How adaptation strategies of crops could counteract climate change effects? The case of four catchments in Wallonia, Belgium.
Bauwens, Alexandra ; Sohier, Catherine ; Degré, Aurore
in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2013), 15
A sharp increase in extreme heat and drought stress is projected in Belgium by the end of the 21st century, with the potential to signiﬁcantly reduce crops’ yields under current agricultural practices ... [more ▼]
A sharp increase in extreme heat and drought stress is projected in Belgium by the end of the 21st century, with the potential to signiﬁcantly reduce crops’ yields under current agricultural practices. This contribution uses an agro-hydrological model in order to assess the potential effects of climate evolution on crop development, yield, and water balance for the main agricultural productions in the Meuse catchment. Erosion risk is also evaluated. We show that grasslands and maize yield decrease and yield variability increases under climate change scenarios. The leaf area index study permits to put in emphasis the earlier start of the vegetation due to warmer climate. It appears that all the sensitive stages occur earlier in the season and that crops are negatively affected by summer drought stress. The better understanding of crops development under evolving climate allows us to propose some changes in agricultural practices and to assess their effectiveness. We evaluate different strategies of adaptation in agricultural practices in order to reduce the potential negative effects of climate change on grasslands and maize production. Adaptation strategies proposed are advanced sowing and harvesting date, introduction of a cover crop for maize and advance in the cutting dates for grasslands. In the particular case of the Vesdre catchment, shifting the growth period of maize permits to avoid the water-deﬁcit period and allow increased yield. This shift makes it possible to introduce a cover crop that will drastically reduce winter soil erosion. For grassland, the adjustment of the cutting dates favored the ﬁrst cut and the earlier start of the vegetation. The second cut is less proﬁtable due to summer drought stress. The vulnerability assessments focused on the main rotation encountered in the cultivated areas and in the difference in the cover type of these crops. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (5 ULg)
How And Where Is The Link Between The Soil Behaviour And Its Internal Architecture?
Smet, Sarah ; Léonard, Angélique ; Degré, Aurore
Conference (2015, July 21)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
How and why did Hatshepsut invent the image of her royal power?
in Galan, José Manuel; Bryan, Betsy M.; Dorman, Peter F. (Eds.) Creativity and Innovation in the Reign of Hatshepsut (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 180 (3 ULg)
How are consummers' interests taken into account when applying competition law ?
Conference (2009, October 21)Detailed reference viewed: 46 (5 ULg)
How are feathers digested by raptors?
Leprince, Pierre ; Dandrifosse, Guy ; Goffinet, Gerhard et al
in Biochemical Systematics & Ecology (1980), 8(2), 211-219
In order to determine the cause of the evident degradation of feathers from ingested prey in pellets regurgitated by raptors, in vitro digestions of whole feather barbs by pellet extracts, pepsin or ... [more ▼]
In order to determine the cause of the evident degradation of feathers from ingested prey in pellets regurgitated by raptors, in vitro digestions of whole feather barbs by pellet extracts, pepsin or trypsin were carried out. The material was analysed by using biochemical and electron microscopic methods. The results show that the changes in the feathers which occur in the stomach of the Falconidae do not arise from digestion of keratin but from hydrolysis of protein acting as a cement matter in the feather. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
How are trace elements mobilized during the post-weaning fast in northern elephant seals?
