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See detailThe interannual change of atmospheric CO2: contribution of subtropical ecosystems?
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Nemry, B.; François, Louis ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (1999), 26(2), 243-246

The global terrestrial carbon cycle model CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) is used to study the response of the terrestrial ecosystems to the large scale climate variations over the period ... [more ▼]

The global terrestrial carbon cycle model CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) is used to study the response of the terrestrial ecosystems to the large scale climate variations over the period 1980-1993. The global net carbon exchange flux with the atmosphere is calculated and compared with the terrestrial contribution derived from the deconvolution of the atmospheric CO2 and delta(13)C measurements. A fairly large CO2 biospheric source is predicted during the strong El Nino events of 1982-83 and 1986-87 as a consequence of the induced global warming. The direct and indirect temperature controls of the primacy production and respiration dominate the CO2 anomaly. An analysis of the relative contribution by latitudinal bands and ecosystems shows that low-latitude vegetation dominates the variability at the El Nino time scale. In savannas, the model indicates that the interannual changes result, to a large extent, from the control of soil water content on gross primary production (GPP). In the tropical cain forests, both respiration and GPP contribute to the response of the net biospheric flux. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variability of Black Sea’s hydrodynamics and connection to atmospheric patterns
Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

Conference (2012, May 09)

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large ... [more ▼]

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large scale climate patterns are investigated using an eddy-resolving tridimensional model in combination with statistical tools (e.g. Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Self Organizing Maps). First, the ability of the model to represent the interannual dynamics of the system is assessed by comparing the modeled and satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomaly (SLA) decomposed into their dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The correlation between the spatial and temporal EOFs modes derived from model and satellite data is usually satisfactory and this gives some confidence in using the model as a tool to investigate not only the SST and SLA dynamics but also the dynamics of connected variables. Then, the long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea hydrodynamics is assessed by decomposing into their dominant EOFs modeled SST, SLA and selected key hydrodynamical variables associated to the main circulation and vertical structure of the water column. Significant correlations between the EOFs associated to these variables are investigated in order to link the variability of surface fields and the internal dynamics of the system. In particular, the intensity of the general cyclonic circulation (the Rim Current) is shown to impact strongly (1) the mean sea level, (2) the SST response to air temperature (AT), (3) the formation of the cold intermediate layer, (4) the meridional repartition of the SST anomaly and (5) the exchanges of heat between the north-western shelf and the open basin. In order to appraise the variability of atmospheric conditions over the Black Sea during 1962–2000 and their role in driving the hydrodynamics, a self-organizing maps technique is used to identify spatial recurrent patterns of atmospheric fields (i.e., AT, wind stress and curl). The impact on these patterns of large scale climatic variability over the north Atlantic and Eurasia (estimated by respectively the north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) and the east Atlantic/west Russia oscillation (EA/WR) indexes) is assessed. Distinct time scales of influence of the large scale teleconnection patterns on the AT are identified: EA/WR drives the short scale (1–5 years) variations of SST, while the long term (4-5 years) trends of the NAO drive the long term SST trends. The drastic changes that have occurred in the Black Sea deep sea ecosystem at the end of the 80s are connected to an intensification of the general circulation that has promoted an export of riverine materials from the eutrophicated north-western shelf to the deep sea. Finally, in the last two decades, we find an increased duration of persistent atmospheric anomalies regime that has the potential to drive the system away from its average state as occurred in the late 80s. If persistent in the future, such long lasting atmospheric anomalies may have a significant impact on the ecosystem functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variability of Black Sea’s hydrodynamics and connection to atmospheric patterns
Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography (2012)

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large ... [more ▼]

