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See detailHyperhydricity of micropropagated shoots: a typically stress-induced change of physiological state
Kevers, Claire ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Strasser, Reto et al

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2004), 77(2), 181-191

Hyperhydricity of micropropagated shoots, formerly called vitrification, undoubtedly results from growth and culture conditions, subjectively reputated as stressing factors: wounding, infiltration of soft ... [more ▼]

Hyperhydricity of micropropagated shoots, formerly called vitrification, undoubtedly results from growth and culture conditions, subjectively reputated as stressing factors: wounding, infiltration of soft culture medium, generally of a high ionic strength, rich in nitrogen and in growth regulators in a special balance, in a humid and gaseous confined atmosphere. Stress is (objectively) defined as a disruption of homeostasis resulting from a constraint escaping the usual flexibility of metabolism. It induces another temporary (reversible) or definitive (irreversible) thermodynamic physiological state. The state-change concept developed by Strasser (1988) and Strasser and Tsimilli-Michael (2001) is applicable to the phenomenon of hyperhydricity. An appraisal of the redox capacities of hyperhydrated shoots together with a study of some enzymic activities that catalyse pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways has indeed shown that such shoots have evolved towards a temporary state of lower differentiation or a juvenile state with a sufficient activity to survive and to defend themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperhydricity of Prunus avium shoots cultured on gelrite: a controlled stress response
Franck, Thierry ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Gaspar, Thomas ULg et al

in Plant Physiology & Biochemistry (2004), 42(6), 519-527

Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder frequently affecting shoots vegetatively propagated in vitro. Hyperhydric shoots are characterised by a translucent aspect due to a chlorophyll deficiency, a not ... [more ▼]

Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder frequently affecting shoots vegetatively propagated in vitro. Hyperhydric shoots are characterised by a translucent aspect due to a chlorophyll deficiency, a not very developed cell wall and a high water content. Hyperhydricity of Prunus avium shoots was expressed in vitro in one multiplication cycle by replacing the gelling agent agar (normal shoots: NS) by gelrite (hyperhydric shoots: HS). P. avium shoots evolving towards the hyperhydric state produced higher amounts of ethylene, polyamines (PAs) and proline, which are substances considered as stress markers. A higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.9), involved in organic hydroperoxide elimination, suggested an increased production of these compounds in HS. The unchanged free fatty acid composition indicated no HS membrane damages compared to NS. The ploidy level of HS nuclei was not affected, but the bigger size and the lower percentage of nuclei during the S phase suggested a slowing down of the cell cycle. The results argued for a stress response of the HS, but no signs of oxidative damages of lipid membrane and nucleus were observed. The discussion points out paradoxical results in a classical analysis of stress and suggests an alternative way of defense mechanisms in HS, involving homeostatic regulation and controlled degradation processes to maintain integrity and vital functions of the cell. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHYPERINSULINISM-HYPERAMMONEMIA: AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF HYPOKETOTIC HYPOGLYCEMIA
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; leroy, patricia et al

Poster (2010, March)

