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See detailInterictal cortical excitability in migraine: a study using transcranial magnetic stimulation of motor and visual cortices.
Afra, Judit; Mascia, Adolores; GERARD, Pascale ULg et al

in Annals of Neurology (1998), 44(2), 209-15

We performed transcranial magnetic stimulations of the motor and visual cortices in healthy controls (n = 27) and in patients suffering from migraine without (n = 33) or with (n = 25) aura between attacks ... [more ▼]

We performed transcranial magnetic stimulations of the motor and visual cortices in healthy controls (n = 27) and in patients suffering from migraine without (n = 33) or with (n = 25) aura between attacks. By using a 13-cm circular coil placed over the vertex and recordings of the first dorsal interosseus muscle, we measured thresholds (at rest and during contraction), amplitudes of motor evoked potentials and cortical silent periods. Paired stimulations with short (1-20 msec) interstimulus intervals were performed to assess intracortical inhibition. The visual cortex was stimulated with the same coil placed over the occipital scalp (7 cm above the inion) and the prevalence and threshold of phosphene production was determined. In patients with migraine with aura, motor thresholds during isometric contraction were significantly higher, whereas the prevalence of stimulation-induced phosphene production was lower compared with healthy controls. These changes were not correlated with attack frequency or disease duration. No differences were found between subject groups in thresholds at rest, motor evoked potential amplitudes, cortical silent periods, or response curves after paired stimuli. These results are in favor of cortical hypoexcitability rather than hyperexcitability in patients with migraine with aura between attacks. [less ▲]

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See detailInterictal habituation deficit of the nociceptive blink reflex: an endophenotypic marker for presymptomatic migraine?
Di Clemente, L.; Coppola, G.; Magis, Delphine ULg et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2007), 130(Pt 3), 765-770

Habituation of the nociception-specific blink reflex (nBR) is reduced interictally in migraine patients. This could be related to the habituation deficit of evoked cortical responses, a reproducible ... [more ▼]

Habituation of the nociception-specific blink reflex (nBR) is reduced interictally in migraine patients. This could be related to the habituation deficit of evoked cortical responses, a reproducible abnormality in migraine which has a familial character, or to central trigeminal sensitization due to repeated attacks. We compared nBR habituation in healthy volunteers devoid of personal or family history of migraine (HV), in migraine without aura patients (MO) and in healthy volunteers with a family history of migraine in first degree relatives (HV-F). We elicited the nBR by stimulating the right supraorbital region with a custom-built electrode in 16 MO between attacks, 15 HV and 14 HV-F. Habituation was measured as the percentage area-under-the-curve decrease in 10 consecutive blocks of five averaged rectified responses. nBR habituation was clearly reduced in MO and HV-F compared to HV. Percentage area under the curve decreased between the 1st and the 10th block by 55.01% in HV, 25.71% in MO (P = 0.001) and 26.73% in HV-F (P = 0.043). HV-F had the most pronounced abnormality with potentiation instead of habituation in the second block. We found a positive intraindividual correlation between attack frequency and habituation in MO (r = 0.621; P = 0.010). Migraine patients have interictally a deficient habituation of the nBR which is inversely related to attack frequency, suggesting that it is not due to trigeminal sensitization. Surprisingly, the most pronounced habituation deficit is found in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of migraine. Deficient nBR habituation could thus be a trait marker for the genetic predisposition to migraine. [less ▲]

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See detailInterictal Potentiation of Passive "Oddball" Auditory Event-Related Potentials in Migraine
Wang, W.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1998), 18(5), 261-5241

We have studied habituation of the P3a component of the passive "oddball" auditory event-related potential which reflects automatic processing of a "novel" stimulus in 24 patients suffering from migraine ... [more ▼]

We have studied habituation of the P3a component of the passive "oddball" auditory event-related potential which reflects automatic processing of a "novel" stimulus in 24 patients suffering from migraine without aura and in 21 healthy volunteers. Three blocks of responses to 160 standard and to 40 novel tones were sequentially averaged at Cz and analyzed for latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes. Latencies of components N1 and P2 elicited by standard tones and of components N1, P2, N2, and P3a elicited by novel tones were not significantly different between sequential blocks or between subject groups, nor were mean N1-P2 amplitudes. The N2-P3a amplitude tended to be lower in migraine, but not significantly so. The most striking result in migraineurs was a significant potentiation of N2-P3a in successive blocks, contrasting with an habituation in controls. Our previous evoked- and event-related potential studies and the present one suggest that deficient habituation, or even potentiation, represents interictally a fundamental dysfunction of cortical information processing in migraine, which might increase energy demands and play a role in etiopathogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérieurs poétiques : quelle(s) réflexivité(s) ?
Hick, Anne-Laure ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (2012), 3

