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See detailGlucose, insulin and myocardial ischaemia
Devos, P.; Chiolero, R.; Van den Berghe, G. et al

in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care (2006), 9(2), 131-139

Purpose of review The importance of glucose metabolism and insulin therapy during myocardial ischaemia is increasingly being investigated. Insulin is used to achieve a tight glucose control or as part of ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The importance of glucose metabolism and insulin therapy during myocardial ischaemia is increasingly being investigated. Insulin is used to achieve a tight glucose control or as part of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy. We have reviewed (1) the physiological and physiopathological consequences of hyperglycaemia focusing on potential machanisms of myocardial ischaemia, (2) the effects of insulin on vascular tone, on the release of free fatty acids, on inflammatory pathways, on the switch of energy source and on apoptosis, and (3) clinical data reporting the effects of intensive insulin therapy and glucose-insulin-potassium solutions during myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic heart failure. Recent findings In addition to its known toxic cellular effects, hyperglycaemia increases the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promotes inflammation. Conversely insulin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Glucose-insulin-potassium solutions could improve survival after acute myocardial infarction or after surgery, according to recent meta-analyses, but confirmation of these data is eagerly awaited. Summary Hyperglycaemia is toxic, while insulin is beneficial during acute myocardial ischaemia. Some recent evidence confirms a substantial benefit of insulin administered either alone to achieve a tight glucose control or as a component of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy. Further research is needed to confirm that tendency and to define the threshold of tight glucose control. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-, pH- and thermo-responsive nanogels crosslinked by functional superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles as innovative drug delivery systems
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(8), 1009-1023

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery systems (DDS). The crosslinking was formed via boronate/diol bonding from the surfacefunctionalized superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, endowing the DDS with thermo-, pH- and glucose-responsiveness. The capability to load a hydrophobic drug model Nile red (NR) within the RCL nanogels was evaluated, and stimuli-triggered drug release behaviours under different conditions were tested. Zero premature release behaviour was detected at physiological pH in the absence of glucose, whereas triggered release was observed upon exposure to acidic pH (5.0) and/or in the presence of glucose. In light of the superparamagnetic properties of the maghemite nanoparticles and RCL nanogels, magnetically-induced heating, MR imaging performance, as well as remotely magnetically-triggered drug release under alternating magnetic field (AMF), were investigated. Cytotoxicity against fibroblast-like L929 and human melanoma MEL-5 cell lines was assessed via the MTS assay. In vitro stimuli-triggered release of tamoxifen, a chemotherapeutic drug, was also studied within MEL-5 cell cultures under different conditions. These innovative RCL nanogels, integrating different stimuli-responsive components, hydrophobic chemotherapeutic moieties and also diagnostic agents together via reversible crosslinking, are promising new theranostic platforms. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-dependent metabolic reprogramming in HDAC5-depleted cancer cells
Hendrick, Elodie ULg; Peixoto, Paul ULg; Polese, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2014, May 19)

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) is a family of eighteen enzymes, which modulates the acetylation level of histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Broad-spectrum ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) is a family of eighteen enzymes, which modulates the acetylation level of histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Broad-spectrum inhibitors of these enzymes such as SAHA can inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo and are currently used as anti-cancer agents in clinic. For many years, we are investigating the specific role of individual HDAC members in cancer biology and we have recently demonstrated that specific depletion of HDAC5 using siRNA technology reduced cancer cells proliferation and survival1 The goal of this study is to further understand the molecular mechanisms of action of HDAC5 in cancer cells. Screening transcriptomic study demonstrated that HDAC5 depletion induces a down-regulation of subunits of the complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (NDUFB5-NDUFA3) as well as anti-oxydant proteins (Ferritin, Metalothionein,¿) through modulation of mRNA stability. Therefore, HDAC5 depletion causes a significant increase of ROS production inducing both apoptosis and mechanisms of mitochondria quality control (mitophagy and mitobiogenesis). This HDAC5 depletion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction provokes metabolic adaptation associated with increased importance of glycolysis and glucose. Indeed, interference with glucose supply in HDAC5-depleted cancer cells significantly increases apoptotic cell death suggesting that glucose deprivation might be combined to HDAC5 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to kill cancer cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time that specific HDAC5 inhibition induces metabolic reprogramming and provides insight into a valuable experimental strategy for manipulation of specific HDAC5 inhibition and glucose metabolism in therapy against cancer. 1.Peixoto, P. et al. HDAC5 is required for maintenance of pericentric heterochromatin, and controls cell-cycle progression and survival of human cancer cells. Cell death and differentiation, 2012; 1-14. Presenting author e-mail: elodie.hendrick@student.ulg.ac.be [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-dependent metabolic reprogramming in HDAC5-depleted cancer cells
Hendrick, Elodie ULg; Peixoto, Paul ULg; Polese, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2014, April 25)