The long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea physical processes (e.g. temperature, main circulation, cold intermediate layer, sea level) and its relation to atmospheric conditions and large scale climate patterns are investigated using an eddy-resolving tridimensional model in ombination with statistical tools (e.g. Empirical Orthogonal Functions, Self Organizing Maps). First, the ability of the model to represent the interannual dynamics of the system is assessed by comparing the modeled and satellite sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level anomaly (SLA) decomposed into their dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The correlation between the spatial and temporal EOFs modes derived from model and satellite data is usually satisfactory and this gives some confidence in using the model as a tool to investigate not only the SST and SLA dynamics but also the dynamics of connected variables. Then, the long term variability (1962–2000) of the Black Sea hydrodynamics is assessed by decomposing into their dominant EOFs modeled SST, SLA and selected key hydrodynamical variables associated to the main circulation and vertical structure of the water column. Significant correlations between the EOFs associated to these variables are investigated in order to link the variability of surface fields and the internal dynamics of the system. In particular, the intensity of the general cyclonic circulation (the Rim Current) is shown to impact strongly (1) the mean sea level, (2) the SST response to air temperature (AT), (3) the formation of the cold intermediate layer, (4) the meridional repartition of the SST anomaly and (5) the exchanges of heat between the north-western shelf and the open basin. In order to appraise the variability of atmospheric conditions over the Black Sea during 1962–2000 and their role in driving the hydrodynamics, a self-organizing maps technique is used to identify spatial recurrent patterns of atmospheric fields (i.e., AT, wind stress and curl). The impact on these patterns of large scale climatic variability over the north Atlantic, Eurasia and the Pacific Ocean (estimated by respectively the north Atlantic oscillation (NAO), the east Atlantic/west ̃Russia oscillation (EA/WR) and the El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) indexes) is assessed. Distinct time scales of influence of the large scale teleconnection patterns on the AT are identified: EA/WR drives the short scale (1–5 years) variations of SST, while the long term (4-5 years) trends of the NAO drive the long term SST trends. The drastic changes that have occurred in the Black Sea deep sea ecosystem at the end of the 80s are connected to an intensification of the general circulation that has promoted an export of riverine materials from the eutrophicated north-western shelf to the deep sea. Finally, in the last two decades, we find an increased duration of persistent atmospheric anomalies regime that has the potential to drive the system away from its average state as occurred in the late 80s. If persistent in the future, such long lasting atmospheric anomalies may have a significant impact on the ecosystem functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variability of CO2 fluxes and yield by a winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.)
Dufranne, Delphine ULg; Vancutsem, Françoise ULg; Moureaux, Christine ULg et al

Poster (2009, April 20)

In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping seasons were compared at the Lonzée (Belgium) experimental site. The site, crop management, sowing and harvest dates were similar on the two ... [more ▼]

In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping seasons were compared at the Lonzée (Belgium) experimental site. The site, crop management, sowing and harvest dates were similar on the two years. The main difference between the seasons was due to to climate conditions. Continuous eddy-covariance fluxes, leaf scale photosynthesis measurements and crop development monitoring were performed during the whole vegetation periods. Globally, the two years were characterised by a higher than normal air temperature (9.9 °C and 11.9 °C respectively against 9.4 °C for standard) and lower than normal rainfalls (595.1 mm and 675.1 mm respectively against 772 mm for standard). In addition, the second season (2006-2007) was characterised by an exceptionally mild winter, dry and hot conditions in April and by humid and cloudy conditions during the last vegetation phases. These particular conditions induced earlier growth stages and the comparison of global fluxes gives contrasting results: gross primary productivity (GPP) was larger in 2007 but, on the contrary, net primary productivity (NPP) and crop productivity were lower on this year. The bad yields could be explained, on one hand by the drought in April 2007 that induced abnormally small flag leaves, on the other hand by cloudy and humid conditions from end May to harvest, that induced an assimilation reduction due to low radiation and favoured disease development. The simultaneous higher GPP and lower NPP and productivity in 2006-2007 raise the question of carbon allocation. It suggests that the excess carbon assimilated in 2006-2007 was not stored in grain or straw and thus that it would have been stored in the roots or in vegetation parts that decompose before the harvest. Further biomass measurements (and especially root biomass) are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variability of zooplankton in the Dumont d’Urville sea (139°E – 146°E), east Antarctica, 2004 - 2008
Swadling, Kerrie M.; Penot, Florian; Vallet, Carole et al

in Polar Science (2011), 5

Spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton was studied during five summers (2004 - 2008) in the Dumont d’Urville Sea, east Antarctica. The species recorded, based on the catch of a 500 um-mesh Bongo ... [more ▼]

Spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton was studied during five summers (2004 - 2008) in the Dumont d’Urville Sea, east Antarctica. The species recorded, based on the catch of a 500 um-mesh Bongo net, were typical of southern continental shelf communities in Antarctica, including Euphausia crystallorophias, polychaetes, pteropods and biomass-dominant copepods. There was a strong degree of temporal variation in abundance, possibly related to the thickness and extent of the sea ice cover during each spring prior to the surveys. Total mean abundance was highly variable between years, with a minimum of 961 ind. 1000 m-3 in 2004 (range 65 - 3407 ind. 1000 m-3) and a maximum of 15627 ind. 1000 m-3 in 2005 (range 5109 - 33869 ind. 1000 m-3). Spatially, within each year, abundances were also variable, and there were no uniform patterns in abundance from year to year. Water column physical characteristics (temperature and salinity) were relatively constant and did not contribute substantially to variation between the years. It is likely that variation in zooplankton distribution was largely related to a combination of localised features, such as the thickness and extent of sea ice cover, the position and extent of the Mertz Polynya, local wind conditions and bathymetric features. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variation (2003-2008) of Calycophoran siphonophores in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica)
Collignon, Amandine ULg; Goffart, Anne ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg

in Proceedings of the 39th CIESM Congress (2010)

The interannual variation of the calycophoran siphonophores was investigated in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica) from 2003 to 2008. The dominant species, Chelophyes appendiculata, was present throughout the ... [more ▼]

The interannual variation of the calycophoran siphonophores was investigated in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica) from 2003 to 2008. The dominant species, Chelophyes appendiculata, was present throughout the year, with a maximum of reproduction during the summer. Large variations of abundance occur from year to year. The study of the developmental stages along the year allows us to establish its life cycle, which seems to be correlated with the temperature and mesozooplancton abundance. The cycle takes place each year with a similar seasonal pattern throughout all the study. Other species as Abylopsis tetragona and Lensia sp., were also present in lower abundance. [less ▲]

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See detailInterannual variations of the carbon monoxide tropospheric burden between 30ºN and 90ºN in 1996-2003: ground-based and satellite measurements, estimate of biomass burning emissions
Yurganov, L. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Grechko, E. I. et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2005), 7(EGU05-A-03850),

Carbon monoxide total column amounts in the atmosphere were measured in the High Northern Hemisphere (30º-90º N, HNH) between January 1996 and December 2003 using Fourier Transform Infrared high ... [more ▼]

Carbon monoxide total column amounts in the atmosphere were measured in the High Northern Hemisphere (30º-90º N, HNH) between January 1996 and December 2003 using Fourier Transform Infrared high resolution spectrometers installed at the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change) sites. A grating spectrometer of moderate resolution was employed for the same purpose at the Zvenigorod Research Station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics near Moscow. CO mixing ratios were measured in the air samples obtained at the ground-level stations of the CMDL (Climate Modeling and Diagnostic Laboratory, NOAA) network. Total column CO amounts were measured from space by the Terra/MOPITT instrument between March, 2000, and December, 2003 (Edwards et al., 2004). Anomalies of monthly mean CO densities (related to a quiet period of 2000 - 2001) for different sites in the HNH were in agreement. This fact confirmed a good mixing of CO in the Northern Hemisphere on the montly basis that may be expected from a 1.5-2-month-long CO life-time. The data were integrated over the HNH reservoir (0-10 km in altitude and 30º-90º N in latitude) and the CO burden anomalies (in Tg) were analysed using a box model. Two CO sinks were taken into account: i) internal chemical removal in the reaction between CO and OH, and ii) transport of CO into the southertn part of the Northern hemisphere, where CO concentrations are usually lower. OH concentarations were taken from Spivakovsky et al. (2000). The air exchange through the 30º N boundary of the reservoir was estimated using the GEOS-CHEM model with a real meteorology of 1998 (Yurganov et al., 2004). The interannual variations of the sinks were neglected; a corresponding uncertainty in the retrieved source anomaly was estimated to be 20-30%. Since 1996 four years have been found to experience high CO emission of similar magnitude (1996, 1998, 2002, and 2003). During four years (1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001) the emissions were relatively low. Seasonal patterns of the emissions in active years were similar, maxima occured in July-August. However, in 2003 emissions in June-July were higher than in August. These semi-hemisphere averaged emission rates correlate with Siberian forest fire counts detected at night time by the ATSR radiometer of the ERS-2 satellite (R2 =0.51). The early peak of 2003 may be attributed to forest fires in Baikal region, Siberia. An inclusion of fire counts for other areas (Europe, North America) only worsen the correlation; this implies a decisive role of the Siberian fires for polluting the Northern Hemisphere troposphere (cf., Kasischke et al., 2005). It was estimated that the boreal forest fires during active years emit 30-60 Tg CO per month in July-August and 150-200 Tg annually. These emissions may be compared to industrial and transport pollution in the Northern Hemisphere estimated by Kasischke et al. (2005) as 290 Tg CO annually (i.e., 25 Tg monthly). [less ▲]