Habran, Sarah ; ; et al
in Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (2012), 31(10), 2354-2365
Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups undergo a substantial intertissue reorganization of protein, minerals, and other cellular components during their postweaning development, which might ... [more ▼]
Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups undergo a substantial intertissue reorganization of protein, minerals, and other cellular components during their postweaning development, which might entail the mobilization of associated contaminants. The authors investigated the changes in concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) in a longitudinal study on 22 northern elephant seal pups during the postweaning fast. Slight changes in most element concentrations were observed in blood throughout the fast. Circulating levels of Hg, Se, and Cu appeared less altered during the postweaning fast than during suckling (previously measured). Despite the considerable fat utilization, element concentrations in blubber remained stable throughout the fast (except Fe), which suggests that elements are mobilized from blubber as efficiently as lipids. As indicators of the placental transfer, concentrations in lanugo hair revealed the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during fetal development. In addition, the new pelage, rapidly produced after weaning, appeared to be an important elimination route for toxic metals like Hg, Cd, and Pb. The high mineral content detected in pup hair suggests that this species would be more exposed to trace elements than other phocids (except Cd and Pb). This statement needs nevertheless further monitoring and toxicological studies to determine better the exposition to trace elements and its potential impact on the northern elephant seal’s health. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (15 ULg)
How are we vulnerable? Opening industrial hazards vulnerability analysis to participation
Rossignol, Nicolas ;
Conference (2013, June 17)
The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves ... [more ▼]
The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves the evaluation of the probability and the magnitude of the consequences of the undesired events that can transform the hazard into actual damage. Despite the technical premises, the importance of integrating social aspects into the analysis is now recognized by an increasing number or risk analysis models. Another way to deal with potential consequences of hazards is to analyze the vulnerability of the system considered. This paradigm overcomes the shortcomings of risk analysis in situations when the knowledge about the probabilities and the outcomes is incomplete or insufficient On the one hand, studies in the literature show that socio-economic factors are often integrated in a participative way in vulnerability analysis models especially in the natural hazards research field. On the other hand, it seems that such considerations are rarely integrated in the models aiming at evaluating the vulnerability to an industrial hazard. What can we learn from the analysis of models addressing vulnerability to natural hazards in terms of the participatory integration of social factors? What could be the reasons to apply such participation tools in order to assess the vulnerability to industrial hazards? These are the questions we address in this contribution. To do so, we realized a systematic literature review from scientific journal papers on vulnerability analysis published in the last two decades. From this review, three main arguments can be found arguing for the use of participation for vulnerability analysis. Indeed, participation allows (1) context-based assessments, that may (2) foster the development of adaptative capacities (3) both for short and long-term. Based on those arguments, we identifiy possible paths to foster participation for context-based industrial vulnerability analysis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (2 ULg)
“How are you Vulnerable?”: Using Participation for Vulnerability Analysis in Emergency Planning
Rossignol, Nicolas ; ; Fallon, Catherine et al
in Journal of Risk Research (in press)
Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to imagine. Among the different perspectives, the Science ... [more ▼]
Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to imagine. Among the different perspectives, the Science and Technology Studies (STS) Vulnerability Approach seems very promising. Relying on a constructivist paradigm, it is based on an inductive collection and analysis of a wide range of factors, with a particular focus on cultural factors and actual day-to-day practices. In this paper, we present the roots of this approach and we display findings based on three case studies exploring emergency planning in three different contexts (a city near a SEVESO plant, a school near a nuclear plant, and a city confronted to multiple catastrophic scenarios). The cases studies were realized by conducting three Focus Groups with different types of stakeholders (citizens, teachers, firemen, decision makers, etc.). After presenting the results of the case studies, we discuss how stakeholders’ participation can inform such type of vulnerability analysis in the context of emergency planning. We argue that participation fosters a deep understanding of actual safety governance practices which allows innovative results to emerge as well as it initiates a learning process among the participants. It contributes to questioning the relations between decision-makers, experts and citizens. It has the potential of bypassing the positivist and quantitative rationale of safety, and thus, of redefining the vulnerability governance. As a conclusion, we question the role of such STS vulnerability approach within the actual vulnerability governance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 88 (16 ULg)
How as a transmission system operator (TSO) to respond to the growing public concern on the potential health effects of ELF exposure ?