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) is a family of eighteen enzymes, which modulates the acetylation level of histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Broad-spectrum ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) is a family of eighteen enzymes, which modulates the acetylation level of histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Broad-spectrum inhibitors of these enzymes such as SAHA can inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo and are currently used as anti-cancer agents in clinic. For many years, we are investigating the specific role of individual HDAC members in cancer biology and we have recently demonstrated that specific depletion of HDAC5 using siRNA technology reduced cancer cells proliferation and survival (PEIXOTO et al., 2012). The goal of this study is to further understand the molecular mechanisms of action of HDAC5 in cancer cells. Screening transcriptomic study demonstrated that HDAC5 depletion induces a down-regulation of subunits of the complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (NDUFB5-NDUFA3) as well as anti-oxydant proteins (Ferritin, Metalothionein,¿) through modulation of mRNA stability. Therefore, HDAC5 depletion causes a significant increase of ROS production inducing both apoptosis and mechanisms of mitochondria quality control (mitophagy and mitobiogenesis). This HDAC5 depletion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction provokes metabolic adaptation associated with increased importance of glycolysis and glucose. Indeed, interference with glucose supply in HDAC5-depleted cancer cells significantly increases apoptotic cell death suggesting that glucose deprivation might be combined to HDAC5 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to kill cancer cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time that specific HDAC5 inhibition induces metabolic reprogramming and provides insight into a valuable experimental strategy for manipulation of specific HDAC5 inhibition and glucose metabolism in therapy against cancer. Acknowledgements This work fiancially suppoted by a grant of F.R.S .-FNRS (contract n° 7.4515.12F). E Hendrick is recipient of a Televie fellowship. References PEIXOTO et al., (2012) Cell Death and Differentiation. 7:1239-52. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-dependent metabolic reprogramming in HDAC5-depleted cancer cells
Hendrick, Elodie ULg

Poster (2014, April 25)

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) is a family of eighteen enzymes, which modulates the acetylation level of histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Broad-spectrum ... [more ▼]

Histone deacetylases (HDAC) is a family of eighteen enzymes, which modulates the acetylation level of histones and non-histone proteins to regulate gene expression and chromatin structure. Broad-spectrum inhibitors of these enzymes such as SAHA can inhibit tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo and are currently used as anti-cancer agents in clinic. For many years, we are investigating the specific role of individual HDAC members in cancer biology and we have recently demonstrated that specific depletion of HDAC5 using siRNA technology reduced cancer cells proliferation and survival (PEIXOTO et al., 2012). The goal of this study is to further understand the molecular mechanisms of action of HDAC5 in cancer cells. Screening transcriptomic study demonstrated that HDAC5 depletion induces a down-regulation of subunits of the complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (NDUFB5-NDUFA3) as well as anti-oxydant proteins (Ferritin, Metalothionein,¿) through modulation of mRNA stability. Therefore, HDAC5 depletion causes a significant increase of ROS production inducing both apoptosis and mechanisms of mitochondria quality control (mitophagy and mitobiogenesis). This HDAC5 depletion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction provokes metabolic adaptation associated with increased importance of glycolysis and glucose. Indeed, interference with glucose supply in HDAC5-depleted cancer cells significantly increases apoptotic cell death suggesting that glucose deprivation might be combined to HDAC5 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to kill cancer cells. Our study demonstrated for the first time that specific HDAC5 inhibition induces metabolic reprogramming and provides insight into a valuable experimental strategy for manipulation of specific HDAC5 inhibition and glucose metabolism in therapy against cancer. Acknowledgements This work fiancially suppoted by a grant of F.R.S .-FNRS (contract n° 7.4515.12F). E Hendrick is recipient of a Televie fellowship. References PEIXOTO et al., (2012) Cell Death and Differentiation. 7:1239-52. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-galactose transporter DEFICIENCY: a diagnosis based on clinical observations.
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; poskin, julie; etienne, isabelle et al

