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See detailImportance of fat oxidation in starch-based emulsions in the generation of the process contaminant furan.
Owczarek-Fendor, Agnieszka; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Scholl, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2010), 58(17), 9579-86

The formation of the possibly carcinogenic process contaminant furan was studied in starch-based emulsions during heat treatments as applied for sterilization. Fresh and oxidized soybean, sunflower, high ... [more ▼]

The formation of the possibly carcinogenic process contaminant furan was studied in starch-based emulsions during heat treatments as applied for sterilization. Fresh and oxidized soybean, sunflower, high-oleic sunflower, olive, linseed, and rapeseed oils were compared. Results indicated that both the oil type, in particular, the fatty acid composition, and the oxidation degree of the oil determined the susceptibility of the oils to generate furan upon heating. Thus, oils containing the nutritionally relevant omega-3 unsaturated alpha-linolenic acid proved to be able to generate significant amounts of furan if the oils were oxidized. No clear relationship between p-anisidine values of various oils and the amount of generated furan could be observed. However, in the case of soybean oil, significantly more furan was produced upon an increase in oxidation degree. Surprisingly, furan formation in food-relevant systems containing fresh lipids proved to be a minor route (up to 1.5 ppb furan) compared to a previously studied vitamin C containing model system (up to 13 ppb furan). [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of Heat Treating Procedure in the Study and the Characterization of Impurities in high alloyed Steels
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Tchuindjang

in Proceedings of The International COST-517 : Workshop on Cleaner Metals for Industrial Exploitation (1999)

This paper deals with the methodology used in a COST 517 research concerning study of inclusions in high alloyed steel for mechanical purpose. In order to establish in a quantitative and statistically ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the methodology used in a COST 517 research concerning study of inclusions in high alloyed steel for mechanical purpose. In order to establish in a quantitative and statistically justifiable way the relationship between impurities, inclusions and mechanical properties of high alloyed steels, we have to insure that the microstructure on the whole batch of specimens of the same origin is similar. This required appropriated heat treatments before achieving mechanical tests. Otherwise, metallurgical properties of the samples could vary, and the relationship between inclusions and mechanical properties misunderstood. Regardless of the melting or die atmosphere during the melting, inclusions are present in varying amounts in every commercial steel products. Since inclusions significantly influence properties and behavior of materials and at the same time give indications on the quality of the steel, it is quite interesting to precise their nature and their origin. This requires methods of identifying the inclusions and a knowledge of the history during steel making. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of identification and typing of Brucellae from West African cattle: a review
Sanogo, M; Abatih, E; Thys, E et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2013)

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See detailImportance of identifying Mycobacterium bovis as a causative agent of human tuberculosis
Allix-Béguec, C.; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Stoffels, K. et al

in European Respiratory Journal (2010), 35

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See detailImportance of inbterspecific variation for designing conservation strategies in Plants : Centaurea jacea as case study
Vanderhoeven, Sonia ULg; Lefebvre, C.; Hardy, Olivier et al

Poster (2001, December 02)

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See detailThe importance of integrating medication adherence into pharmacoeconomic analyses: the example of osteoporosis.
Hiligsmann, Mickaël ULg; Boonen, Annelies; Rabenda, Véronique ULg et al

in Expert Reviews of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research (2012), 12(2), 159-66

Adherence to medications is poor and suboptimal in many chronic diseases. Nonadherence can reduce treatment effectiveness and can have an impact on healthcare costs. As a consequence, it may alter the ... [more ▼]

Adherence to medications is poor and suboptimal in many chronic diseases. Nonadherence can reduce treatment effectiveness and can have an impact on healthcare costs. As a consequence, it may alter the cost-effectiveness of drug therapies. This article emphasizes the importance of integrating medication compliance and persistence into pharmacoeconomic evaluations, using osteoporosis as an example. A limited number of studies carried out to date have suggested important economic implications of poor adherence to osteoporosis medications. Therefore, compliance and persistence should be an integral part of clinical studies and pharmacoeconomic analyses in order to estimate the cost-effectiveness of drug therapies in current community practice. Measuring adherence and incorporating it into health economic modeling may, however, pose particular challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of intertidal sediment processes and porewater exchange on the water column biogeochemistry in a pristine mangrove creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania)
Bouillon, Steven; Middelburg, Jack J.; Dehairs, Frank et al

in Biogeosciences (2007), 4

We sampled a tidal creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania) during a 24-h cycle to document the variations in a suite of creek water column characteristics and to determine the relative influence of tidal and ... [more ▼]

