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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg; Tharakan, Joseph ULg

E-print/Working paper (2011)

Transport costs play a key role in agricultural markets in developing countries and are one of the causes of poverty amongst farmers that are geographically isolated. Another characteristic of ... [more ▼]

Transport costs play a key role in agricultural markets in developing countries and are one of the causes of poverty amongst farmers that are geographically isolated. Another characteristic of agricultural markets is that they often involve interlinked transactions. However, the existing theoretical literature on interlinked transactions does not take into account the existence of transport costs. This paper develops a model of input-output interlinked contracts between geographically dispersed farmers and a trader, whether this trader is for-profit or non-profit. We derive implications of imposing either uniform or mill pricing policies, as opposed to spatial price discrimination. Impact on profit, farmers' income, level of production, social welfare and regional disparities are investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

Scientific conference (2011, March)

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See detailIntermediate basal cells of the prostate: In vitro and in vivo characterization
Garraway, Levi; Lin, Douglas; Signoretti, Sabina et al

in Prostate (2003), 55(3), 206-218

BACKGROUND. Progenitor cells within the prostate basal layer may play important roles in differentiation and carcinogenesis; however, prostate stem cell populations remain uncharacterized. METHODS ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Progenitor cells within the prostate basal layer may play important roles in differentiation and carcinogenesis; however, prostate stem cell populations remain uncharacterized. METHODS. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses were used to characterize prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), a commercially available prostate basal cell isolate. RESULTS. Proliferating PrECs exhibited immunophenotypic characteristics most consistent with basal cells, but during senescence PrECs up-regulated androgen receptor (AR) mRNA, p27, and low-molecular-weight cytokeratin (LMWCK) expression, suggestive of partial differentiation. PrECs also stained strongly for involucrin, which marked a subset of intermediate prostate basal cells in vivo. Basal hyperplasia consisting of involucrin-positive cells was prevalent in prostate tissue from androgen-ablated patients, and formed epithelial clusters flanked by involucrin-negative basal and luminal monolayers. Cultivation of PrECs on matrigel together with androgen-treated stromal conditioned media resulted in dense aggregates, with a peripheral rim of basal-like cells expressing p63 and basal cytokeratins. CONCLUSIONS. PrEC represents an epithelial population whose basal characteristics are modified in response to matrigel, stromal factors, and senescence, consistent with a transient amplifying population. These cells may derive from a previously unrecognized, involucrin-positive subset present in vivo. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intermediate in the evolution of superfast sonic muscles.
Mok, H.; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Chiu, H. et al

in Frontiers in Zoology (2011), 8

Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast ... [more ▼]

Background Intermediate forms in the evolution of new adaptations such as transitions from water to land and the evolution of flight are often poorly understood. Similarly, the evolution of superfast sonic muscles in fishes, often considered the fastest muscles in vertebrates, has been a mystery because slow bladder movement does not generate sound. Slow muscles that stretch the swimbladder and then produce sound during recoil have recently been discovered in ophidiiform fishes. Here we describe the disturbance call (produced when fish are held) and sonic mechanism in an unrelated perciform pearl perch (Glaucosomatidae) that represents an intermediate condition in the evolution of super-fast sonic muscles. Results The pearl perch disturbance call is a two-part sound produced by a fast sonic muscle that rapidly stretches the bladder and an antagonistic tendon-smooth muscle combination (part 1) causing the tendon and bladder to snap back (part 2) generating a higher-frequency and greater-amplitude pulse. The smooth muscle is confirmed by electron microscopy and protein analysis. To our knowledge smooth muscle attachment to a tendon is unknown in animals. Conclusion The pearl perch, an advanced perciform teleost unrelated to ophidiiform fishes, uses a slow type mechanism to produce the major portion of the sound pulse during recoil, but the swimbladder is stretched by a fast muscle. Similarities between the two unrelated lineages, suggest independent and convergent evolution of sonic muscles and indicate intermediate forms in the evolution of superfast muscles. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediate integer programming representations using value disjunctions
Louveaux, Quentin ULg

