTA® beams can achieve fire resistances ranging from 120 to 180 min, depending on the depth and geometry of their cross-section, with deeper sections displaying a better fire response. The intense thermal bowing that occurs when these beams are heated from below has a more pronounced effect, in terms of thermally induced deflections for deeper sections. The satisfactory fire resistance of these beams is achieved due to the action of the concrete encased web and the reinforcement which compensate for the loss of the exposed lower flange. Increasing the thickness of the web in deeper sections improves their fire rating up to 180 min. The thickness of the lower flange affects the fire rating of the beams only in a minor way. Practical/implications – The paper describes a numerical methodology to estimate the fire resistance of complex flooring systems. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles
Vassart, Olivier; Hawes, Mike; Simms, Ian et al

Report (2011)

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the RFCS FiCEB+ [23] and in the scope of the PHD of O.Vassart [24]. This calculation procedure has been introduced in the ACB+ software available on www.arcelormittal.com/sections [23] RFS2-CT-2007-00042 : FICEB+ - Fire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles ; March 2011 [24] O. Vassart, Analytical model for cellular beams made of hot rolled sections in case of fire, PhD Thesis, Université Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand II, 2009 [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles (FICEB) report: Ulster test numerical simulation
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2009)

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that ... [more ▼]

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that certain cellular beams will be without any fire protection in order to investigate the contribution of membrane effect to overall fire resistance. However, cellular beams could behave in a very different way compared to traditional steel beams because of risk of local phenomenon. The aim of this study was to build a complex FE Model of whole composite floor system with long span cellular beams connected to composite slab in order to take account of 3D membrane effect. This permitted, on the one hand, to find out the right numerical model for this type of composite floor, and on the other hand to define the appropriate structure to be used for the full scale fire test. In order to achieve this latter purpose, a sensitivity study has be carried out in which determinant parameters for ensuring a good membrane effect have been investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailFire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Standard Fire – Comparison of an Advanced and a Simplified Method
Achenbach, Marcus; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Morgenthal, Guido

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 08)

For designing concrete columns subjected to a standard fire exposure, the Eurocode permits the use of simplified or advanced calculation methods. For the designer, the question of the respective ... [more ▼]

For designing concrete columns subjected to a standard fire exposure, the Eurocode permits the use of simplified or advanced calculation methods. For the designer, the question of the respective advantages of these two types of methods arises. Which situations demand the use of an advanced method? When does a simple method provide sufficient accuracy? In this paper, laboratory tests are recalculated using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) as an advanced and Extended Zone Model (EZM) as a simple method in order to investigate these questions. The recalculations indicate that the simple EZM is of sufficient accuracy for symmetric heated columns without restraints. In contrast, the mechanical behavior of columns heated on three sides demands an advanced method such as FEM to be properly described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (7 ULg)
See detailFire resistance of restrained columns
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Scientific conference (1998, March 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire resistance of simple frames according to eurocode 3
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; schröder, L.; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Batista, C.; de M Batista, Eduardo; Pfeil, Michèle S. (Eds.) Proc. 5th Int. Colloquium on Structural Stability (1996)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (2 ULg)
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See detailFire resistance of timbers from tropical countries and comparison of experimental charring rates with various models
Njankouo, Jacques Michel; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Construction & Building Materials (2005), 19(5), 376-386

Tropical hardwood species are more and more used in the field of construction due to the particular qualities they can offer. Presently it is no longer possible to envisage the development of construction ... [more ▼]

Tropical hardwood species are more and more used in the field of construction due to the particular qualities they can offer. Presently it is no longer possible to envisage the development of construction materials and products without taking into consideration the problem of their fire behaviour, and more particularly of their fire resistance. In the case of timber elements, this characteristic is mainly influenced by the charring rate of the external layers of the element. On the other hand this parameter is influenced by the density of the material. Limited information is available on the charring rate of tropical hardwood species. Therefore experimental investigations have been conducted at the University of Liege to study this characteristic. Seven tropical and three timber species from temperate countries have been examined. Two types of test have been used, one on small specimens, the other on a construction element made of one single material. In the first type, 20 specimens have been manufactured by gluing several laminates together. The specimens were instrumented with four thermocouples inserted at various depths in four different laminates. In the second type, a non-loaded wall made of 12 glued-laminated spruce beam profiles was instrumented with thermocouples embedded at different depths in the panel for the evaluation of the charring rate. Experimental charring rates have been compared with the results derived from Eurocode EC5-1.2 recommendation [ENV 1995-1-2. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 1-2: General rules - Structural fire design. European prestandard; 1994], Australian standard AS 1720.4 relation [AS 1720.4. Timber structures Part 4: fire resistance of structural timber members. North Sydney, Australia: Standards Australia; 1990] and White's model [Charring rates of different wood species. PhD dissertation. Madison University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 1988; White RH, Erik V, Nordheim EV. Charring rate of wood for ASTM El 19 exposure. Fire Technol 1992-28(1)]. This comparison shows that the results obtained from these three models are not entirely satisfactory for tropical hardwood species. Therefore a new model has been proposed. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 322 (8 ULg)
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See detailFire resistance of unrestrained welded steel beams submitted to lateral-torsional buckling
Vila Real, P. M. M.; Lopes, N.; Simoes da Silva, L. et al