We sampled a tidal creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania) during a 24-h cycle to document the variations in a suite of creek water column characteristics and to determine the relative influence of tidal and biological driving forces. Since the creek has no upstream freshwater inputs, highest salinity was observed at low tide, due to evaporation effects and porewater seepage. Total suspended matter (TSM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) showed distinct maxima at periods of highest water flow, indicating that erosion of surface sediments and/or resuspension of bottom sediments were an important source of particulate material. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), in contrast, varied in phase with water height and was highest at low tide. Stable isotope data of POC and DOC displayed large variations in both pools, and similarly followed the variations in water height. Although the variation of 13CDOC (−23.8 to −13.8‰) was higher than that of 13CPOC (−26.2 to −20.5‰), due to the different endmember pool sizes, the 13C signatures of both pools differed only slightly at low tide, but up to 9‰ at high tide. Thus, at low tide both DOC and POC originated from mangrove production. At high tide, however, the DOC pool had signatures consistent with a high contribution of seagrass-derived material, whereas the POC pool was dominated by marine phytoplankton. Daily variations in CH4, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were similarly governed by tidal influence and were up to 7- and 10-fold higher at low tide, which stresses the importance of exchange of porewater and diffusive fluxes to the water column. When assuming that the high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) levels in the upper parts of the creek (i.e. at low tide) are due to inputs from mineralization, 13C data on DIC indicate that the organic matter source for mineralization had a signature of −22.4‰. Hence, imported POC and DOC from the marine environment contributes strongly to overall mineralization within the mangrove system. Our data demonstrate how biogeochemical processes in the intertidal zone appear to be prominent drivers of element concentrations and isotope signatures in the water column, and how pathways of dissolved and particulate matter transport are fundamentally different. [less ▲]

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See detailthe importance of late neuronal migration in the neonatal and following periods
Battisti, Oreste ULg; NYAMUGABO MUNYERE NKANA, Kindja ULg; MAZOIN, Nathalie ULg

in Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Supplement (2012), 54

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See detailImportance of left ventricular longitudinal function and functional reserve in patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation: assessment by two-dimensional speckle tracking.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Cosyns, Bernard; Zacharakis, Dimitris et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography (2008), 21(12), 1331-6

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle tracking of longitudinal myocardial deformation can detect limited contractile reserve during exercise in patients with ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle tracking of longitudinal myocardial deformation can detect limited contractile reserve during exercise in patients with asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS: Seventy-one patients with degenerative MR and normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions underwent quantitative exercise echocardiography. RESULTS: Compared with 23 normal subjects matched for age and sex, LV volumes were greater in patients with MR. At rest, global longitudinal strain (GLS) was lower in patients, indicating subclinical LV dysfunction. During exercise, the extent and the magnitude of changes in GLS were larger in controls than in patients with MR. On multivariate regression analysis, left atrial volume at rest and changes in GLS at peak exercise were independently associated with changes in LV ejection fraction. CONCLUSION: In asymptomatic patients with degenerative MR, subnormal LV function can be reliably identified by two-dimensional strain imaging. Limited exercise LV longitudinal contractile recruitment during exercise predicts postoperative LV dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of light spectral composition for brain activity
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailThe importance of liposomes as models and tools in the understanding of photosensitization mechanisms
Hoebeke, Maryse ULg

in Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B : Biology (1995), 28(3), 189-196

The various applications of liposomes in understanding photosensitization are described in this paper, with particular emphasis on the various kinds of information that these models allow to obtain in ... [more ▼]

The various applications of liposomes in understanding photosensitization are described in this paper, with particular emphasis on the various kinds of information that these models allow to obtain in phototherapy. Liposomes are simple vesicles in which an aqueous phase is enclosed by a phospholipidic membrane. They are suitable models mimicking specific situations occurring <br />m vivo and they allow study of the influence of physieochemieal, photobioiogieal and biochemical factors on the uptake of photosensitizers by tissues, their mechanisms of action and the subsequent photoinduced tumor necrosis. Moreover, solubilization of the sensitizer into the bilayer seems to improve its tumoral selectivity and its photodynamic efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of LUC and ILUC on the carbon footprint of bioproduct: case of bio-HDPE
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Matériaux et Techniques (2014), 102(2),