Poster (2009, March)

Dehydration and major diarrhea in young infants is mainly linked to infectious diseases. However in case leading to denutrition and growth retardation, metabolic causes or malabsorption should be evocated ... [more ▼]

Dehydration and major diarrhea in young infants is mainly linked to infectious diseases. However in case leading to denutrition and growth retardation, metabolic causes or malabsorption should be evocated. We report here the case of a few days old infant admitted for early recurrence of liquid stools and vomiting. XX is born at term (3450 grams, 51 cm) after an uneventful pregnancy. Consanguinity has been reported in the family. He was breastfed but presented rapidly liquid stools and vomiting. At 10 days old he was first admitted for dehydration, loss of weight below his birth weight (2900 grams) and severe hypernatremia. Semi elementary diet led to some improvement but he was readmitted at the age of one month for similar even worse symptoms including abdominal distension and explosive stools. Complementary investigations have excluded infection, parasitosis, malformation and immune deficits. Different diet formulas were tried with no significant benefit what led to the placement of parenteral nutrition thanks to which weight was gained. Hypothesis of peculiar carbohydrate malabsorption was made and the following tests have been carried out: -Clinitest: presence of reducing substances in the stools. -Lactose Breath test: between 15 and 90 ppm H2 with a peak value at 90 ppm H2 after 90 minutes. -Duodenal biopsy: normal histology; normal activity of lactase, maltase, saccharase-isomaltase. Considering the normality of these enzyme activities, hypothesis of “Na-dependant glucose-galactose transporter” deficit was put forward. This was confirmed according to the results of HGPO and glucose breath test. Search for SGTL1 gene mutation is still in progress. In conclusion despite of the huge progresses made at molecular biology level, clinical observation remain essential to the diagnosis of malabsorption. Precise reporting of the used milk formula and comparative analysis of their composition can orient the diagnosis and help to select the most accurate molecular test. Here, analyses exclude every enzyme activity deficiencies. Carbohydrate malabsorption from first days of live can be linked to a glucose-galactose transporter deficiency due to a SGLT1 mutation (chr 22). This autosomal recessive disorder has only been reported 200 times until now. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-responsive layer-by-layer microcapsules as self-regulated insulin delivery system
Alaimo, David ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

Poster (2011, September 03)

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See detailGlucose-responsive layer-by-layer microcapsules: a potential route to self-regulated insulin delivery
Alaimo, David ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

Conference (2010, May 25)

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See detailGlucosinolate profiles by HPLC-DAD, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris: Impact of plant part and origin
Bouacida, Saoussen; Koubaier, Hayet Ben Haj; Snoussi, Ahmed et al

in Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry (2016), 5(5), 528-539

The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS ... [more ▼]