Conference (2006, January)

We introduce a general technique for creating an extended formulation of a mixed-integer program. We classify the integer variables into blocks, each of which generates a finite set of vector values. The ... [more ▼]

We introduce a general technique for creating an extended formulation of a mixed-integer program. We classify the integer variables into blocks, each of which generates a finite set of vector values. The extended formulation is constructed by creating a new binary variable for each generated value. Initial experiments show that the extended formulation can have a more compact complete description than the original formulation. We prove that, using this reformulation technique, the facet description decomposes into one “linking polyhedron” per block and the “aggregated polyhedron”. Each of these polyhedra can be analyzed separately. For the case of identical coefficients in a block, we provide a complete description of the linking polyhedron and a polynomial-time separation algorithm. Applied to the knapsack with a fixed number of distinct coefficients, this theorem provides a complete description in an extended space with a polynomial number of variables. On the basis of this theory, we propose a new branching scheme that analyzes the problem structure. It is designed to be applied in those subproblems of hard integer programs where LP-based techniques do not provide good branching decisions. Preliminary computational experiments show that it is successful for some benchmark problems of multi-knapsack type. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediate integer programming representations using value disjunctions
Köppe, Matthias ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Weismantel, Robert

in Discrete Optimization (2008), 5(2), 293-313

We introduce a general technique to create an extended formulation of a mixed-integer program. We classify the integer variables into blocks, each of which generates a finite set of vector values. The ... [more ▼]

We introduce a general technique to create an extended formulation of a mixed-integer program. We classify the integer variables into blocks, each of which generates a finite set of vector values. The extended formu- lation is constructed by creating a new binary variable for each generated value. Initial experiments show that the extended formulation can have a more compact complete description than the original formulation. We prove that, using this reformulation technique, the facet descrip- tion decomposes into one “linking polyhedron” per block and the “aggre- gated polyhedron”. Each of these polyhedra can be analyzed separately. For the case of identical coefficients in a block, we provide a complete description of the linking polyhedron and a polynomial-time separation algorithm. Applied to the knapsack with a fixed number of distinct coeffi- cients, this theorem provides a complete description in an extended space with a polynomial number of variables. Based on this theory, we propose a new branching scheme that analyzes the problem structure. It is designed to be applied in those subproblems of hard integer programs where LP-based techniques do not provide good branching decisions. Preliminary computational experiments show that it is successful for some benchmark problems of multi-knapsack type. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediate report on the development of the Geer hydrological model (surface and subsurface water) for climatic change scenario on that sub-catchment
Goderniaux, Pascal ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg; Dassargues, Alain ULg et al

Report (2007)

In the framework of Workpackage BASIN R3 Meuse, the Hydrology Group of the University of Liège (Belgium) is developing a hydrological model of the Geer sub-catchment, in order to assess climate change ... [more ▼]

In the framework of Workpackage BASIN R3 Meuse, the Hydrology Group of the University of Liège (Belgium) is developing a hydrological model of the Geer sub-catchment, in order to assess climate change impacts on groundwater reserves. This report describes the calculation code used, the general hypotheses chosen to develop the model, the conceptual model, the climate change scenarios and the final objectives of the study. [less ▲]

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See detailLes intermittences du corps filmique: Pathologies et blessures de l’image dans la pratique contemporaine du found footage
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

in André, Emmanuelle; Lioult, Jean-Luc (Eds.) Penser la création audiovisuelle (2008)

Depuis un demi-siècle et de manière exponentielle ces vingt dernières années, le champ de l’art contemporain et celui du cinéma n’ont cessé d’engendrer des processus mutuels d’hybridation, par ... [more ▼]