in Hoffmeister, B.; Hechler, O. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (EUROSTEEL 2005) (2005)

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See detailFire resistance testing
Dumont, Fabien ULg

Learning material (2017)

The objective of determining fire resistance is to assess the behaviour of a specimen of a building element when subjected to defined heating, pressure and – if relevant – loading conditions. The ... [more ▼]

The objective of determining fire resistance is to assess the behaviour of a specimen of a building element when subjected to defined heating, pressure and – if relevant – loading conditions. The experimental methods provide a means of quantifying the ability of an element to withstand exposure to such stresses. More precisely, the issue is to quantify the separating and/or loadbearing capacity of a building element in order to ensure the separating function and/or structural stability of a building. A representative sample (called "test specimen") of the building element is exposed to a specified scheme of heating and – where relevant – of loading. The tests are carried out on specimens in full size or on small-scale models for elements exceeding the dimensions of the furnaces. The performances of the test specimen are determined by assessing criteria described in test methods. Fire resistance of the test specimen is expressed as the times for which the appropriate criteria have been satisfied. The times so obtained are a measure of the adequacy of the construction in a fire, but they have no direct relationship with the duration time of a real fire. In Europe, about 50 laboratories currently perform fire resistance tests. [less ▲]

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See detailFire risk assessment of multi-story buildings based on fragility analysis
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Nigro, Emidio; Bilotta, Antonio (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Fire Safety Symposium - IFireSS 2017 (2017, June 07)

Recent efforts aim at assessing the fire performance of structures in a probabilistic framework. But there is still no well-established method to quantify the reliability of entire buildings. Previous ... [more ▼]

Recent efforts aim at assessing the fire performance of structures in a probabilistic framework. But there is still no well-established method to quantify the reliability of entire buildings. Previous works focused on isolated structural members, therefore not allowing for a determination of the global safety level of buildings. Here, a new methodology is developed to quantify the reliability of buildings in fire. The methodology uses Monte Carlo simulations for constructing fragility functions associated with different fire breakout locations in a building, then combines the functions to characterize the overall building conditional probability of failure, and finally incorporates the probabilistic models for intensity measure and fire occurrence likelihood. The methodology is applied to multi-story steel buildings. This work addresses fire reliability at the building scale, and therefore is useful for standardizing safety level as well as for evaluating community resilience. [less ▲]

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See detailFire safety engineering analysis of a super market structure composed of cambered cellular beams
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Majkut, S.; Cajot, L.-G. et al

in Hoffmeister, B.; Hechler, O. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Steel and Composite Structures (EUROSTEEL 2005) (2005)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire safety engineering group: presentation of the research activities at the ULg PhD information session
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2015)

Presentation of the research activities of the fire safety engineering group headed by Jean-Marc Franssen at University of Liege

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See detailFire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Larzac plateau: low occurrence, pond-breeding and cohabitation of larvae with paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Acta herpetologica (2014), 9(1), 43-49

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds ... [more ▼]

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds, whereas palmate newt larvae (Lissotriton helveticus) typically metamorphose into terrestrial juveniles, but can also reproduce in retaining their gills, a process known as paedomorphosis. Here we report repeated observations of an unusual case of coexistence of these two alternative traits in the same pond (Larzac, France). The prevalence of fire salamanders in Southern Larzac was very low (pond occupancy: 0.36%). The observed abundance of fire salamander larvae and paedomorphic newts was also low in the studied pond. On one hand, the rarity of this coexistence pattern may suggest that habitat characteristics may not be optimal or that competition or predation processes might be operating. However, these hypotheses remain to be tested. On the other hand, as this is the only known case of breeding in Southern Larzac, it could be considered to be at a high risk of extirpation. [less ▲]

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See detailFire test on normal and high-strength reinforced concrete columns
Aldea, C. M.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in NIST Special Publication 919 (1997)

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See detailFIRE TESTING OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL CIRCULAR COLUMNS
Tondini, Nicola; Van Long, Hoang; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2013, September 30)

