Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Design Study Case of a High-Rise Steel Storage Building
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Zaharia, Raoul

in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Steel Structures (2002)

This paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rach supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The structural analysis was ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rach supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The structural analysis was carried out by means of the advanced numerical program SAFIR, an FEM software specialised for the thermal and mechanical analysis of structures submitted to the fire. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (3 ULg)
See detailFire design study case of a high-rise steel storage building
Zaharia, Raoul; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Fragility Curves for Steel Buildings in a Community Context: A Methodology
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Engineering Structures (2016), 113

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to characterize the probabilistic vulnerability of steel buildings to fire in the context of community resilience assessment. In developing the fragility functions, uncertainties in the fire model, the heat transfer model and the thermo-mechanical response are considered. In addition several fire scenarios at different locations in the building are studied. Monte Carlo Simulations and Latin Hypercube Sampling are used to generate the probability distributions of demand placed on the members and structural capacity relative to selected damage thresholds. By assessing demand and capacity in the temperature domain, the thermal and the structural problems can be treated separately to improve the efficiency of the probabilistic analysis. After the probability distributions are obtained for demand and capacity, the fragility functions can be obtained by convolution of the distributions. Finally, event tree analysis is used to combine the functions associated with fire scenarios in different building locations. The developed fire fragility functions yield the probability of exceedance of predefined damage states as a function of the fire load in the building. The methodology is illustrated on an example consisting in a prototype nine-story steel building based on the SAC project. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (24 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire fragility functions for community resilience assessment
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Garlock, Maria

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 10)

This work provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community to fire following earthquake. As part of the framework, the paper discusses two methodologies: (1) how to develop fire ... [more ▼]

This work provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community to fire following earthquake. As part of the framework, the paper discusses two methodologies: (1) how to develop fire fragility functions; (2) how the fire fragility functions can be used in conjunction with an original fire ignition model to estimate the potential losses in a community from fire following earthquake. The paper focuses in particular on the development of fire fragility functions for an entire building to measure the probability of reaching a damage state given a fire scenario. Next, the paper proposes an ignition model to evaluate the probability of fire ignition after an earthquake. The ignition model together with fragility functions measure the probability of damage from fire following earthquake given an earthquake scenario. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 98 (13 ULg)
See detailFire Modelling
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in COST C12, Improvement of Buildings' Structural Quality by New Technologies, Outcome of the Cooperative Activities (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Models for Safety Concept of Steel Structures - I modelli di incendio per la valutazione della sicurezza di strutture in acciaio
Pustorino, Sandro; Schleich, Jean-Baptiste; Cadorin, Jean-François et al

in Proc. XVII Congresso C.T.A., Costruire in acciaio: Strutture e architettura (1999, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Performance of Columns made of Normal and High Strength Concrete: A Comparative Analysis
Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Key Engineering Materials (2016), 711

The use of high strength concrete (HSC) in multi-story buildings has become increasingly popular. Selection of HSC over normal strength concrete (NSC) allows for reducing the dimensions of the columns ... [more ▼]

The use of high strength concrete (HSC) in multi-story buildings has become increasingly popular. Selection of HSC over normal strength concrete (NSC) allows for reducing the dimensions of the columns sections. However, this reduction has consequences on the structural performance in case of fire, as smaller cross sections lead to faster temperature increase in the section core. Besides, HSC experiences higher rates of strength loss with temperature and a higher susceptibility to spalling than NSC. The fire performance of a column can thus be affected by selecting HSC over NSC. This research performs a comparison of the fire performance of HSC and NSC columns, based on numerical simulations by finite element method. The thermal and structural analyses of the columns are conducted with the software SAFIR®. The variation of concrete strength with temperature for the different concrete classes is adopted from Eurocode. Different configurations are compared, including columns with the same load bearing capacity and columns with the same cross section. The relative loss of load bearing capacity during the fire is found to be more pronounced for HSC columns than for NSC columns. The impact on fire resistance rating is discussed. These results suggest that consideration of fire loading limits the opportunities for use of HSC, especially when the objective is to reduce the dimensions of the columns sections. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (12 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Performance of High-Performance Construction Materials
Cooper, L. Y.; Dexter, R. J.; Gilvary, Keneth et al

in Hasemi (Ed.) Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Fire Safety Science (1997)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Performance of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes
Alderighi, Elisabetta; Bursi, Oreste; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg et al

Conference (2008, October)

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase ... [more ▼]

Major earthquakes in urban areas have often been followed by significant conflagrations that have been difficult to control and have resulted in extensive damage to property. Earthquakes, then, increase the risk of loss of life if a fire occurs within a building. It is obvious therefore that a fire after an earthquake is a design scenario that should be properly addressed in any performance-based design, in locations where significant earthquakes can occur. In this paper both experimental and numerical results of undamaged and pre-damaged welded steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with concrete filled tubes are described as part of a European project aimed at developing fundamental data, design guidelines and prequalification of ductile and fire resistant composite beam-to-column joints. In detail, both the experimental program and the fire experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper together with thermal numerical simulations on frames and joints. Both the experimental activity and the numerical work demonstrated the adequacy of the seismic and joint fire design. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia S.; Johnston, Danielle B.

in Biological Invasions (2013), 15(5), 1113-1123

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2,274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (mean ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFire promotes downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) seed dispersal
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Brown, Cynthia; Johnston, Danielle

Poster (2012)

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little ... [more ▼]