; Ledent, Maryse ; Lilien, Jean-Louis et al
in Proceedings of the 2d International Conference on Extremely Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic fields (2011, March)
Public exposure of extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electric and magnetic fields are a major concern for transmission system operators.Measurements are presented as well as technical solutions to reduce ... [more ▼]
Public exposure of extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electric and magnetic fields are a major concern for transmission system operators.Measurements are presented as well as technical solutions to reduce ELF and public acceptance are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (6 ULg)
How asteroseismology can constrain the global parameters of solar-like star models
; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ;
in Astrophysics & Space Science (2010), 328
In the previous years, p-mode oscillations (pressure oscillations stochastically excited by convection) have been detected in several solar-like stars thanks to the ground-based spectroscopic and space ... [more ▼]
In the previous years, p-mode oscillations (pressure oscillations stochastically excited by convection) have been detected in several solar-like stars thanks to the ground-based spectroscopic and space spectroscopic and photometric observations. We study the importance of seismic constraints on stellar modeling and the impact of their accuracy on reducing the uncertainties of global stellar parameters (i.e. mass, age, etc.). We use the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method to analyze the sensitivity of stellar models to seismic constraints. In this context, we construct a grid of evolutionary sequences for solar-like stars with varying age and mass. Around each model of this grid, we evaluate the partial derivatives with respect to a large set of free parameters: mass â ³, age Ï , mixing-length parameter Î±, initial helium abundance Y [SUB]0[/SUB], and initial metallicity Z/ X [SUB]0[/SUB]. Masses between 0.9 and 1.55 M [SUB]È¯[/SUB] and central hydrogen abundances from Xc=0.7 to 0.05 have been considered in this study. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (2 ULg)
How asteroseismology can help to precisely constrain properties of planet-host stars
Salmon, Sébastien ; Montalban Iglesias, Josefa ; Lanotte, Audrey et al
Poster (2011, January)
Nowadays more than 500 exoplanets have been discovered, mainly studied by radial velocity and transit measurements. Precise knowledge on their characteristics is crucial to develop theories of planetary ... [more ▼]
Nowadays more than 500 exoplanets have been discovered, mainly studied by radial velocity and transit measurements. Precise knowledge on their characteristics is crucial to develop theories of planetary formation and evolution. In that aim, not only star and planet(s) masses but also the evolutionary stage of systems are needed. From radial velocity measurements one has to assume the inclination and the stellar mass of the system to disentangle the mass of the planet. When transit is observable, one can measure the ratio of planetary and stellar radii. Finally, the degree of evolution of the system is determined by the one of the star. Thus the host star must be well known to obtain a full set of system properties. However, determination of stellar parameters such as the mass, radius and its evolution from classical observables (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) suffers of large uncertainties. This is particularly true for dwarf stars on the Main Sequence. Fortunately we can obtain better constrains with the help of asteroseismology. That latter approach probes the stellar properties through observation of oscillations present in stars. With the launches of high-precision photometry space missions, CoRoT and Kepler, we are now able to detect oscillations in a huge number of stars. In particular Kepler photometry, primarily intended to detect transits of planet, can give accurate stellar parameters of planetary systems as it also affords to make [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (9 ULg)
How behavioural studies can lead to intensive aquaculture of the tilapia. Half a century research at the University of Liège
; Poncin, Pascal
Article for general public (1992)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
How bioméchanical analysis may help to identify abdominal injury causes in high level tennis
Tubez, François ; Forthomme, Bénédicte ; Croisier, Jean-Louis et al
Conference (2015, July)
This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after a tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether ... [more ▼]
This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after a tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed the three dimensions kinematic and kinetic of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the knees. We compared the player to five other professional players. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensations of the player during serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that would explain the first injury and may provoke a new injury. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 ULg)
How bright is the Io UV footprint?