The glucosinolate profiles, phenol and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity of Eruca vesicaria longirostris were studied for different organs and origins. Eleven desulpho-glucosinolates (DS-GLSs) were isolated and quantified by lipid chromatography- DAD. Similarity between profiles was obtained. Total DS-GLS content, expressed as sinigrin equivalents (SE) revealed a certain variabilily ranging between (76.07-45.61), (27.01-13.53), (4.52 -18.01), (9.39-3.37) and (1.16-13.99) μmol /g DW for seeds, flowers, leaves, roots and stems, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates and by-products in rapeseed meal related to hydrothermal processing
Quinsac, A.; Carré, P.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Poster (2015, July)

Background: For safety reasons, rapeseed meal (RSM) is usually desolventized with strong hydrothermal treatments, leading to various levels of residual glucosinolates (GSL), and protein solubility. The ... [more ▼]

Background: For safety reasons, rapeseed meal (RSM) is usually desolventized with strong hydrothermal treatments, leading to various levels of residual glucosinolates (GSL), and protein solubility. The RSM nutritional quality may be then lowered for monogastrics, due to GSL breakdown products whose reliable and “easy to use” indicators lack. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates and their measurement
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2009)

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See detailGlucosinolates and their measurement
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2001)

Glucosinolates belong to a structurally homogeneous family of more than 110 miscellaneous secondary metabolites mostly contained in Brassicaceae. They are easily hydrolyzed into isothiocyanates ... [more ▼]

Glucosinolates belong to a structurally homogeneous family of more than 110 miscellaneous secondary metabolites mostly contained in Brassicaceae. They are easily hydrolyzed into isothiocyanates, oxazolidinethiones, cyanides, D-glucose, sulphate ion… by an endogenous enzyme called myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1). Glucosinolates and their breakdown compounds are partly or mainly responsible of the flavor of some foods (mustard, radish, horse-radish….) and are also suspected to play a role in cancer prevention (glucoraphanin in Broccoli). On an other hand, when present in rapeseed or canola, these molecules are easily broken down during animal digestion, leading to compounds with detrimental and antinutritional characteristics. They are known to interfere with the thyroid and to damage vital organs. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates in isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tubers: qualitative and quantitative content and changes after maturity
Ramallo, R.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Le Boulenge, E. et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2004), 84(7), 701-706

Six varieties of isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), an Andean edible tuber, were analysed. The aim was to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively their content of glucosinolates and to determine ... [more ▼]

Six varieties of isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), an Andean edible tuber, were analysed. The aim was to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively their content of glucosinolates and to determine concentration changes of these compounds upon delayed harvest. Additionally, exploratory assays were carried out on the effect of postharvest cold storage of the tubers as well as of a drying process imposed on blanched tuber slices. Only one glucosinolate (p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate) was found in the six domestic varieties analysed. Its concentration varied between 36.5 and 90.0 mumolg(-1) dry matter. This range is relatively high when compared with other edible glucosinolate-containing vegetables. 'Dark' coloured tuber varieties showed higher levels than 'light' coloured tuber varieties at normal harvest time. Of the two varieties on which the effect of delayed harvest was studied, one showed increasing and then decreasing changes until 44 days after maturity, while the other did not show any significant change with time. Postharvest cold stored samples showed similar changes to tubers kept in soil, and glucosinolate levels in dried blanched tubers did not differ significantly from those in fresh samples. Taken together, the data indicate that the glucosinolate content of isano is highly dependent on both the variety and the time of harvest. These parameters should be taken into account when considering isano as a promising food source with medicinal properties for humans and animals, but also with possible adverse biological effects, all related to the presence of glucosinolates. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates in Rapeseeds: Analytical Aspects
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Book published by Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (1987)

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See detailGlucosinolates metabolites in plasma, milk and thyroid of gestating and lactating ewes
Mabon, N.; Mandiki, S.; Derycke, G. et al

Poster (2003)

The effects of high level of rapeseed meal in the diet on the concentration of antinutritional factors (glucosinolates metabolites) in blood plasma, milk and thyroid were studied in 90 ewes. From the ... [more ▼]

