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See detailIntermittent Versus Continuous Total Androgen Blockade in the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Hormone-Naive Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Randomized Multicenter Trial
De Leval, Jean ULg; Boca, Philippe; Yousef, Enis et al

in Clinical Prostate Cancer (2002), 1(3), 163-71

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of total intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus total continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer in ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of total intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus total continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer in a phase III randomized trial. A total of 68 evaluable patients with hormone-naive advanced or relapsing prostate cancer were randomized to receive combined androgen blockade according to a continuous (n = 33) or intermittent (n = 35) regimen. Therapeutic monitoring was assessed by use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements. Patients in the CAD and IAD groups were equally stratified for age, biopsy Gleason score, and baseline serum PSA levels. The outcome variable was time to androgen-independence of the tumor, which was defined as increasing serum PSA levels despite androgen blockade. Mean follow-up was 30.8 months. The 35 IAD-treated patients completed 91 cycles, and 19 of them (54.3%) completed > or = 3 cycles. Median cycle length and percentage of time off therapy were 9.0 months and 59.5, respectively. The estimated 3-year progression rate was significantly lower in the IAD group (7.0% +/- 4.8%) than in the CAD group (38.9% +/- 11.2%, P = 0.0052). Our data suggest that IAD treatment may maintain the androgen-dependent state of advanced human prostate cancer, as assessed by PSA measurements, at least as long as CAD treatment. Further studies with longer follow-up times and larger patient cohorts are needed to determine the comparative impacts of CAD and IAD on survival. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermodal network design for freight transportation in Belgium - location of rail/road and road/inland waterway terminals
Mostert, Martine ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2013, February 07)

In the recent years, growing concerns about environmental, societal and economic issues have emerged in the society. The improvement and the expansion of the multimodal network is one way of solving those ... [more ▼]

In the recent years, growing concerns about environmental, societal and economic issues have emerged in the society. The improvement and the expansion of the multimodal network is one way of solving those kinds of problems. The objective of this work is therefore the integration of inland waterway, rail and road transport into the linear modeling of intermodal terminal location problems, based on transportation costs functions which are nonlinear with the distance traveled. The model should also take into account the capacity constraints linked to the different modes of transport. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermodal transport and logistical organization of enterprises: added values and bottlenecks
Marchal, Jean ULg

in 1° Forum do Planejamento de Transportes do Amazonas (2009, March)

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See detailIntermodal transportation network design for the hinterland of the hinterland of the Port of Cotonou
Lihoussou, Messan ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in Cornelis, Eric (Ed.) Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET Transport Research Day 2011 (2011, May 25)

Since 2006, the Millennium Challenge Account program subsidizes a project to improve the performance of the Port of Cotonou, through modernization of infrastructure and management systems, and ... [more ▼]

Since 2006, the Millennium Challenge Account program subsidizes a project to improve the performance of the Port of Cotonou, through modernization of infrastructure and management systems, and strengthening institutional reforms. But the project mainly concerns the port, not the development of its hinterland. However, no port can develop without its links with its hinterland. That’s why after a development on port choice, on port performance criteria, and on competitive position of the Port of Cotonou compared to neighbouring ports, we analyze the issues relating to the hinterland transport network. Thus, rail and road transportation networks will be examined. Also, we will investigate inland terminals in order to build up intermodal transportation which indeed is almost non-operational. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermodal transportation network design under uncertainty: case of the hinterland of the Port of Cotonou
Lihoussou, Messan ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Scientific conference (2012, May 21)

Since 2006, the Millennium Challenge Account program subsidizes a project to improve the performance of the Port of Cotonou, through modernization of infrastructure and management systems, and ... [more ▼]

Since 2006, the Millennium Challenge Account program subsidizes a project to improve the performance of the Port of Cotonou, through modernization of infrastructure and management systems, and strengthening institutional reforms. But the project mainly concerns the port, not the development of its hinterland. However, no port can develop without its links with its hinterland. That’s why we analyse the issues relating to the hinterland transport network. Thus, rail and road transportation networks will be examined. Also, we will investigate inland terminals in order to build up intermodal transportation which is almost non-operational. But in the case of freight transportation from and to the hinterland of the port of Cotonou, two uncertainties occurred. So, we have to deal with the variability of the traffic and the road capacity. Indeed, the road capacity is restricted by the level of the torrential rains in worst period, as some arcs of the road are damaged. As a first step, the objective of this paper is to determine the optimal number and locations of the terminals so that the total costs of the distribution network are minimized. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermolecular interactions in poly(vinylidene fluoride) and ε-caprolactam mixtures
Liu, Zehui; Maréchal, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1996), 37(23), 5317-5320

