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See detailFrom Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites
MAINJOT, Amélie ULg; DUPONT, Nathalie ULg; OUDKERK, Julie ULg et al

in Journal of Dental Research (2016), 95(5), 487-495

Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer- aided design–computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have ... [more ▼]

Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer- aided design–computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD- CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks—especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature–high pressure (HT-HP)—are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high- performance composite CAD-CAM blocks—particularly experimental PICNs—can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as “no prep” treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial need to conduct clinical studies. Last, manufacturers should provide more complete information regarding their product polymerization process, microstructure, and composition, which significantly influence CAD-CAM material properties. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Bad Models to Good Policies: an Intertwined Story about Energy and Reinforcement Learning
Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg

Speech/Talk (2014)

Batch mode reinforcement learning is a subclass of reinforcement learning for which the decision making problem has to be addressed without model, using trajectories only (no model, nor simulator nor ... [more ▼]

Batch mode reinforcement learning is a subclass of reinforcement learning for which the decision making problem has to be addressed without model, using trajectories only (no model, nor simulator nor additional interactions with the actual system). In this setting, we propose a discussion about a minmax approach to generalization for deterministic problems with continuous state space. This approach aims at computing robust policies considering the fact that the sample of trajectories may be arbitrarily bad. This discussion will be intertwined with the description of a fascinating batch mode reinforcement learning-type problem with trajectories of societies as input, and for which crucial good decisions have to be taken: the energy transition. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom ballistic to diffusive regimes in heat transport at nano-scales
Lebon, Georgy ULg; Grmela, Miroslav; Dubois, Charles

in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série II, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'Univers, Sciences de la Terre (2011), 339

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See detailFrom bare Ge nanowire to Ge/Si core/shell nanowires: a first-principles study
Pekoz, R.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2009), 80(15), 1554327-15543271554327

Germanium/Germanium-Silicon core/shell nanowires are expected to play an important role in future electronic devices. We use first-principles plane-wave calculations within density-functional theory in ... [more ▼]

Germanium/Germanium-Silicon core/shell nanowires are expected to play an important role in future electronic devices. We use first-principles plane-wave calculations within density-functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation to investigate the structural and electronic properties of bare and H-passivated Ge nanowires and core/shell Ge/Ge-Si, Ge/Si, and Si/Ge nanowires. The diameters of the nanowires considered are in the range of 0.6-2.9 nm and oriented along [110] and [111] directions. The diameter, the surface passivation, and the substitutional effects on the binding energy, band structure, and effective mass are extensively investigated considering the relative contribution of quantum confinement and surface effects. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Basal Ganglia to Motoneurons. Probable Involvement of Pathways Relaying in the Medulla
Delwaide, P. J.; Pepin, J. L.; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg

in Battistin, L.; Scarlato, G.; Caraceni, T. (Eds.) et al Advances in Neurology. Volume 69 (1996)

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See detailFrom Belgium to Finland : cult of relics
George, Philippe ULg

Scientific conference (2014)

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See detailFrom Bio to Nano: Learning From The Past to Shape the Future of Technology Assessment
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Fallon, Catherine ULg; Thoreau, François ULg et al

Conference (2008, October 12)

In many Western countries over the last 35 years, the quest for more scientific governance on <br />crucial technological issues led to a broadening of the political world’s sphere of competences. <br ... [more ▼]

In many Western countries over the last 35 years, the quest for more scientific governance on <br />crucial technological issues led to a broadening of the political world’s sphere of competences. <br />Indeed, various countries decided that dealing with global, invisible, irreversible and irreparable <br />risks had to be handled by an appropriate tool of management of technological innovations. So the <br />usefulness to institutionalize parliamentary Technology Assessment (PTA) offices emerged. <br />Nowadays, PTA is an instrument particularly suitable to study the new shape of science and <br />society’s interface and it represents a remarkable attempt to reform the institutional settings of <br />innovation. <br />However, while the overall uncertainty surrounding science and technology has been used by public <br />actors like parliamentarians or ministers in the past to legitimize a first generation of PTAs, the <br />emergence of a second generation in the 1990’s – centred on the constructive, interactive or <br />participatory TA approches – emphazises the co-evolution of technology and society rather than the <br />former linear determinist rationale. In this context, the STS community of scholars is increasingly <br />called upon by the public authorities to provide a “professional service role” (RIP, 1994), that is to <br />say to take a step into action out of the border of their intellectual engagement. <br />Then, we suggest to compare two successive periods by looking at the institutional management of <br />two distinct-but-complementary technological issues: biotechnology and nanotechnology. The <br />former has been taken into account by public actors at a time when the second generation of PTAs <br />was not yet rooted in the political practices. Thus, the management of the public debate related to <br />biotechnology has been characterized by a lack of sensitive, fruitful and interactive communication <br />between the stakeholders involved in the TA process, while the first applications were already being <br />commercialized. On the other hand, the latter is currently being tackled at a moment when the social <br />shaping of technology is widely acknowledged as well as the STS community may be invited to <br />pass from observation to participation in the political sphere. Given the uncertainty and complexity <br />encircling nanotechnology as well as its huge potential in many interconnected disciplinary fields, <br />the need to avoid the pitfall of the biotechnology’s experience is commonly accepted. <br />We offer to take nanotechnology as one of the most challenging technological issue to look beyond <br />the biotechnology’s roadblock and to show in which proportion the same scenario is reasonably <br />thinkable today, in order to spotlight whether we have learnt from the past in considering what is <br />1 <br />sometimes called “a new industrial revolution”. <br />We will raise some research questions like: how different are current TA practices as compared to <br />former ones? Are there new regimes emerging? Given the current technological convergence, how <br />complicated would it be to deal with NBIC technologies if we missed the point with biotechnology <br />alone? How suitable is PTA to engage in such interdisciplinary issues? Are we assisting the <br />emergence of a third PTA generation around the growing role of the STS community? How does <br />this scientific community dialogue with the historians of science who analyzed the earlier industrial <br />revolutions? [less ▲]