The effects of high level of rapeseed meal in the diet on the concentration of antinutritional factors (glucosinolates metabolites) in blood plasma, milk and thyroid were studied in 90 ewes. From the 100th day of gestation, ewes bearing two foetuses were divided into three groups and were fed with pasture hay ad libitum and 500 g/d of diet containing 0 or 40% rapeseed meal obtained from either Apex or Synergy variety. During the 47 first days of lactation, 1200 g/d of the same meal were given. Thereafter, during 3 weeks, the ewes were only fed with hay. Blood and milk samples were taken fortnightly for the determination of SCN- and 5-vinyl-1,3- oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) concentrations. One ewe from each group was slaughtered at the end of rapeseed meal distribution and another one three weeks later for thyroid analyses. SCN- and 5-VOT concentrations in blood plasma increased significantly (P<0.05) and regularly until one month of rapeseed supplementation to the withdrawal of rapeseed in the diet. One to three weeks after the end of rapeseed meal distribution, the SCN- and 5-VOT plasma concentrations came back at the basal level. Some changes were also observed for SCN- and 5-VOT contents in milk. The results indicated a great capacity of the ewes to excrete SCN- and 5-VOT by the milk. A 5-VOT accumulation was observed in the thyroid according to the level of progoitrin in the diet, but no SCN- accumulation. The 5-VOT concentration in thyroid of the ewes fed during three weeks with hay came back to zero. The thyroid analysis showed the reversible aspect of the thyroid hypertrophy due to 5-VOT accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes glucosinolates, leur dosage.
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Marlier, M.; Severin, M. et al

in Revue de l’Agriculture = Landbouwtijdschrift (1986), 39

Mis en évidence depuis le siècle dernier,les glucosinolates sont présents dans toutes les espèces végétales appartenant à la famille des crucifères (Lerin, 1980). lls se dégradent facilement sous I'action ... [more ▼]

Mis en évidence depuis le siècle dernier,les glucosinolates sont présents dans toutes les espèces végétales appartenant à la famille des crucifères (Lerin, 1980). lls se dégradent facilement sous I'action de la myrosinase en isothiocyanates (lTC), vinyl-thio-oxazolidones (VOT), nitriles, thiocyanates, amines ...Ces produits de dégradation sont physiologiquement actifs. Dans le domaine de l'alimentation humaine, ils contribuent à la flaveur de différentes plantes comme les choux, les radis et au goût particulier du raifort et de la moutarde (Mc Gregor et al., 1975). Initialement présents dans le parenchyme des graines de colza, ils subsistent dans les tourteaux obtenus après extraction de l'huile et provoquent des effets toxiques chez les animaux d'élevage. Ceci limite I'utilisation des tourteaux de colza notamment pour les animaux à croissance rapide comme le porc et les volailles. En vue de valoriser au mieux le colza, plante riche en matière grasse (40 à 46 o/ol (Godin et al., 1971) présentant une composition en acides aminés très équilibrée (tableau 1) et un pourcentage de protéines variant entre 22 et 24 o/o (Diem et al., 1975), il est impératif d'une part de diminuer le taux en glucosinolates par sélection (Robbelen et al., 1980) et d'autre oart de les doser avec orécision. Cet article a pour objet de mieux faire connaître les glucosinolates et de faire une mise au point quant à leur dosage. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucotoxicite et lipotoxicite, deux complices impliques dans le cercle vicieux du diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(6), 535-8

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a dynamic disease whose natural history is characterized by a progressive aggravation leading to a progressively severe hyperglycaemia, which generally requires a more complex ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a dynamic disease whose natural history is characterized by a progressive aggravation leading to a progressively severe hyperglycaemia, which generally requires a more complex therapy as time progresses. Such an evolution results from a vicious circle where both glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to reduce insulin secretion and the action of insulin on cell glucose metabolism. These new concepts are able to modify the strategies of prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gluon condensate in the chiral phase transition
Ripka, Georges; Jaminon, Martine ULg

in Fried, H. M.; Mueller, B. (Eds.) QCD Vacuum Structure (1993)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)