BACKGROUND Etiological diagnosis of hypoglycaemia in infancy is a complex process, requiring careful integration of detailed history, clinical and laboratory data. The causes of recurrent infant ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND Etiological diagnosis of hypoglycaemia in infancy is a complex process, requiring careful integration of detailed history, clinical and laboratory data. The causes of recurrent infant hypoglycaemia include excessive insulin secretion, surreptitious insulin administration, deficiency of counter-regulatory hormones and inborn errors of metabolism. CLINICAL CASE A 10 month old girl was admitted at our emergency unit for generalized seizures without fever. Routine laboratory investigations were normal but blood glucose level was at 31 mg/dl. No ketone bodies were found in the urine. Past medical history revealed failure to thrive. A first seizure episode at 8 months of age during family’s holiday is reported. Tests performed in a foreign hospital revealed glycaemia at 36mg/dl. During her stay in our paediatric unit, several hypoglycaemias (31-45 mg/dl) were documented related to irritability as initial symptom of neuroglucopaenia. Detailed medical history revealed that fast tolerance was shorten with hypoglycaemia documented between one to three hours after eating. Clinical examination showed absence of hepatomegaly and failure to thrive: weight, -3SD; height, -2SD, and cranial circumference -2SD. At the time of hypoglycaemia, urinary tests revealed absence of ketonuria, that basically evokes hyperinsulinism or fatty acid oxidation deficiencies but these deficiencies were rapidly excluded by the very short fast state. Blood acylcarnitine profile was normal. Hyperinsulinism is defined by a ratio glycaemia/insulin below 4 with insulin values not necessary high. Since hyperinsulinism can not be excluded with only one blood measure, series of taking were performed during 24 hours. One of these tests was clearly positive with ratio equal to 2.3 (glycaemia at 41 mg/dl, insulin at 18µU/ml). For this patient, ammonemia was also tested with values ranged from 242 to 275 µg/dl (normal < 125) and the diagnosis of hyperinsulinism/hyperammoniemia (hi/ha) was made and confirmed by molecular analysis (mutation c.965G>A (p.R269H) in the GLUD1 gene). The treatment consists in this case by diazoxide and reduction of leucine intakes (< 200 mg of leucine/meal). DISCUSSION Differential diagnosis of hypoglycaemia with absence of ketonuria and absence of hepatomegaly include fatty acids β-oxidation defects, ketogenesis defects and hyperinsulinisms. Short fasting and post-prandial induced hypoglycaemia pointed to hyperinsulinism in our patient. Congenital hyperinsulinism includes KATP, glucokinase or glutamate deshydrogenase mutations. Hi/ha syndrome is due to activating mutations in the GLUD1 gene, coding for the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Such mutations reduce the sensitivity of the enzyme to allosteric inhibition by GTP and consequently increase its sensitivity to allosteric activation by L-leucine. Hyperactivity of the GDH is responsible for over-oxidation of glutamate in β-pancreatic cells, increase of the ATP/ADP ratio and insulin release. Hyperactivity of GDH in liver is also responsible for hyperammonemia, which is usually mild and considered harmless for the brain. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown an increased epilepsy risk in cohorts of patients with hi/ha. CONCLUSION This case points out the importance of necessity for first investigations of infant documented case of hypoglycaemia. Patient history must focus on symptoms such as shorten fast tolerance periods and neurological symptoms of glucose deprivation. Blood samples should be taken at the time of hypoglycaemia and urine samples as soon as possible after the episode of hypoglycaemia. Initial normal insulin values do not allow the exclusion of the diagnosis of hyperinsulinism. [less ▲]

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See detailL'hyperkaliemie, ce nouveau tueur?
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(4), 222-6

Hyperkalemia is now commonly observed due to several associated factors such as old age, diabetes, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency and drugs such as spironolactone used to improve cardiac ... [more ▼]

Hyperkalemia is now commonly observed due to several associated factors such as old age, diabetes, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency and drugs such as spironolactone used to improve cardiac function. Moreover, the easily prescribed new antiinflammatory drugs COX2 selective inhibitors in these patients lead to a very acute risk for vital hyperkalemia development. This review insists on the prevention of such potentially reversible disorder. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperkeratotic nail discoid lupus erythernatosus evolving towards systemic lupus erythematosus: therapeutic difficulties
Richert, Bertrand ULg; André, J.; Bourguignon, R. et al

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2004), 18(6), 728-730

Nail changes occur in about 25% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases. Onycholysis has been reported as the most frequent abnormality in SLE. Nailbed hyperkeratosis may be observed in both SLE and ... [more ▼]

