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See detailGenetic parameters of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids estimated by test-day model in Walloon dairy cattle
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Bastin, Catherine ULg; Dardenne, Pierre et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2008, July 07)

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See detailGenetic parameters of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase 9 activity estimated by test-day model
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg

Conference (2008, July)

Dairy and beef products account for a large part of fat intake in human nutrition and therefore can be linked to dietary diseases. The stearoyl Coenzyme-A desaturase 9 (delta-9) gene was identified as a ... [more ▼]

Dairy and beef products account for a large part of fat intake in human nutrition and therefore can be linked to dietary diseases. The stearoyl Coenzyme-A desaturase 9 (delta-9) gene was identified as a potential functional candidate gene affecting milk fat composition in dairy cattle. The objective of this research was to estimate the genetic parameters of delta-9 activity indicator traits and to study the relationship between delta-9 activity as described by these indicator traits and common milk production traits. A total of 126,331 test-day records were obtained from 14,259 Holstein (> 84% Holstein gene) heifers belonging to 105 herds. The studied traits were milk yield, percentages of fat and protein, content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and 3 ratios reflecting the delta-9 activity (C14:1/ C14:0; C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18). The used model was a multiple-trait random regressions test-day model and included as fixed effects: herd x date of test, class of age, and month x year. Random effects were herd x year of calving, permanent environmental, additive genetic, and residual effects. The fatty acid contents were estimated by mid-infrared spectrometry. Delta-9 activity varied within year and lactation. The obtained heritability estimates of delta-9 as well as the genetic and phenotypic correlation varied also through lactation. This study suggests potential improvements of delta-9 activity and subsequently milk fat composition can be achieved by animal management but also by breeding and animal selection. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters of stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase 9 activity estimated by test-day model
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg

in Journal of Dairy Science (2008, July), 91(E-Suppl. 2), 542

Dairy and beef products account for a large part of fat intake in human nutrition and therefore can be linked to dietary diseases. The stearoyl Coenzyme-A desaturase 9 (delta-9) gene was identified as a ... [more ▼]

Dairy and beef products account for a large part of fat intake in human nutrition and therefore can be linked to dietary diseases. The stearoyl Coenzyme-A desaturase 9 (delta-9) gene was identified as a potential functional candidate gene affecting milk fat composition in dairy cattle. The objective of this research was to estimate the genetic parameters of delta-9 activity indicator traits and to study the relationship between delta-9 activity as described by these indicator traits and common milk production traits. A total of 126,331 test-day records were obtained from 14,259 Holstein (> 84% Holstein gene) heifers belonging to 105 herds. The studied traits were milk yield, percentages of fat and protein, content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and 3 ratios reflecting the delta-9 activity (C14:1/ C14:0; C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18). The used model was a multiple-trait random regressions test-day model and included as fixed effects: herd x date of test, class of age, and month x year. Random effects were herd x year of calving, permanent environmental, additive genetic, and residual effects. The fatty acid contents were estimated by mid-infrared spectrometry. Delta-9 activity varied within year and lactation. The obtained heritability estimates of delta-9 as well as the genetic and phenotypic correlation varied also through lactation. This study suggests potential improvements of delta-9 activity and subsequently milk fat composition can be achieved by animal management but also by breeding and animal selection. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters of the major fatty acid (FA) contents in cow milk
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Gillon, Alain ULg; Vanderick, Sylvie ULg et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 58th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (2007)

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See detailGenetic pattern of the recent recovery of European otters in southern France
Janssens, Xavier; Fontaine, Michael C; Michaux, Johan ULg et al

in Ecography (2008), 31(2), 176-186

We investigated how landscape affects the population genetic structure and the dispersal of the elusive European otter Lutra lutra in a contemporary colonization context, over several generations and at ... [more ▼]

We investigated how landscape affects the population genetic structure and the dispersal of the elusive European otter Lutra lutra in a contemporary colonization context, over several generations and at the level of hydrographic basins. Our study area included 10 basins located in the Cevennes National Park (CNP), at the southern front of the natural otter recovery in France. Each basin comprised 50 to 300 km of permanent rivers that were surveyed for otter presence from 1991 to 2005. Faecal samples collected in 2004 and 2005 in this area were genotyped at 9 microsatellite loci, resulting in the identification of 70 genetically distinct individuals. Bayesian clustering methods were used to infer genetic structure of the populations and to compare recent gene flow to the observed colonization. At the regional level, we identified 2 distinct genetic clusters (NE and SW; FST=0.102) partially separated by ridges, suggesting that the CNP was recolonized by 2 genetically distinct otter populations. At the basin level, the genetic distance between groups of individuals in different basins was positively correlated to the mean slope separating these basins. The probable origins and directions of individual movements (i.e. migration between clusters and basin colonization inside clusters) were inferred from assignment tests. This approach shows that steep and dry lands can stop, impede or divert the dispersal of a mobile carnivore such as the otter. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic polymorphism in ethanol metabolism: acetaldehyde contribution to alcohol abuse and alcoholism
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Molecular Psychiatry (2004), 9(6), 570-581

Acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, has been speculated to be involved in many pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol. In particular, acetaldehyde has been suggested to ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, has been speculated to be involved in many pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol. In particular, acetaldehyde has been suggested to contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In the present paper, we review current data on the role of acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in alcohol consumption and abuse. Ethanol metabolism involves several enzymes. Whereas alcohol dehydrogenase metabolizes the bulk of ethanol within the liver, other enzymes, such as cytochrome P4502E1 and catalase, also contributes to the production of acetaldehyde from ethanol oxidation. In turn, acetaldehyde is metabolized by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. In animal studies, acetaldehyde is mainly reinforcing particularly when injected directly into the brain. In humans, genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are also associated with alcohol drinking habits and the incidence of alcohol abuse. From these human genetic studies, it has been concluded that blood acetaldehyde accumulation induces unpleasant effects that prevent further alcohol drinking. It is therefore speculated that acetaldehyde exerts opposite hedonic effects depending on the localization of its accumulation. In the periphery, acetaldehyde is primarily aversive, whereas brain acetaldehyde is mainly reinforcing. However, the peripheral effects of acetaldehyde might also be dependent upon its peak blood concentrations and its rate of accumulation, with a narrow range of blood acetaldehyde concentrations being reinforcing. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 and microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Hadjadj, Samy; Bouhanick, Béatrice et al

in Diabetologia (2000), 43(1), 137

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See detailGenetic polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 and microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Hadjadj, S.; Bouhanick, B. et al

Conference (2000)

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See detailGenetic polymorphisms of DAT1 and COMT differentially associate with actigraphy-derived sleep-wake cycles in young adults.
Valomon, Amandine; Holst, Sebastian C.; Bachmann, Valerie et al

in Chronobiology international (2014), 31(5), 705-14

Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine plays a key role in sleep-wake regulation. Cerebral dopamine levels are regulated primarily by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and by catechol-O ... [more ▼]

Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine plays a key role in sleep-wake regulation. Cerebral dopamine levels are regulated primarily by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum and by catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) in the prefrontal cortex. We hypothesized that the variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the gene encoding DAT (DAT1, SLC6A3; rs28363170) and the Val158Met polymorphism of COMT (rs4680) differently affect actigraphy-derived rest-activity cycles and sleep estimates in healthy adults (65 men; 45 women; age range: 19-35 years). Daytime sleepiness, continuous rest-actigraphy and sleep diary data during roughly 4-weeks were analyzed. Nine-repeat (9R) allele carriers of DAT1 (n = 48) more often reported elevated sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score >/=10) than 10-repeat (10R) allele homozygotes (n = 62, p < 0.02). Moreover, male 9R allele carriers showed higher wrist activity, whereas this difference was not present in women ("DAT1 genotype" x "gender" interaction: p < 0.005). Rest-activity patterns did not differ among COMT genotypes. Nevertheless, a significant "COMT genotype" x "type of day" (workdays vs. rest days) interaction for sleep duration was observed (p = 0.04). The Val/Val (n = 36) and Met/Met (n = 24) homozygotes habitually prolonged sleep on rest days compared to workdays by more than 30 min, while Val/Met heterozygotes (n = 50) did not significantly extend their sleep (mean difference: 7 min). Moreover, whereas the proportion of women among the genotype groups did not differ, COMT genotype affected body-mass-index (BMI), such that Val/Met individuals had lower BMI than the homozygous genotypes (p < 0.04). While awaiting independent replication and confirmation, our data support an association of genetically-determined differences in cerebral dopaminergic neurotransmission with daytime sleepiness and individual rest-activity profiles, as well as other sleep-associated health characteristics such as the regulation of BMI. The differential associations of DAT1 and COMT polymorphisms may reflect the distinct local expression of the encoded proteins in the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic predictors of asthma exacerbations among children in the childhood asthma management program
Celedon, J. C.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Lange, C. et al

in Conference Abstract Book (2005)