Suite à la diminution des ressources fossiles et à l’augmentation des émissions des gaz à effet de serre, des solutions sont nécessaires pour remplacer les produits issus du pétrole. Cela a pour ... [more ▼]

Suite à la diminution des ressources fossiles et à l’augmentation des émissions des gaz à effet de serre, des solutions sont nécessaires pour remplacer les produits issus du pétrole. Cela a pour conséquence une constante augmentation du nombre de produits biobasés développés à partir de ressources agricoles. Cette étude évalue l’empreinte carbone du polyéthylène haute densité (PEHD) produit à partir de canne à sucre brésilienne ou de betterave belge. Le but de cette étude est de comparer l’empreinte carbone du bio-PEHD avec le PEHD fossile en considérant l’effet du changement d’affectation des sols. Les frontières communes des systèmes agricoles regroupent l’étape de culture de la canne à sucre et de la betterave, avec toutes les consommations associées d’énergie et d’engrais, le transport depuis le champ jusqu’à l’unité industrielle, la transformation des plantes sucrières en bioéthanol hydraté, la valorisation des sous-produits, la polymérisation et l’incinération du PEHD. Le scénario fossile comprend la production d’éthylène, sa polymérisation et l’incinération du PEHD. La comparaison du cycle de vie entier des PEHD biobasé et fossile montre des émissions de GES plus faibles avec le produit biobasé, ce qui est l’effet voulu. Ce résultat est uniquement valide s’il n’y pas de changement direct ou indirect d’affectation des sols. Pour évaluer l’impact environnemental de la déforestation ou de la transformation d’un pâturage en champ, les lignes directrices de l’Union Européenne ont été suivies afin de calculer les émissions de CO2 en fonction de divers paramètres. Pour la canne à sucre, le changement direct d’affectation des sols (LUC) est défini par la transformation de pâturages en champs dans la région de Sao Paulo au Brésil. Trois scénarios ont été développés, basés sur différentes pratiques agricoles pour les pâturages et les champs (labour et engrais) : le meilleur, le pire et le moyen. Le meilleur cas engendre un gain environnemental supplémentaire pour le produit biobasé. Le pire et le moyen amènent des émissions complémentaires. Un temps de retour, considérant le temps nécessaire pour récupérer à nouveau un gain environnemental comparativement au produit fossile, a été calculé pour le scenario moyen et s’élève à 12 ans. Le changement indirect d’affectation des sols pour la canne à sucre est modélisé comme étant la transformation d’une forêt en champ induite par les effets du changement direct décrit ci-avant. Le taux de déforestation peut varier entre 16 et 100%, dépendant des statistiques utilisées et entrainant un temps de retour de respectivement 26 et 101 ans. Pour la betterave, aucun changement direct n’est considéré. En effet, aucune expansion des terres agricoles ne peut être envisagée en Belgique au vu des faibles surfaces disponibles. Si une augmentation en termes de production de bioplastiques a lieu, la Belgique devra importer de la betterave provenant des pays voisins, ce qui peut induire un changement indirect d’affectation des sols. Dans cette étude, la betterave est supposée provenir des Pays-Bas. Celle-ci est cultivée sur des pâturages préalablement transformés en champs. Ce scénario moyen induit un temps de retour de 8 ans. Cette étude a mis en évidence l’importance du changement direct et indirect d’affectation des sols, spécialement pour les cultures énergétiques dédiées au remplacement des produits fossiles. Cet effet peut renverser les résultats attendus et engendrer de longs temps de retour. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of LUC and ILUC on the carbon footprint of bioproduct:case of bio-HDPE
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in International seminar on society and materials (2013)

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, solutions are needed to replace petrol based products. As a consequence, the number of biobased products developed using ... [more ▼]