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See detailFrom biological signals to music
Arslan, B.; Brouse, A.; Castet, J. et al

in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Enactive Interfaces Enactive05 (2005)

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See detailFrom biologicalmembranes to biomimetic model membranes
Eeman, Marc; Deleu, Magali ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14

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See detailFrom biotemporality to nootemporality : towards an integrative and comparative view of time in behavior
Richelle, Marc ULg; Lejeune, Helga ULg; Perikel, J. J. et al

in Michon, John A.; Jackson, Janet L. (Eds.) Time, mind and behavior (1985)

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See detailFrom Bouncing to boxing
Terwagne, Denis ULg; Gilet, Tristan ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2008, March)

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See detailFrom bouncing to boxing
Terwagne, Denis ULg; Gilet, Tristan ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg et al

in Chaos (2008), 18(4),

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See detailFrom cage to nest: the library of “Il fu Mattia Pascal”
de Seta, Ilaria ULg

in Pirandello Studies : Journal of the Society of Pirandello Studies (2010), 30

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See detailFrom calibration on tracer test data to computation of protection zones: upscaling difficulties in a deterministic modelling framework
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg; Derouane, Johan

in Kovar, K.; Van Der Heijde, P. (Eds.) ModelCARE 96: Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling (1996)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (10 ULg)
See detailFrom censored to cross-sectional data: non and semiparametric new developments
Laurent, Géraldine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

In many statistical studies, an observation is evident: the available data are regularly right-censored. A censorship arises when, for different reasons, the data time of interest can not be observed. A ... [more ▼]

In many statistical studies, an observation is evident: the available data are regularly right-censored. A censorship arises when, for different reasons, the data time of interest can not be observed. A data is so right-censored if, instead of observing its time of interest, a lower bound of this time is considered for this data. For example, the study duration can be shorter than the time of interest leading then to a correspondence between the observed times and the study end time. Moreover, these data can be obtained from cross-sectional process. Cross-sectional process selects only data in progress at a fixed time to constitute the studied sample, determining the data followed for the study. Therefore, cross-sectional process introduces left truncation. A data is described as left-truncated if its time of interest is larger or equal to a fixed time. It is in this context this thesis has been elaborated. The considered estimation problems for such data will be studied with a nonparametric or semiparametric approach. An approach is nonparametric or semiparametric if none assumption is supposed about the belonging to parametric family for the time of interest distribution function, solely based on qualitative hypotheses. These estimation methods have thus the advantage to be based on weaker assumptions in comparison with the parametric approaches. The aim of the different researches developed in this thesis is to improve the current estimation techniques. This thesis is organised in four parts. The first part (first chapter) determines the context of our researches through practical examples and a significant but not exhaustive literature overview as well as our motivation about the different researches presented in this thesis. To conclude this first part, our contributions in these researches are briefly explained. The second part (second chapter) presents a new estimation procedure for the parameters of the parametric conditional variance in the heteroscedastic regression situation applied to right-censored data. This procedure constructs artificial data to replace censored data exploiting a heteroscedastic regression model and then defines the optimal parameters from the least squares method. The interest of this research is to fill a gap in the current literature. The third part (third and fourth chapters) studies, in a regression context, the cross-sectional data, i.e. left-truncated and right-censored data, where the conditional truncation distribution function is supposed to be known. The innovation of the method proposed here consists in the use of information contained in the conditional truncation distribution function for the nonparametric estimation methods. Finally, the fourth part (fifth chapter) is devoted to the cross-sectional data examination but this time for nonparametric estimation of the time of interest distribution function. In this chapter, the truncation distribution function is supposed to belong to a parametric family and not known anymore. The relevance of this approach is due to this weaker assumption than one in the above part. This information about the truncation distribution function is also introduced in the nonparametric estimation. This thesis concludes with a set of suggestions related to possible future researches in these statistical fields. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom centralization to local policies: design reform dynamics in Belgium and the creation of Antwerp's Higher Institute (1830-1914)
Prina, Daniela ULg

in Tradition, Transition, Trajectories: Major or Minor Influences? ICDHS 9th International Conference for Design History and Design Studies 2014, Conference Proceedings (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (11 ULg)