Cet article propose une analyse de la teneur réflexive des poèmes d’intérieur. Après une brève description de ces textes, nous en étudions quelques échantillons à partir desquels nous dégageons divers ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose une analyse de la teneur réflexive des poèmes d’intérieur. Après une brève description de ces textes, nous en étudions quelques échantillons à partir desquels nous dégageons divers types de réflexivité : premièrement, une réflexivité spéculaire ou mise en abîme, deuxièmement, une réflexivité psychique, troisièmement une réflexivité sociale, quatrièmement, une réflexivité « en gigogne » (Durand, 2008 : 206), et cinquièmement, une réflexivité critique. Chacune de ces réflexivités se voit définie et illustrée par l’analyse d’un cas concret. [less ▲]

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See detailInterim Report on clinical testing of a comprehensive solution for patient positioning and immobilization for high tech RT
Hideghéty, Katalin; Kahan, Zsuzsa; Thurzo, Laszlo et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2006), 81(supplement 1), 434

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See detailInterim results on the clinical effects of i.v. administered thymopentin in active rheumatoid arthritis
Malaise, Michel ULg; Franchimont, P.; Hauwaert, Christian ULg et al

in International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Therapy and Toxicology (1984), 4(6), 451-457

Forty-one patients with active rheumatoid arthritis entered a controlled, double-blind, randomized study; 21 received prolonged i.v. injections (10 min) of thymopentin 50 mg 3 times a week for 3 ... [more ▼]

Forty-one patients with active rheumatoid arthritis entered a controlled, double-blind, randomized study; 21 received prolonged i.v. injections (10 min) of thymopentin 50 mg 3 times a week for 3 consecutive weeks; the other 20 received placebo under the same conditions. The groups were comparable at the start of the study. Statistical tests of changes within the treatment groups after 3 weeks showed that the improvement achieved in the thymopentin group was significant (p less than 0.05 or p less than 0.01) for each clinical parameter, except for left-hand grip strength. On the other hand, no significant improvement was observed for any parameter except morning stiffness in the patients on placebo. The intergroup comparison showed significant differences, favouring thymopentin over placebo treatment, in the Ritchie index, scores for swollen joints, assessment of severity of pain and scores for changes in the activity of the disease. Only minor side-effects were experienced in the two treatment groups. The present placebo-controlled double-blind study confirms the previous positive results achieved in open studies, i.e., the beneficial therapeutic effect of prolonged i.v. injections of thymopentin in patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis observed after 3 weeks of therapy. The drug appears to be safe at the dose regimen used. [less ▲]

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See detailInterindividual differences in circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis in older people: effect of a PER3 polymorphism.
Viola, Antoine U.; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Archer, Simon N. et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2012), 33(5), 101017-27

Aging is associated with marked changes in the timing, consolidation and structure of sleep. Older people wake up frequently, get up earlier and have less slow wave sleep than young people, although the ... [more ▼]

Aging is associated with marked changes in the timing, consolidation and structure of sleep. Older people wake up frequently, get up earlier and have less slow wave sleep than young people, although the extent of these age-related changes differs considerably between individuals. Interindividual differences in homeostatic sleep regulation in young volunteers are associated with the variable-number, tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (rs57875989) in the coding region of the circadian clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3). However, predictors of these interindividual differences have yet to be identified in older people. Sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics and circadian rhythms were assessed in 26 healthy older volunteers (55-75 years) selected on the basis of homozygosity for either the long or short allele of the PER3 polymorphism. Homozygosity for the longer allele (PER3(5/5)) associated with a phase-advance in the circadian melatonin profile and an earlier occurrence of the melatonin peak within the sleep episode. Furthermore, older PER3(5/5) participants accumulated more nocturnal wakefulness, had increased EEG frontal delta activity (0.75-1.50 Hz), and decreased EEG frontal sigma activity (11-13 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with PER3(4/4) participants. Our results indicate that the polymorphism in the clock gene PER3 may contribute to interindividual differences in sleep and circadian physiology in older people. [less ▲]