Depuis un demi-siècle et de manière exponentielle ces vingt dernières années, le champ de l’art contemporain et celui du cinéma n’ont cessé d’engendrer des processus mutuels d’hybridation, par contamination(s), échange(s) et transfert(s), rendant à la fois tangible et poreuse la frontière qui semblait s’être définitivement érigée entre l’art de masse et l’art d’élite. Il est une pratique assez symptomatique de cette interrogation muséale qui naît de l’exposition de cinéma. Pratique historiquement ancrée dans cet espace plastique charnière que constitue le cinéma expérimental, le cinéma de found footage nous offre le terrain idéal qui nous permet, à la fois, de penser l’histoire (du cinéma et des formes cinématographiques) au moyen de films qui en constituent, en quelque sorte, la pensée en acte, mais aussi, au regard de l’histoire même de cette pratique et de son évolution et à partir d’objets contemporains qui en réactualisent la forme et le discours, de repenser le rapport « cinéma – art contemporain » à la lueur de formes filmiques renouvelées. [less ▲]

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See detail"Les intermittences du visible. Reprises de vue dans le cinéma expérimental américain"
Belloi, Livio ULg

in Recherches Anglaises et Nord-Américaines [= RANAM] (2012), 45

After a brief historical and theoretical survey of the found footage film tradition, this text discusses the issue of reprise in the field of contemporary experimental cinema, focusing on two films by ... [more ▼]

After a brief historical and theoretical survey of the found footage film tradition, this text discusses the issue of reprise in the field of contemporary experimental cinema, focusing on two films by American filmmaker Bill Morrison. In "The Death Train" (1993), Morrison takes up again three series of distinct images in a gesture that tends to foreground the mechanical dimensions of the cinematic spectacle. In "Decasia" (2002), the filmmaker capitalizes on fragments of decaying nitrate film, thus exploring film as materiality. However different they may seem, both works seem to address the same visual theme, that of visible intermittencies, in so far as they can be considered as an act of definition of a modernity ingrained in the very mechanics of the gaze. [less ▲]

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See detail"Les intermittences du visible. Reprises de vue dans le cinéma expérimental américain"
Belloi, Livio ULg

Scientific conference (2010, October 18)

Approche historique et théorique du procédé de la reprise de vue dans le cinéma expérimental américain, abordé à l'aune d'un schème structurant et particulièrement récursif : celui des intermittences du ... [more ▼]

Approche historique et théorique du procédé de la reprise de vue dans le cinéma expérimental américain, abordé à l'aune d'un schème structurant et particulièrement récursif : celui des intermittences du visible. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent bisphosphonate therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis - Progress to date
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Malaise, Olivier ULg; Neuprez, A. et al

in Drugs & Aging (2007), 24(5), 351-359

Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed drugs in osteoporosis today. They have unequivocally shown their ability to reduce fracture rate at the spine (alendronic acid, risedronic acid, ibandronic ... [more ▼]

Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed drugs in osteoporosis today. They have unequivocally shown their ability to reduce fracture rate at the spine (alendronic acid, risedronic acid, ibandronic acid) and at the hip (alendronic acid and risedronic acid). However, their dosage and administration procedures and the adverse reactions induced by their oral intake are responsible for low adherence. Therefore, intermittent regimens have been developed. Weekly alendronic acid and risedronic acid provide similar benefits, in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and changes in biochemical markers, as those seen with their daily formulations. Ibandronic acid has been shown to reduce vertebral fractures when given intermittently. Ibandronic acid given orally monthly and intravenously every 2 or 3 months provides increases in BMD similar to the daily formulation. Yearly intravenous infusions of zoledronic acid are currently being evaluated for their ability to reduce fractures. If the efficacy and safety of bisphosphonates given at administration intervals longer than weekly are confirmed, this might significantly improve patient adherence and long-term outcomes of bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal osteoporosis. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent Cyclic Tiludronate in the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Christiansen, C.; Roux, C. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2001), 12(3), 169-77

The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of tiludronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Two placebo-controlled, randomized, double-masked, multicenter, cyclical ... [more ▼]

