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See detailFire damage assessment
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Danay, A. (Ed.) Proc. First Forensic Engng Seminar on Structural Failure (1999)

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See detailFire Design of Steel Structures : Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-2: Actions on structures exposed to fire: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 1-2: Structural fire design
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Vila Real, Paulo

Book published by Ernst & Sohn (2010)

This book explains and illustrates the rules that are given in the Eurocodes for designing steel structures subjected to fire. After the first introductory chapter, Chapter 2 explains how to calculate the ... [more ▼]

This book explains and illustrates the rules that are given in the Eurocodes for designing steel structures subjected to fire. After the first introductory chapter, Chapter 2 explains how to calculate the mechanical actions (loads) in the fire situation based on the information given in EN 1990 and EN 1991. Chapter 3 presents the models to be used to represent the thermal actions created by the fire. Chapter 4 describes the procedures to be used to calculate the temperature of the steelwork from the temperature of the compartment and Chapter 5 shows how the information given in EN 1993-1-2 is used to determine the load bearing capacity of the steel structure. The methods use to evaluate the fire resistance of bolted and welded connections are described in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 describes a computer program called ‘Elefire-EN’ which is based on the simple calculation model given in the Eurocode and allows designers to quickly and accurately calculate the performance of steel components in the fire situation. Chapter 9 looks at the issues that a designer may be faced with when assessing the fire resistance of a complete building. This is done via a case study and addresses most of the concepts presented in the earlier Chapters. Finally the annexes give basic information on the thermal and mechanical properties for both carbon steel and stainless steel. The concepts and fire engineering procedures given in the Eurocodes may seem complex to those more familiar with the prescriptive approach. This publication sets out the design process in a logical manner giving practical and helpful advice and easy to follow worked examples that will allow designers to exploit the benefits of this new approach to fire design. [less ▲]

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See detailFire design of steel structures EC3
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the International Seminar on Fire Safety of Steel Structures (2003, September)

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See detailFire Design of Steel Structures Second edition : Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. Part 1-2: Actions on structures exposed to fire: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 1-2: Structural fire design
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Vila Real, Paulo

Book published by Wiley (2015)

The first edition of Fire Design of Steel Structures was published by ECCS as paperback in 2010. Since 2012, this publication is also available in electronic format as an e-book. Nevertheless, the ... [more ▼]

The first edition of Fire Design of Steel Structures was published by ECCS as paperback in 2010. Since 2012, this publication is also available in electronic format as an e-book. Nevertheless, the interest for this publication was so high that it appeared rapidly that the paper copies would be sold out within a short time and a second edition would have to be printed. The authors took the opportunity of this second edition to review their own manuscript. The standards that are described and commented in this book, namely EN 1991-1-2 and 1993-1-2, are still in application in the same versions as those that prevailed at the time of writing the first edition. It was nevertheless considered that an added value would be given by, first, rephrasing some sentences or sections that had generated questions by some readers but, above all, adding some new material for the benefit of completeness. The new material namely comprises:  A section dealing with the thermal response of steel members under several separate simultaneous localised fires, including one worked example with multiple fire scenarios in a car park (Chapter 4);  An important section on classification of cross-sections. The case of combined bending and axial force, including one worked example comparing different methodologies to obtain the position of the neutral axis, has been added (Chapter 5);  A worked example of a beam-column with Class 4 cross-section (Chapter 5);  A new section with comparisons between the simple and the advanced calculation models in Chapter 6 (shadow factor – including one example, buckling curves and adaptation factors κ1 and κ2);  New references have been included. [less ▲]

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See detailFire Design Study Case of a High-Rise Steel Storage Building
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Zaharia, Raoul

in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Steel Structures (2002)

This paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rach supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The structural analysis was ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rach supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The structural analysis was carried out by means of the advanced numerical program SAFIR, an FEM software specialised for the thermal and mechanical analysis of structures submitted to the fire. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (3 ULg)
See detailFire design study case of a high-rise steel storage building
Zaharia, Raoul; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures (2002)

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See detailFire Fragility Curves for Steel Buildings in a Community Context: A Methodology
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Engineering Structures (2016), 113

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to characterize the probabilistic vulnerability of steel buildings to fire in the context of community resilience assessment. In developing the fragility functions, uncertainties in the fire model, the heat transfer model and the thermo-mechanical response are considered. In addition several fire scenarios at different locations in the building are studied. Monte Carlo Simulations and Latin Hypercube Sampling are used to generate the probability distributions of demand placed on the members and structural capacity relative to selected damage thresholds. By assessing demand and capacity in the temperature domain, the thermal and the structural problems can be treated separately to improve the efficiency of the probabilistic analysis. After the probability distributions are obtained for demand and capacity, the fragility functions can be obtained by convolution of the distributions. Finally, event tree analysis is used to combine the functions associated with fire scenarios in different building locations. The developed fire fragility functions yield the probability of exceedance of predefined damage states as a function of the fire load in the building. The methodology is illustrated on an example consisting in a prototype nine-story steel building based on the SAC project. [less ▲]

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See detailFire fragility functions for community resilience assessment
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Garlock, Maria

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 10)

This work provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community to fire following earthquake. As part of the framework, the paper discusses two methodologies: (1) how to develop fire ... [more ▼]