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See detailAn interior point method based optimal power flow
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Glavic, Mevludin; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

(2005, June)

This paper deals with the solution of an optimal power flow (OPF) problem by the interior point method (IPM). The latter is a very appealing approach to this nonlinear programming problem due to its speed ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the solution of an optimal power flow (OPF) problem by the interior point method (IPM). The latter is a very appealing approach to this nonlinear programming problem due to its speed of convergence and ease of handling inequality constraints. Two interior point algorithms are presented and compared: the pure primal-dual and the predictor-corrector. Several implementation aspects of these IPM algorithms are also discussed. The OPF is formulated in rectangular coordinates which confers some significant advantages because generally its objective and constraints are quadratic functions. Among the large variety of OPF objectives, emphasis is put on two classical ones: the minimization of generation cost and the minimization of transmission active power losses. The solution obtained by both algorithms proves to be robust for the two OPF sub-problems (optimization of active power flows and reactive power flows) as well as for a full OPF applied to the former objective, which is unanimously recognized as the hardest problem to solve. Finally, numerical results on three test systems ranging from 60 to 300 buses are provided. [less ▲]

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See detailInterior-point based algorithms for the solution of optimal power flow problems
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Glavic, Mevludin; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Electric Power Systems Research (2007), 77(5-6), 508-517

Interior-point method (IPM) is a very appealing approach to the optimal power flow (OPF) problem mainly due to its speed of convergence and ease of handling inequality constraints. This paper analyzes the ... [more ▼]

Interior-point method (IPM) is a very appealing approach to the optimal power flow (OPF) problem mainly due to its speed of convergence and ease of handling inequality constraints. This paper analyzes the ability of three interior-point (IP) based algorithms, namely the pure primal-dual (PD), the predictor-corrector (PC) and the multiple centrality corrections (MCC), to solve various classical OPF problems: minimization of overall generation cost, minimization of active power losses, maximization of power system loadability and minimization of the amount of load curtailment. These OPF variants have been formulated using a rectangular model for the (complex) voltages. Numerical results on three test systems of 60, 118 and 300 buses are reported. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interior-to-edge breakpoint distance as a guideline for nature conservation policy.
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Salvador-Van Eysenrode, D; Impens, I

in Environmental Management (2001), 27(4), 493-500

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See detailInterjections
Denizot, Camille ULg

in Giannakis, Georgios K. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics (2013)

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See detailInterkeukin-10s encoded by viruses : a remarkable example of independent acquisitions of a cellular gene by viruses and its subsequent evolution in the viral genome
Ouyang, Ping; Rakus, Krzysztof ULg; Van Beurden, Steven et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2013)

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See detailInterlaboratory Evaluation Of Two Reverse-Transcriptase Polymeric Chain Reaction-Based Methods For Detection Of Four Fruit Tree Viruses
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Barbarossa, L. et al

in Annals of Applied Biology (2009), 154(1), 133-141

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See detailInterlaboratory studies on two high-performance liquid chromatographic assays for tylosin (tartrate)
Vander Heyden, Y.; Saevels, J.; Roets, E. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (1999), 830(1), 3-28

An interlaboratory study was performed on two high-performance liquid chromatographic methods to determine tylosin. The first method is a reversed-phase HPLC on a C-18 column, while the second is a method ... [more ▼]

An interlaboratory study was performed on two high-performance liquid chromatographic methods to determine tylosin. The first method is a reversed-phase HPLC on a C-18 column, while the second is a method using a polymeric stationary phase. The first method is described in several pharmacopoeia monographs on tylosin, to determine the composition of a tylosin mixture, while the second method is recently proposed to determine both the composition and the contents in such a mixture. The interlaboratory studies were set-up and interpreted according to ISO guidelines. This paper is written as a tutorial type of article explaining the principles and methods of these guidelines. The results of both methods were compared. Both were found to have disadvantages but in general the old method is still preferred, both for composition determination and to assay the components. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailInterlaboratory study of a liquid chromatography method for erythromycin: determination of uncertainty.
Dehouck, P.; Vander Heyden, Y.; Smeyers-Verbeke, J. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2003), 1010(1), 63-74