The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy and safety of tiludronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Two placebo-controlled, randomized, double-masked, multicenter, cyclical, intermittent, dose-ranging studies including 1805 women with low vertebral bone mineral density and prevalent vertebral fractures and 488 women with low bone mineral density and no prevalent fracture were conducted. Patients were randomized to either tiludronate 50 mg/day, tiludronate 200 mg/day or placebo, given orally for the first 7 days of each month. A supplement of 500 mg elemental calcium was provided daily from day 8 to the end of the month. Both studies demonstrated no statistically or clinically relevant trends in the incidence of adverse effects across the three treatment groups. However, tiludronate administered at these two doses in a cyclic intermittent regimen was not effective in reducing the incidence of vertebral fractures or increasing spinal bone mineral density. Thus, tiludronate, administered at these doses in a cyclic intermittent regimen, cannot be considered an appropriate treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, notwithstanding a high safety profile. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent intravenous (i.v.) ibandronate injections are more effective than an established daily oral regimen: DIVA 2-year results
Czerwinski, E.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Jonkanski, I. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2007, March), 18(Suppl.1), 127

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See detailIntermittent intravenous ibandronate injections and daily oral ibandronate provide at least equivalent increases in bone mineral density: 1-year results from DIVA
Delmas, P. D.; Sambrook, P.; Recker, R. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005, March), 16(Suppl.3), 7

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See detailIntermittent madantory ventilation (IMV)
Lamy, Maurice ULg

in Lawin, Peter; Klaus, Peter; Scherer, Ralf (Eds.) Maschinelle beatmung gestern-heute-morgen (1984)

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See detailIntermittent peripheral weakness as the presenting feature of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.
DEBRAY, François-Guillaume ULg; Lambert, Marie; Vanasse, Michel et al

in European journal of pediatrics (2006), 165(7), 462-466

Two unrelated children presenting with episodic isolated peripheral weakness were found to have pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency (OMIM 312170) due to previously undescribed mutations (Pro250Thr ... [more ▼]

Two unrelated children presenting with episodic isolated peripheral weakness were found to have pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency (OMIM 312170) due to previously undescribed mutations (Pro250Thr, Arg88Cys) in the gene for the E1alpha subunit (PDHA1). Taken in context with the literature, these patients suggest that acute weakness initially resembling Guillain-Barre syndrome is a potentially reversible and probably underdiagnosed manifestation of PDH deficiency and that peripheral nerve function should be evaluated in PDH-deficient patients. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent positive pressure ventilation with either positive end-expiratory pressure or high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV), or HFJV alone in human acute respiratory failure.
Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Rouby, J. J.; Viars, P.

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (1986), 65(11), 1135-42

Continuous Positive Pressure Ventilation (CPPV), High-Frequency Jet Ventilation (HFJV), and a combination of HFJV with Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (CV) were randomly compared in 13 ... [more ▼]

Continuous Positive Pressure Ventilation (CPPV), High-Frequency Jet Ventilation (HFJV), and a combination of HFJV with Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (CV) were randomly compared in 13 critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Ventilatory settings were chosen in order to apply the same mean airway pressure (Paw) during the three modes. Respiratory frequencies were adjusted during CPPV (16 +/- 2 breaths/min) and HFJV (235 +/- 32 breaths/min) to achieve the same level of PaCO2 and were then combined during CV. All patients were heavily sedated during the study and had had peripheral and balloon-tipped pulmonary arterial catheters previously inserted. After a steady state at FIO2 1 in each mode of ventilation, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were measured. A Paw of 13.8 +/- 2.9 mm Hg was applied to each patient by using a PEEP of 7.4 mm Hg during CPPV; a driving pressure of 2.9 +/- 0.2 bars and an I/E ratio of 0.43 during HFJV; and by combining HFJV, using a driving pressure of 1.2 +/- 0.3 bars with intermittent positive pressure ventilation during CV. There were no significant differences in any of the hemodynamic or respiratory parameters measured, except for a significant decrease in PaCO2 during CV when compared to CPPV or HFJV. We concluded that 1) arterial oxygenation and cardiac output depend mainly on Paw independent of the method used to increase Paw and 2) CV can improve CO2 elimination without increasing Paw.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent thermal manipulations of broiler embryos during late incubation and their immediate and long-lasting effects
Willemsen, Hilke; Li, Yue; Witters, Anouck et al

Conference (2010)

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