This paper presents an experimental-numerical study on the behaviour of High Strength Steel (HSS) columns at elevated temperature, both on Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) and on a Concrete Filled Tube (CFT ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an experimental-numerical study on the behaviour of High Strength Steel (HSS) columns at elevated temperature, both on Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) and on a Concrete Filled Tube (CFT). The measured yield strength of the circular sections was in the order of 820 MPa. In detail, three HSS CHS and a HSS CFT were tested under the standard ISO fire with constant eccentric compression load. The evolution of temperature and defor-mation patterns were measured by means of a comprehensive instrumentation made of ther-mocouples and displacement transducers. Numerical analyses were performed and compared with experimental data by employing stress-strain relationships of carbon steel at elevated temperatures provided by EN1993-1-2 associated with two different sets of reduction factors: i) those provided by EN1993-1-2 valid up to S460 steel grades; and ii) those proposed in the literature and based on tests on HSS. [less ▲]

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See detailFire tests and calculation methods for circular concrete columns
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Fire Technology (2003), 39(1), 89-97

The introduction sets the scene of the present paper i.e. the extensive research works performed at the University of Liege in order to derive acceptable calculation methods for the re design of concrete ... [more ▼]

The introduction sets the scene of the present paper i.e. the extensive research works performed at the University of Liege in order to derive acceptable calculation methods for the re design of concrete columns. It is explained that all previous works have been based on square or rectangular cross sections, for which corner spalling was observed very often, whereas circular section are nowadays becoming more and more popular. In order to examine the influence of the circular shape on the behavior under re conditions, an experimental research study has been performed recently at the University of Liege. This paper describes the test procedure, the observations made, and the values obtained for the re resistance. Theoretical methods have been developed for a quick, safe, and efficient design of concrete columns under re conditions. These methods have been applied successfully to the recently tested circular columns. [less ▲]

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See detailFire tests made for the ATTEL RFCS research project
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dumont, Fabien ULg; Wellens, Eric ULg et al

Conference given outside the academic context (2011)

The ATTEL project (Performance-Based approaches for high strength tubular columns and connections during earthquake and fire loadings) aims at developing performance-based design approaches where the ... [more ▼]

The ATTEL project (Performance-Based approaches for high strength tubular columns and connections during earthquake and fire loadings) aims at developing performance-based design approaches where the capacity design of steel grades up to S690 and S700MC – widely used in seismic engineering to avoid brittle failure and ensure ductile behaviour – will be extended to high strength steel circular hollow section structures to prevent failure and collapse under both earthquake and fire loading. Within this research projects, fire resistance tests have been performed on 4 columns, 4 beam-to-column joints and 3 column bases. The main features and results of these tests are presented here. [less ▲]

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See detailFires of Pianura: The Antidump Struggle in the Western Outskirt of Naples
De Biase, Marco ULg

in Capitalism, Nature, Socialism (2015), 26(1), 39-58

This ethnographic study aimed at analyzing the rebellion in Pianura, which took place between December 2007 and January 2009 when Naples' streets were covered with rubbish. It was a violent protest ... [more ▼]

This ethnographic study aimed at analyzing the rebellion in Pianura, which took place between December 2007 and January 2009 when Naples' streets were covered with rubbish. It was a violent protest involving some 40.000 people who wanted to object to the reopening of the old dump of Pianura, one of the most toxic in Europe and no longer in use. The fear for their own life, the desperation of local population, and the anger after being attacked by the police during pacific protest gave origin to a real urban guerrilla targeting the political system. This article aims to go beyond the dominant narration of the events developed by the media and the authorities, which interpreted the uprising of Pianura in terms of Nimby (Not in my back yard), and as a mere manifestation of violence that was carried out by a group of extremists. On the contrary, it will be argued that the anti-dump struggle of Pianura, in its diverse forms, was animated by a radical critique of a specific model of local and national development (Gramsci 2007; Della Porta 2006). In order to support this argument the context of Pianura and the various mobilizations set up by the local population are analysed in this article. In addition, the heterogeneous and fragmented nature of the movement is explained through Bayat’s (1997; 2000) concept of “street politics” and that of “rebel bricolage” inspired by the work of Levi-Strauss (1966). More in detail, the analysis is focused on the effects of the “waste politics” on the body of the protesters, which became an important tool of resistance and an instrument to claim fundamental rights (Fassin, Memmi 2004). Finally, this article investigates the role of some groups of ultrà (football supporters) who actively participated in the demonstrations, and their relationship with the criminalizing discourses that were constructed to discredit the struggle. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (3 ULg)