Mixtures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and caprolactam (CPL) have been investigated as models for possible cross-interactions between vinylidene fluoride and amide structural units, that might ... [more ▼]

Mixtures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and caprolactam (CPL) have been investigated as models for possible cross-interactions between vinylidene fluoride and amide structural units, that might account for the very fine phase morphology previously observed in PVDF/polyamide 6 blends. Over the entire composition range, the PVDF/CPL mixtures are monophase above the PVDF melting temperature. From the depression of the PVDF melting point, a negative interaction energy density, B, has been calculated that, however, depends on both temperature and CPL concentration. Mutual solubility of PVDF and CPL and negative B values are consistent with specific intermolecular interactions whose nature is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal anatomy of catfishes.
Kapoor, B. G.; Khana, B.; Diogo, Rui et al

in Kapoor, B. G.; Arratia, G.; Diogo, Rui (Eds.) et al Catfishes (2003)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 ULg)
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See detailInternal and International migration. Chinese Perspectives.
Florence, Eric ULg

in Revue Bibliographique de Sinologie = Review of Bibliography in Sinology (2000), Vol. XVII

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See detailInternal Capital Market Efficiency of Belgian Holding Companies
Gautier, Axel ULg; Hamadi, Malika

in Finance (2005), 26(2), 11-34

In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To answer the second question, we evaluate if internal transfers are driven by efficiency. From our estimations, we cannot conclude that Belgian Holding companies have an efficient internal capital market. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal control of the magnetospheric processes at Jupiter and Saturn
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Krupp, N.; Woch, J. et al

Conference (2006)

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See detailInternal dynamics from asteroseismology for two sdB pulsators in close binary systems
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

in Communications in Asteroseismology (2008, December), 157

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our astero- seismic diagnostic ... [more ▼]

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our astero- seismic diagnostic tools in order to incorporate the effects of stellar rotation on pulsations, assuming various internal rotation laws. It is possible, with these new tools, to determine the internal rotation profile of two short-period pulsating sdB stars residing in close binary systems, namely Feige 48 and PG 1336 -018. They exhibit orbital periods of 9.024 h and 2.424 h respectively, as measured from spectroscopy. For the two stars, we show that spin-orbit synchronism is reached from the surface down to ˜ 0.22 R∗ and 0.55 RxE2x88x97 , respectively. The rotation of deeper layers cannot be inferred with the type of modes p-modes observed in short-period pulsating sdB stars. These results can potentially provide new elements to test tidal friction theories, particularly the angular momentum transport, in close binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal dynamics from asteroseismology for two sdB pulsators residing in close binary systems
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

Conference (2008, June)

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our asteroseismic diagnostic ... [more ▼]

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our asteroseismic diagnostic tools in order to incorporate the effects of stellar rotation on pulsations, assuming various internal rotation laws. It was possible, with these new tools, to determine the internal rotation profile of two short-period pulsating sdB stars residing in close binary systems, namely Feige 48 and PG 1336−018. They exhibit orbital periods of, respectively, 9.024 h and 2.424 h measured from spectroscopy. For the two stars, we show that spin-orbit synchronism is reached from the surface down to ∼ 0.22 R∗ and 0.55 R∗, respectively. The rotation of deeper layers cannot be inferred with the type of modes observed in short-period pulsating sdB stars. These results could also provide new elements to test tidal friction theories, particularly the angular momentum transport, in close binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal encoding style and schizotypy: towards a conceptually-driven account of positive symptoms
Belayachi, Sanaa ULg; Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of Personality Disorders (in press)

Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven ... [more ▼]

Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven and conceptually-driven processing. A chronic imbalance between these two sources of stimulus encoding is likely to be maladaptive and could underlie cognitive and behavioral disturbances similar to that observed in schizotypy, especially if the balance is tipped too far towards conceptually-driven processing (i.e., Internal encoding style). This study aimed to examine the relationships between encoding style and various dimensions of schizotypy, by using a questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which pre-existing schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes. Consistent with previous findings, our results revealed that both Cognitive-Perceptual and Disorganization dimensions were related to an internal mode of encoding, suggesting that individuals with these features may be characterized by a disposition to biases at early stages of encoding. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy and fragmentation of ions produced in electrospray sources
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Mass Spectrometry Reviews (2005), 24(4), 566-587

This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of ... [more ▼]

This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of the analyte internal energy is crucial for several applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, like structural studies, construction of reproducible and exportable spectral libraries, analysis of non-covalent complexes. Sections II and III summarize the Electrospray mechanisms and source design considerations which are relevant to the problem of internal energy, and Section IV gives an overview of the interrelationships between ion internal energy, reaction time scale, and analyte fragmentation. In these three sections we tried to make the most important theoretical elements understandable by all ESI users, and their understanding requires a minimal background in physical chemistry. We then present the different approaches used to experimentally determine the ion internal energy, as well as various attempts in modeling the internal energy uptake in electrospray sources. Finally, a tentative comparison between electrospray and other ionization sources is made. As the reader will see, although many reports appeared on the subject, the knowledge in the field of internal energy of ions produced by soft ionization sources is still scarce, because of the complexity of the system, and this is what makes this area of research so interesting. The last section presents some perspectives for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy build-up in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Schulz, Eric; Karas, Michael

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2004), 39(6), 579-593

This paper reports detailed studies on the internal energy of ions formed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) using delayed extraction MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) and atmospheric ... [more ▼]

This paper reports detailed studies on the internal energy of ions formed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) using delayed extraction MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) and atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI mass spectrometric (MS) methods. We use benzylpyridinium cations as internal energy probes. Our study reveals three distinct contributions to internal energy build-up in vacuum-MALDI (classical MALDI-TOF), each having different effects on ion fragmentation. Some fragments are formed before ion extraction (i.e. no more than 100 ns after the laser impact), and they are therefore well resolved and recorded as sharp signals in the MALDI-TOFMS scan. This prompt fragmentation can have two origins: (i) in-plume thermal activation, presumably always present, and (ii) in-plume chemical activation, in the course of reactions with hydrogen radicals. In addition to early internal energy build-up associated with these well-resolved promptly formed fragments, a broad peak slightly offset to higher masses could be detected corresponding to fragments formed after the extraction has started. This second signal corresponds to a third source of internal energy in MALDI ions, (iii) the extraction-induced collisional activation of the ions with the neutral components of the plume. These three contributions are difficult to quantify in vacuum-MALDI, because of the combined influence of several parameters (nature of the matrix, spot-to-spot variability, total laser exposure, delay time, acceleration voltage) on extraction-induced fragmentation. AP-MALDI, on the other hand, has two advantages for comparative studies of analyte fragmentation. First, extraction-induced fragmentation is absent, and only the contributions of early plume activation remain. Second, the reproducibility is far better than in vacuum-MALDI. AP-MALDI is therefore expected to shed new light on the early steps of the MALDI process. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy content of ions in a travelling wave ion guide
Morsa, Denis ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2010)

Travelling wave ion guides (TWIGs) separate of ions according to their mobility and, at constant charge, according to their shape. The ion mobility separation itself should not modify the shape of the ... [more ▼]

Travelling wave ion guides (TWIGs) separate of ions according to their mobility and, at constant charge, according to their shape. The ion mobility separation itself should not modify the shape of the systems investigated. It was recently suggested by Shvartsburg et al. that the higher fields used in TWIGs than in traditional drift tubes would cause significant heating of the ions. We present a quantitative analysis of the amount of internal energy imparted to ions as they are separated in TWIGs. Benzylpyridinium ions were chosen as “thermometer” ions. Based on arrival time distributions, the fragment ion population is separated as a function of the place of formation: before, in, or after the TWIG. Fragmentation all along the TWIG was observed. The roles of the travelling wave’s voltage, speed, and of the gas nature and pressure will be discussed in detail as well of the consequences on instruments performances. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)