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, solutions are needed to replace petrol based products. As a consequence, the number of biobased products developed using agricultural feedstock is continuously increasing. This study focuses on the carbon footprint of bio-HDPE produced either from Brazilian sugar cane or Belgian sugar beet. The goal of this study is to compare the carbon footprint of bio-HDPE with the fossil one, taking into account the effect of land use change. Common boundaries of the agricultural systems comprise the cultivation step for both crops, i.e. sugar cane and sugar beet, with all associated energy and fertilizer consumptions, the transportation step from field to the industrial plant, the sugar crops transformation into hydrate bioethanol, the by-products valorisation, the dehydration and polymerization steps and the HDPE incineration as end of life issue. Fossil scenario includes the production of ethylene, its polymerization and its incineration. When comparing the entire life cycle of bio and fossil HDPE, the GHG emissions are lower for the biobased product which is the willing effect. This result is only valid if no Land Use Change (LUC) or Indirect Land Use Change (ILUC) effect appears. To assess the environmental impact of the deforestation or of the transformation of a pasture into a field, the EC-Guidelines from the European Union were used in order to calculate the CO2 emissions depending on several parameters. For sugar cane, LUC consists in the transformation of pastures into fields in the region of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Three scenarios can be developed based on different agricultural practices for pasture and field (tillage and fertilizers inputs): the best, the worst and the average. The best case leads to a supplementary environmental gain. The worst and average achieve additional emissions. A payback time, considering the time needed to find again an environmental gain compared to the fossil counterpart, was calculated for the average scenario which is equal to 12 years. The ILUC effect for sugar cane is assumed to be deforestation due to the transformation of forest into pasture induced by the previous LUC effect. The rate of deforestation can vary between 16% or 100% depending on used statistics and leads to a payback time of respectively 26 and 101 years. For sugar beet, no LUC is considered. Indeed, no land expansion is available in Belgium due to small available areas. In the case of an increase of bioplastics production, Belgium should import sugar beet from neighboring countries which can induce ILUC. In this study, sugar beet is assumed to be provided by the Netherlands on pastures previously transformed into fields. The average scenario implies a payback time of 8 years. This study permits to highlight the importance of LUC and ILUC especially for energetic crops dedicated to replace fossil products. This effect can reverse expected results and induce long payback times. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of modal cross-correlations on wind loaded structures
Denoël, Vincent ULg; Degée, Hervé ULg; De Ville De Goyet, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management (2006)

In civil engineering applications the dynamic analysis of large structure is often performed in a modal space. This method is known to offer an interesting decrease of the number of degrees of freedom as ... [more ▼]

In civil engineering applications the dynamic analysis of large structure is often performed in a modal space. This method is known to offer an interesting decrease of the number of degrees of freedom as well as a decomposition of the structure’s response in “uncoupled” components. Even if the response in each mode can be computed independently from the responses in the other ones, in the context of stochastic loading, the coherence of these modal responses must be accounted for in the determination of the structural response. These quantities are known as the modal cross-correlations. In this paper we will show that these crosscorrelations can be important (contrarily to what is sometimes thought) even in case of wellseparated natural frequencies. This will be illustrated on the analysis of the famous Viaduct of Millau during an erection stage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of new chemical sources for the hot oxygen geocorona
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Richards, P. G.; Shematovich, V. I. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1995), 22

Exothermic reactions involving metastable neutrals and ions were recently proposed as sources of hot oxygen atoms in addition to the classical O2(+) and NO(+) dissociative recombination. The Boltzmann ... [more ▼]

Exothermic reactions involving metastable neutrals and ions were recently proposed as sources of hot oxygen atoms in addition to the classical O2(+) and NO(+) dissociative recombination. The Boltzmann equations for thermal and nonthermal populations of O atoms are solved with Monte Carlo stochastic simulation method. It is shown that the calculated energy distribution functions of O atoms are significantly in nonequilibrium in the transition region between the thermosphere and the exosphere. It is found that the inclusion of additional sources leads to stronger disturbances of the energy distribution function and, as a consequence, increases the nonthermal fraction of hot O atoms. The variation of the vertical distribution of hot O between solar maximum and minimum conditions is also evaluated and shows good agreement with the available experimental evidence. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of pedogenic factors in the spatial distribution of some soil properties in the Belgian loess belt: some loess-substratum contacts.
Colinet, Gilles ULg; Lacroix, Daniel; Bock, Laurent ULg

in Degryse, Patrick; Sintubin, Manuel (Eds.) Contributions to the Geology of Belgium and Northwest Europe. Proceedings of the first Geologica Belgica International Meeting (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 ULg)