This work provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community to fire following earthquake. As part of the framework, the paper discusses two methodologies: (1) how to develop fire fragility functions; (2) how the fire fragility functions can be used in conjunction with an original fire ignition model to estimate the potential losses in a community from fire following earthquake. The paper focuses in particular on the development of fire fragility functions for an entire building to measure the probability of reaching a damage state given a fire scenario. Next, the paper proposes an ignition model to evaluate the probability of fire ignition after an earthquake. The ignition model together with fragility functions measure the probability of damage from fire following earthquake given an earthquake scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailFire Modelling
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in COST C12, Improvement of Buildings' Structural Quality by New Technologies, Outcome of the Cooperative Activities (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg)
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See detailFire Models for Safety Concept of Steel Structures - I modelli di incendio per la valutazione della sicurezza di strutture in acciaio
Pustorino, Sandro; Schleich, Jean-Baptiste; Cadorin, Jean-François et al

in Proc. XVII Congresso C.T.A., Costruire in acciaio: Strutture e architettura (1999, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
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See detailFire Performance of Columns made of Normal and High Strength Concrete: A Comparative Analysis
Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Key Engineering Materials (2016), 711

The use of high strength concrete (HSC) in multi-story buildings has become increasingly popular. Selection of HSC over normal strength concrete (NSC) allows for reducing the dimensions of the columns ... [more ▼]

The use of high strength concrete (HSC) in multi-story buildings has become increasingly popular. Selection of HSC over normal strength concrete (NSC) allows for reducing the dimensions of the columns sections. However, this reduction has consequences on the structural performance in case of fire, as smaller cross sections lead to faster temperature increase in the section core. Besides, HSC experiences higher rates of strength loss with temperature and a higher susceptibility to spalling than NSC. The fire performance of a column can thus be affected by selecting HSC over NSC. This research performs a comparison of the fire performance of HSC and NSC columns, based on numerical simulations by finite element method. The thermal and structural analyses of the columns are conducted with the software SAFIR®. The variation of concrete strength with temperature for the different concrete classes is adopted from Eurocode. Different configurations are compared, including columns with the same load bearing capacity and columns with the same cross section. The relative loss of load bearing capacity during the fire is found to be more pronounced for HSC columns than for NSC columns. The impact on fire resistance rating is discussed. These results suggest that consideration of fire loading limits the opportunities for use of HSC, especially when the objective is to reduce the dimensions of the columns sections. [less ▲]

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See detailFire Performance of High-Performance Construction Materials
Cooper, L. Y.; Dexter, R. J.; Gilvary, Keneth et al

in Hasemi (Ed.) Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Fire Safety Science (1997)

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See detailFire Performance of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes
Alderighi, Elisabetta; Bursi, Oreste; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

Conference (2008, October)

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase ... [more ▼]

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase the risk of loss of life if a fire occurs within a building. It is obvious therefore that a fire after an earthquake is a design scenario that should be properly addressed in any performance-based design, in locations where significant earthquakes can occur. In this paper both experimental and numerical results of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes are described as part of a European project aimed at developing fundamental data, design guidelines and prequalification of ductile and fire resistant composite beam-to-column joints. In detail, both the experimental program and the fire experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper together with thermal numerical simulations on frames and joints. Both the experimental activity and the numerical work demonstrated the adequacy of the seismic and joint fire design. [less ▲]

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See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia S.; Johnston, Danielle B.

in Biological Invasions (2013), 15(5), 1113-1123

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2,274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

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See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia; Johnston, Danielle

Poster (2012)

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of a steel structure subjected to a localised fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; alonso, Alain

Report (2009)

The fire resistance of a light weight steel structure is analised under a localised fire.

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See detailFire resistance of circular concrete columns
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisschops, P.-F.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Concrete under Sever Conditions (CONSEC'01) (2001)

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See detailFire resistance of columns in steel frames
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (1992), 19(2 - 3), 159-175

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and ... [more ▼]

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and international documents apply to some restricted particular cases of single elements (beams, columns). In most practical circumstances beams and columns are subjected to a combination of axial forces and bending moments and have variable restraint and displacement conditions at their ends. The problem is particularly complicated for columns. For this type of situation advanced computer programs can at the present time provide a satisfactory method for the determination of the fire resistance. This paper illustrates the preceding comments by evaluating the fire endurance of an unbraced steel frame with two loading conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailFire resistance of concrete slabs acting in compressive membrane action
Molkens, Tom; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Caspeele, Robby

in Nigro, Emidio; Bilotta, Antonio (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Fire Safety Symposium - IFireSS 2017 (2017, June 08)

In building renovation, the real behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs cannot always be explained by the bending theory according to classical structural mechanics. Indeed, the bearing capacity, as ... [more ▼]

In building renovation, the real behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs cannot always be explained by the bending theory according to classical structural mechanics. Indeed, the bearing capacity, as assessed for instance by a loading test, sometimes appears to be much higher than what would be expected. This phenomenon may be caused by the activation of an arch-effect or so-called compressive membrane action (CMA) which can develop even with small vertical deformations. For a slab which is completely restrained, the presence of reinforcement becomes of lesser importance when this phenomenon is activated (except for end fields). Hence, for fire resistance purposes, it can be discussed whether reinforcement and concrete cover has a smaller influence on the bearing capacity for slabs subjected to fire which exhibit a significant concrete compressive membrane behaviour. This paper presents a loading test performed on a real concrete building which highlighted the development of CMA as the load bearing mode. It then proposes a strategy to evaluate the behaviour resulting from the development of CMA in reinforced concrete slabs at ambient and at elevated temperature based on numerical modelling. The numerical analyses are performed with the finite element software SAFIR® using a strip of layered shell elements. A plastic-damage constitutive model with an explicit transient creep formulation is used to capture the concrete behaviour at elevated temperature. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)