Bonfond, Bertrand ; Grodent, Denis ; Gérard, Jean-Claude et al
The electro-magnetic interaction between Io and the Jovian magnetosphere generates a perturbation in the magnetospheric plasma which propagates along the magnetic field lines and creates auroral footprint ... [more ▼]
The electro-magnetic interaction between Io and the Jovian magnetosphere generates a perturbation in the magnetospheric plasma which propagates along the magnetic field lines and creates auroral footprint emissions in both hemispheres. Recent results showed that this footprint is formed of several spots and an extended tail. Each feature is suggested to correspond to a different step in the propagation of the perturbation and in the electron energization processes. The present study focuses on the variations of the spots' brightness at different timescales from minutes to years through the rotation period of Jupiter. It relies on FUV images acquired with the STIS and ACS instruments onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Since the footprint is composed of several localized features, a good understanding of the emission region geometry is critical to derive the actual vertical brightness and thus the precipitated energy flux. We developed a 3D emission model in order to assess as precisely as possible the respective contribution of each individual feature and to correctly estimate the precipitating energy flux. As far as the brightness variations on timescales of minutes are concerned, we will present results from the high time resolution campaign executed during summer 2009. On timescale of several hours, we will show that the variation of the emitted power as a function of the location of Io in the plasma torus suggests that the Jovian surface magnetic field strength is an important controlling parameter. Finally, the measured precipitated power and particle fluxes will be discussed in comparison with recent simulations considering both Alfvén waves filamentation and electron acceleration when the Alfvén waves become inertial. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
How can a steel structure survive to impact loading? Numerical and analytical investigations
Demonceau, Jean-François ; ; Hoang, Van Long et al
in Open Civil Engineering Journal (The) (in press)
Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. For more than 10 years, the ... [more ▼]
Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. For more than 10 years, the University of Liege is strongly involved in researches investigating the response of structures further to such exceptional events ( and ). The present paper gives a global overview on recent or ongoing developments performed at the University of Liege in the field of robustness of steel building structures subjected to impact loading leading to the loss of a column. The conducted studies are founded on a combination of experimental, numerical and analytical approaches with the final aim to propose simplified procedures useful for practitioners and allowing ensuring an appropriate level of robustness to structures for the considered scenario [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 ULg)
How can cobalt complexes help synthetic polymer chemists?
Debuigne, Antoine ; Jérôme, Robert ; Jérôme, Christine et al
Conference (2009, March 19)
Nowadays, progresses in medicine, biotechnology, microelectronic and many other fields are more and more sustained by the development of novel polymer materials with constantly improved properties and ... [more ▼]
Nowadays, progresses in medicine, biotechnology, microelectronic and many other fields are more and more sustained by the development of novel polymer materials with constantly improved properties and well-defined molecular parameters. In this context, we designed a controlled radical polymerization (CRP) technique based on cobalt complexes which is able to efficiently control the radical polymerization of challenging monomers such as vinyl acetate (VAc), N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and acrylonitrile (AN). This so-called Cobalt-Mediated Radical Polymerization (CMRP) also gave access to unique diblock copolymers by sequential polymerization of the above mentioned monomers. However, addition of isoprene to polymer chains preformed by CMRP did not lead to the expected poly(isoprene) containing copolymers. Instead, the quantitative coupling reaction of the polymer chains was observed, as assessed by the perfect doubling of the molar mass of the initial macromolecules. This result is very exciting because this so-called Isoprene-Assisted Radical Coupling (I-ARC) reaction is not limited to polymers with low molar masses and homopolymers, contrary to the existing radical chains coupling methods. Indeed, when applied to diblock copolymers, IARC constitutes a straightforward approach for the synthesis of telechelic symmetrical ABA triblock copolymers and is thus a very promising tool for macromolecular engineering. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (7 ULg)
How can cobalt complexes help synthetic polymer chemists?"
Debuigne, Antoine ; Jérôme, Christine ; Detrembleur, Christophe
Conference (2009, December 07)Detailed reference viewed: 32 (6 ULg)
How can intermodal transport support the logistical strategies of enterprises: a study on the opportunities and bottlenecks
Marchal, Jean ; ; et al
in How can intermodal transport support the logistical strategies of enterprises: a study on the opportunities and bottlenecks (2004)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
How can intermodal transport support the logistical strategies of enterprises: a study on the opportunities and bottlenecks
Marchal, Jean ; ;
Intermodal freight transport is the movement of goods in one and the same load unit or vehicle by successive modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves when changing modes (European ... [more ▼]
Intermodal freight transport is the movement of goods in one and the same load unit or vehicle by successive modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves when changing modes (European Conference of Ministers of Transport et al. 1997). Altough it has still a small market share compared to road transport, it becomes more and more apparant that intermodal transport transport will play an important role in the future. Intermodal transport is more environmental friendly than road transport (Kreutzberger et al., 2003) and has a positive effect on the congestion problems (Van Schijndel and Dinwoodie, 2000). A third and important positive feature of intermodal transport is that it can easily fit in the supply chain management efforts by the companies. In this paper the missing links and opportunities for the intermodal transportsector are analysed. Also solutions for overcoming these bottlenecks are proposed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (3 ULg)