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See detailInterassay and interobserver variability in the detection of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Joossens, Sofie; Daperno, Marco; Shums, Zakera et al

in Clinical Chemistry (2004), 50(8), 1422-5

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See detailIntercalative polymerization of cyclic esters in layered silicates : thermal vs. catalytic activation
Pantoustier, Nadège; Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Degée, Philippe et al

in Composite Interfaces (2003), 10(4-5), 423-433

Poly(ε-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ inter-calative ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone. The polymerization was promoted by thermal or catalytic ... [more ▼]

Poly(ε-caprolactone) layered silicate nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ inter-calative ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ε-caprolactone. The polymerization was promoted by thermal or catalytic initiation starting from either non-modified natural sodium-montmorillonite (MMT-Na) or montmorillonite modified by different ammonium cations bearing either non-functional alkyl chains or chains terminated by carboxylic acid or hydroxyl functions. The resulting compositions were analyzed by small-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The clay dispersion depended on the structure of the alkyl ammonium. Exfoliated nanocomposites were formed when hydroxyl-containing alkyl-ammonium was used; otherwise, partially intercalated/partially exfoliated structures were observed. Moreover, caving to the inherent catalytic properties of the montmo-rillomte surface, it was also possible to prepare intercalated nanocomposites by in situ polymerization of ε-caprolactone in presence of non-modified montmorillonite-Na (MMT-Na) without any added catalyst. [less ▲]

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See detailIntercellular communications in lymph follicles
Heinen, Ernst ULg; Tsunoda, R.; Marcoty, C. et al

in Dendritic cells in lymphoid tissues (1991)

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See detailIntercellular Contacts between Germinal Center Cells. Mechanisms of Adhesion between Lymphoid Cells and Follicular Dendritic Cells
Louis, Edouard ULg; Philippet, B.; Cardos, B. et al

in Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica (1989), 43(4), 297-320

Intercellular connections exist between germinal center cells especially between lymphoid cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Even after isolation, FDC remain associated to lymphocytes and are ... [more ▼]

Intercellular connections exist between germinal center cells especially between lymphoid cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDC). Even after isolation, FDC remain associated to lymphocytes and are able, in a cell suspension, to establish new connections with others. Using human tonsillar cells or mouse lymph node cells we analysed these connections which were shown to be species-specific. Low temperature as well as absence of Ca++ and Mg++ in the culture medium reduced the adherence of fluorochrome-labeled lymphoid cells to FDC. Colchicine treatment did not impair the adherence, whereas cytochalasin B dit it; this was the first observation underlining the importance of microfibrils in FDC. Antibodies directed towards integrin molecules (LFA-1 alpha or beta chain, CD11a and CD18 respectively) reduced the adherence, others (anti-CR3 or anti-gp 150/95, CD11b and c respectively) did not influence it. Antibodies directed against MHC class II exerted no inhibitory action on the lymphoid cell adhesion to FDC. As, at ultrastructural level, gold-labeled immune complexes can be found between FDC and lymphoid cells, we examined the effect on cell adhesion of the addition of immune complexes to the cell suspensions. It only impaired the lymphoid cell adhesion when complement components were present. IgM complexes were then more inhibitory than IgG complexes. When antibodies against Fc IgG receptors (CD16) were added, the adhesion was strongly reduced whereas antibodies to Fc IgE (CD23) receptors had no influence. The antibody DRC1, specifically recognizing an antigen on human FDC reduced the attachment of cells to FDC. This antigen thus seems to play a role in the intercellular contacts; this is the first function ascribed to this FDC specific antigen. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Intercellular Transfer of Endothelial-­‐Circulating-­‐MiR-­‐503 Inhibits Tumor Growth
Bovy, Nicolas; Frères, Pierre; Carnet, Oriane et al

Conference (2013, January 28)

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See detailL'interception des pluies par différents types de couverts forestiers.
Petit, François ULg; Kalombo, K.