Erythromycin is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics produced by Saccharopolyspora erythreas during fermentation. A new method for the analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography has previously been ... [more ▼]

Erythromycin is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics produced by Saccharopolyspora erythreas during fermentation. A new method for the analysis of erythromycin by liquid chromatography has previously been developed. It makes use of an Astec C18 polymeric column. After validation in one laboratory, the method was now validated in an interlaboratory study. Validation studies are commonly used to test the fitness of the analytical method prior to its use for routine quality testing. The data derived in the interlaboratory study can be used to make an uncertainty statement as well. The relationship between validation and uncertainty statement is not clear for many analysts and there is a need to show how the existing data, derived during validation, can be used in practice. Eight laboratories participated in this interlaboratory study. The set-up allowed the determination of the repeatability variance, s(2)r and the between-laboratory variance, s(2)L. Combination of s(2)r and s(2)L results in the reproducibility variance s(2)R. It has been shown how these data can be used in future by a single laboratory that wants to make an uncertainty statement concerning the same analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailInterlaboratory study of a NACE method for the determination of R-timolol content in S-timolol maleate: assessment of uncertainty.
Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg; Groom, Carl; Doucet, Francois R et al

in Electrophoresis (2006), 27(12), 2386-99

Analyses of statistical variance were applied to evaluate the precision and practicality of a CD-based NACE assay for R-timolol after enantiomeric separation of R- and S-timolol. Data were collected in an ... [more ▼]

Analyses of statistical variance were applied to evaluate the precision and practicality of a CD-based NACE assay for R-timolol after enantiomeric separation of R- and S-timolol. Data were collected in an interlaboratory study by 11 participating laboratories located in Europe and North America. General qualitative method performance was examined using suitability descriptors (i.e. resolution, selectivity, migration times and S/N), while precision was determined by quantification of variances in the determination of R-timolol at four different impurity levels in S-timolol maleate samples. The interlaboratory trials were designed in accordance with the ISO guideline 5725-2. This allowed estimating for each sample, the different variances, i.e. between-laboratory (s2(Laboratories)), between-day (s2(Days)) and between-replicate (s2(Replicates)). The variances of repeatability (s2r) and reproducibility (s2R) were then calculated. The estimated uncertainty, derived from the precision estimates, seems to be concentration-dependent above a given threshold. This example of R-timolol illustrates how a laboratory can evaluate uncertainty in general. [less ▲]

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See detailInterleukin-1 Beta Induces Nuclear Factor Kappa B in Epithelial Cells Independently of the Production of Reactive Oxygen Intermediates
Bonizzi, Giuseppina; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Piret, Bernard et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1996), 242(3), 544-9

A large body of work has been devoted to tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) signaling leading to the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B ... [more ▼]

A large body of work has been devoted to tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) signaling leading to the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in various cell types. Several studies have indicated that NF-kappa B activation depends strictly on the production of reactive oxygen intermediates. In this report, we first demonstrated that IL-1 beta is a potent activator of NF-kappa B in various epithelial transformed cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, MCF7 A/Z). In these cells, IL-1 beta rapidly induces NF-kappa B through a complete degradation of I kappa B-alpha, while H2O2 activates NF-kappa B with slower kinetics through a partial degradation of I kappa B-alpha, p100 and p105. We showed that IL-1 beta-mediated induction of NF-kappa B in OVCAR-3 and in other epithelial cell lines does not proceed through the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, while the same cytokine activates NF-kappa B in lymphoid cells through the intracellular generation of H2O2. Our study demonstrated that several signaling pathways lead to the activation of NF-kappa B, following IL-1 beta treatment in different cell types. [less ▲]

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See detailInterleukin-1, interleukin-6 and oncostatin M stimulate normal subchondral osteoblasts to induce cartilage degradation
Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Deberg, Michelle ULg; Piccardi, Nathalie et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2004), 12(Suppl. B), 98

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See detailInterleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and Oncostatin M Stimulate Normal Subchondral Osteoblasts to Induce Cartilage Degradation
Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Deberg, Michelle ULg; Piccardi, Nathalie et al

in Osteoporosis International (2005), 16(Suppl 3), 54-55

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