Particularly well-known among the many impacts of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum, Poaceae) is its ability to alter fire cycles and increase in abundance after fire. However, little is known about how fire influences B. tectorum dispersal. We quantified fire effects on B. tectorum dispersal using three recently burned areas in the western region of the Colorado Rocky Mountains by marking diaspores (seeds) with fluorescent powder, and then recovering them at night using ultraviolet lights. Diaspores were of two types: with and without sterile florets attached. We also characterized vegetation cover and near-surface wind speed in burned and unburned areas. Diaspores travelled much farther in burned areas than in nearby unburned areas (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 209 ± 16 cm and 38 ± 1 cm, respectively; maximal distance at the end of the experiment: 2274 cm and 150 cm, respectively), indicating an increase in dispersal distance after fire. Diaspores with sterile florets attached dispersed longer distances than those without sterile florets (means ± standard error at the end of the experiment: 141 ± 14 cm and 88 ± 7 cm, respectively). Vegetation cover was lower and wind speeds were higher in the burned areas. Our results indicate that at least one of the mechanisms by which the spread of B. tectorum is promoted by fire is through increased seed dispersal distance. Preventing movement of seeds from nearby infestations into burned areas may help avoid the rapid population expansion often observed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFire resistance of a steel structure subjected to a localised fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; alonso, Alain

Report (2009)

The fire resistance of a light weight steel structure is analised under a localised fire.

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of circular concrete columns
Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisschops, P.-F.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Concrete under Sever Conditions (CONSEC'01) (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (9 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of columns in steel frames
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (1992), 19(2 - 3), 159-175

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and ... [more ▼]

The standard fire resistance test is not appropriate for predicting the behaviour of steel frames under fire conditions. The simplified theories that have been published in approved national and international documents apply to some restricted particular cases of single elements (beams, columns). In most practical circumstances beams and columns are subjected to a combination of axial forces and bending moments and have variable restraint and displacement conditions at their ends. The problem is particularly complicated for columns. For this type of situation advanced computer programs can at the present time provide a satisfactory method for the determination of the fire resistance. This paper illustrates the preceding comments by evaluating the fire endurance of an unbraced steel frame with two loading conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire resistance of concrete slabs acting in compressive membrane action
Molkens, Tom; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Caspeele, Robby

in Proceedings of the 2nd International Fire Safety Symposium - IFireSS 2017 (2017, June 08)

In building renovation, the real behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs cannot always be explained by the bending theory according to classical structural mechanics. Indeed, the bearing capacity, as ... [more ▼]

In building renovation, the real behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs cannot always be explained by the bending theory according to classical structural mechanics. Indeed, the bearing capacity, as assessed for instance by a loading test, sometimes appears to be much higher than what would be expected. This phenomenon may be caused by the activation of an arch-effect or so-called compressive membrane action (CMA) which can develop even with small vertical deformations. For a slab which is completely restrained, the presence of reinforcement becomes of lesser importance when this phenomenon is activated (except for end fields). Hence, for fire resistance purposes, it can be discussed whether reinforcement and concrete cover has a smaller influence on the bearing capacity for slabs subjected to fire which exhibit a significant concrete compressive membrane behaviour. This paper presents a loading test performed on a real concrete building which highlighted the development of CMA as the load bearing mode. It then proposes a strategy to evaluate the behaviour resulting from the development of CMA in reinforced concrete slabs at ambient and at elevated temperature based on numerical modelling. The numerical analyses are performed with the finite element software SAFIR® using a strip of layered shell elements. A plastic-damage constitutive model with an explicit transient creep formulation is used to capture the concrete behaviour at elevated temperature. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles
Vassart, Olivier; Hawes, Mike; Simms, Ian et al

Report (2011)

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this document is to describe the calculation methods developed to assess the resistance of simply supported cellular beams in fire conditions. This development has been made in the scope of the RFCS FiCEB+ [23] and in the scope of the PHD of O.Vassart [24]. This calculation procedure has been introduced in the ACB+ software available on www.arcelormittal.com/sections [23] RFS2-CT-2007-00042 : FICEB+ - Fire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles ; March 2011 [24] O. Vassart, Analytical model for cellular beams made of hot rolled sections in case of fire, PhD Thesis, Université Blaise Pascal Clermont-Ferrand II, 2009 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 169 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFire resistance of long span cellular beam made of rolled profiles (FICEB) report: Ulster test numerical simulation
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

Report (2009)

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that ... [more ▼]

In the Ulster fire test, a large scale composite floor using cellular beams connected to composite slabs will be tested under natural fire. The particularity of the composite floor in this test is that certain cellular beams will be without any fire protection in order to investigate the contribution of membrane effect to overall fire resistance. However, cellular beams could behave in a very different way compared to traditional steel beams because of risk of local phenomenon. The aim of this study was to build a complex FE Model of whole composite floor system with long span cellular beams connected to composite slab in order to take account of 3D membrane effect. This permitted, on the one hand, to find out the right numerical model for this type of composite floor, and on the other hand to define the appropriate structure to be used for the full scale fire test. In order to achieve this latter purpose, a sensitivity study has be carried out in which determinant parameters for ensuring a good membrane effect have been investigated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 166 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Standard Fire – Comparison of an Advanced and a Simplified Method
Achenbach, Marcus; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Morgenthal, Guido

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 08)

For designing concrete columns subjected to a standard fire exposure, the Eurocode permits the use of simplified or advanced calculation methods. For the designer, the question of the respective ... [more ▼]

For designing concrete columns subjected to a standard fire exposure, the Eurocode permits the use of simplified or advanced calculation methods. For the designer, the question of the respective advantages of these two types of methods arises. Which situations demand the use of an advanced method? When does a simple method provide sufficient accuracy? In this paper, laboratory tests are recalculated using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) as an advanced and Extended Zone Model (EZM) as a simple method in order to investigate these questions. The recalculations indicate that the simple EZM is of sufficient accuracy for symmetric heated columns without restraints. In contrast, the mechanical behavior of columns heated on three sides demands an advanced method such as FEM to be properly described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (6 ULg)