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (1984)

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See detailThe interchromatin granules.
Thiry, Marc ULg

in Histology and Histopathology (1995), 10(4), 1035-45

In the present review, we report on the data obtained on the most prominent elements observed in the interchromatin spaces: the interchromatin granules (IGs). Special emphasis is placed on the recent ... [more ▼]

In the present review, we report on the data obtained on the most prominent elements observed in the interchromatin spaces: the interchromatin granules (IGs). Special emphasis is placed on the recent contributions of immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization methods towards elucidating the composition and the behavior of these nuclear substructures during the cell cycle. The possible roles of IGs in the cell nucleus are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intercommunale, entité hybride aux frontières du droit public et du droit privé
Durviaux, Ann-Lawrence ULg

Conference (2010, September 17)

Exposé du régime juridique des intercommunales en Région wallonne

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See detailIntercomparison of lead 210 and radiocarbon bomb pulse age models. A key study in a peat bog core from North Poland
Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jaroslaw et al

Poster (2008)

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See detailIntercomparison of NO Column Measurements During MAP/GLOBUS 1985
McKenzie, R.L.; Matthews, W.A.; Kondo, Y. et al

in Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry (1988), 7

Column measurements of nitric oxide were made using several techniques during the MAP/GLOBUS campaign in France in September 1985. The data sets are nearly co-located and simultaneous, therefore allowing ... [more ▼]

Column measurements of nitric oxide were made using several techniques during the MAP/GLOBUS campaign in France in September 1985. The data sets are nearly co-located and simultaneous, therefore allowing a valid intercomparison of the various measurement methods. The range of altitudes sampled differs from instrument to instrument. This complicates the comparison because the data sets are to some extent complementary. The NO distributions apparently vary significantly from day to day, and possibly over shorter timescales. Changes in dynamics may be responsible for these variations. The results from the instruments which measure in the infrared and the ultraviolet are self-consistent, and show good agreement with photochemical predictions. On 19 September, when the intercomparison was made, the profile measured by the in-situ chemi- luminescent instrument differed significantly from the predicted profile, and the measured columns were generally higher. [less ▲]

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See detailIntercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland
Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jaroslaw et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2010), Volume 268(7-8, April), 1163-1166

Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Slowinskie Blota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing ... [more ▼]

Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Slowinskie Blota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAn intercomparison study of luminescence dating protocols and techniques applied to medieval brick samples from Normandy (France)
Blain, Sophie ULg; Bailiff, Ian; Guibert, Pierre et al

in Quaternary Geochronology (2010), 5(2-3), 311-316

A luminescence dating study has been applied to inform the history and archaeology of two early medieval buildings in north western France. Five bricks were sampled from the medieval churches (10th–11th ... [more ▼]

A luminescence dating study has been applied to inform the history and archaeology of two early medieval buildings in north western France. Five bricks were sampled from the medieval churches (10th–11th centuries A.D.) of Rugles and Condé-sur-Risle in Normandy. The samples were divided and tested in the luminescence laboratories of the University of Durham (UK) and of Iramat-CRP2A, University of Bordeaux 3 (France). The fine grain and quartz inclusion techniques were applied, and tests included an examination of the anomalous fading of the luminescence signal from fine grain samples and coarse grains of feldspar. With one exception, the dates produced using the fine grain technique, although corrected for fading, were significantly younger than those produced with quartz inclusions. Although most of the corrected fine grain dates were consistent with the medieval construction of the churches, the brick fabric is of Roman type by archaeological assessment, and this is supported by the quartz coarse grain dates. We conclude that the bricks sampled are re-used, likely to be of Roman origin, and that the reliability of measurements with feldspars in brick fabrics requires wider investigation. [less ▲]

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