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See detailGenetic predisposition to breast cancer occurring in a male-to-female transsexual patient
Potorac, Iulia ULg; CORMAN, Vinciane ULg; Manto, Florence et al

Poster (2016, May)

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See detailGenetic regulation of hepatic steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities in inbred strains of mice.
Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Kolodzici, Claudine; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in Endocrinology (1984), 115

Steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities and properties were studied in C57Bl/6J, 129/J, AKR/R, DBA/2J, C3H/I, and BALB/c mouse liver using four different substrates. The highest enzymatic activities were ... [more ▼]

Steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities and properties were studied in C57Bl/6J, 129/J, AKR/R, DBA/2J, C3H/I, and BALB/c mouse liver using four different substrates. The highest enzymatic activities were measured in the female mice, with the exception of the 129/J females. As in the rat liver, the sexual differentiation of the steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylation observed in adult male and female mice took place at puberty. In the adult mouse liver, two steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities (forms I and II) could be differentiated on the basis of their relative affinities for the various steroid substrates and their relative proportions in male and female mouse livers. In the immature mouse liver, no sexual differences could be detected, and the mice of both sexes presented phenotypes identical to those of the adult female. The adult 129/J females appeared genetically deficient with respect to the form I of the steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase and presented a phenotype identical to that of the adult male mice of the various strains tested. Differences in hydroxylase activities between the C57Bl/6J and 129/J strains were investigated using standard genetic breeding protocols. Steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase seemed to be inherited additively in the liver of the female mice obtained by crossing the C57Bl/6J male and the 129/J female or the 129/J male and the C57Bl/6J female. In the male mice, regardless of genotype, the observed phenotype was always identical to the two male parental types. Both hormonal and genetic regulations were responsible for the different phenotypes occurring in adult male and female C57Bl/6J and 129/J mouse livers. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic regulation of hepatic steroid 16alpha-hydroxylase activities in inbred strains of mice.
Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Kolodzici, Claudine; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (1982, September)

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See detailGenetic regulation of immunoglobulin E level in different pathological states: integration of mouse and human genetics
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Kurey, Irina; Grekov, Igor et al

in Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (2014), 89(2), 375-405

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) first evolved in mammals. It plays an important role in defence against helminths and parasitic infection and in pathological states including allergic reactions, anti-tumour ... [more ▼]

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) first evolved in mammals. It plays an important role in defence against helminths and parasitic infection and in pathological states including allergic reactions, anti-tumour defence and autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of genetic control of IgE level could help us to understand regulation of the humoral immune response in health and disease, the etiology and pathogenesis of many human diseases, and to facilitate discovery of more effective methods for their prevention and cure. Herein we summarise progress in the genetics of regulation of IgE level in human diseases and show that integration of different approaches and use of animal models have synergistic effects in gaining new knowledge about both protective and pathological roles of this important antibody. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.
Bastin, Catherine ULg; Loker, Sarah; Gengler, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2010), 93(5), 2215-28

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Quebec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent lactation were moderate and favorable, indicating that primiparous cows with a genetically high BCS over the lactation would have a greater chance of producing a calf that survived (maternal calf survival) and would transmit the genes that allowed the calf to be born more easily (maternal calving ease) and to survive (direct calving ease). [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Relationships between Bovine Herpesvirus 4 and the Gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpesvirus Saimiri
Bublot, M.; Lomonte, P.; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

in Virology (1992), 190(2), 654-65

The overall arrangement of genes in the unique central part of the bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) genome has been deduced by analysis of short DNA sequences. Twenty-three genes conserved in at least ... [more ▼]

The overall arrangement of genes in the unique central part of the bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) genome has been deduced by analysis of short DNA sequences. Twenty-three genes conserved in at least one of the completely sequenced herpesviruses have been identified and localized. All of these genes encoded amino acid sequences with higher similarity to proteins of the gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) than to the homologous products of the alphaherpesviruses varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 or the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus. The genome organization of BHV-4 had also an overall colinearity with that of the gammaherpesviruses EBV and HVS. Furthermore, the BHV-4 genes content and arrangement were more similar to those of HVS than to those of EBV, suggesting that BHV-4 and HVS are evolutionarily more closely related to each other than either are to EBV. BHV-4 DNA sequences were generally deficient in CpG dinucleotide. This CpG deficiency is characteristic of gammaherpesvirus genomes and suggests that the BHV-4 latent genome is extensively methylated. Despite several biological features similar to those of betaherpesviruses, BHV-4 displays the molecular characteristics of the representative members of the gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. [less ▲]

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