Nail changes occur in about 25% of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases. Onycholysis has been reported as the most frequent abnormality in SLE. Nailbed hyperkeratosis may be observed in both SLE and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). Involvement of the nail apparatus in DLE is extremely uncommon and never restricted to it. We report on a patient in whom the clinical features on the proximal nailfold were similar to those observed on the skin of a patient with typical DLE. This has, to the best of our knowledge, not yet been reported. The patient also exhibited a very distinctive prominent subungual hyperkeratosis. Interestingly, the patient developed biological alterations suggesting a systematization of the disease. Only a combination of systemic corticoids, retinoids and antimalarials was able to achieve nail improvement and this partial resistance to therapy may be explained by the very unusual subungual hyperkeratosis. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperlipidemies et medicaments hypolipidemiants.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Journal de Pharmacie de Belgique (1993), 48(2), 92-101

Hyperlipidaemia, as a primary atherogenic risk factor, represents a major problem of public health. This review first reminds the main steps of lipoprotein metabolism, the classification of the most ... [more ▼]

Hyperlipidaemia, as a primary atherogenic risk factor, represents a major problem of public health. This review first reminds the main steps of lipoprotein metabolism, the classification of the most frequent hyperlipidaemias, the objectives of the treatment and the required initial evaluation allowing to decide how to manage the patient. Thereafter, it describes all the available treatments, more particularly the characteristics of the various lipid lowering drugs. Finally, it proposes a step by step strategy for the treatment of the main hyperlipidaemias and summarizes the managements of some particular cases. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperManagement: Analyser et Décider avec Hypercard
Choffray, Jean-Marie ULg; Claessens, Michel

Report (1991)

D'accès facile, HyperManagement, permet au lecteur de faire le point sur Hypercard, environnement de développement disponible sur Macintosh, et son utilisation dans le cadre du développement de systèmes d ... [more ▼]

D'accès facile, HyperManagement, permet au lecteur de faire le point sur Hypercard, environnement de développement disponible sur Macintosh, et son utilisation dans le cadre du développement de systèmes d'aide à la décision. Il décrit plusieurs domaines particulièrement prometteurs pour lesquels un logiciel spécifique est proposé et illustré. [less ▲]

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See detailHypermedia : teaching through assessment
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg; Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg

in Leclercq, Dieudonné (Ed.) Item banking : interactive testing and self assessment : proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop held in Liege, Belgium, October 27-31, 1992 (1993)

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See detailHypermedia: Teaching Through Assessment
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg; Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg

in Leclercq, Dieudonné; Gilles, Jean-Luc (Eds.) Item Banking: Interactive Testing and Self-Assessment (1993)

This paper illustrates in which directions hypermedia could enhance educational assessment. Barriers between learning, teaching and assessment disappear. The autonomy of the learner is increased and ... [more ▼]

This paper illustrates in which directions hypermedia could enhance educational assessment. Barriers between learning, teaching and assessment disappear. The autonomy of the learner is increased and, consequently, his/her metacognitive activity. The item bnk view is progressively transformed into a learning environment that has to be explored and that helps the learner to explore his/her own learning and assessing strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailHypermédias et tuteurs intelligents : vers un compromis
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg

in Baron, J. L. (Ed.) Hypermédias et apprentissages (1991)

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See detail"Hypermoderne" le mangeur belge ?
Duquesne, Brigitte ULg

Conference (2010)

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See detailLes hypernatremies en pathologie neurochirurgicale
Hans, Pol ULg; BONHOMME, Vincent ULg; Damas, François ULg

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2001), 20(2), 213-8

Hypernatraemia is defined as an increase in extracellular sodium concentration, associated with plasma hyperosmolality and cellular dehydration. It can result from excessive water loss, from an increase ... [more ▼]

Hypernatraemia is defined as an increase in extracellular sodium concentration, associated with plasma hyperosmolality and cellular dehydration. It can result from excessive water loss, from an increase in the total sodium content or from both mechanisms. As far as neurosurgical pathology is concerned, hypernatraemia due to excessive water loss may be observed in patients who do not sense thirst or are unable to ingest water. Urinary water loss is seen in diabetes insipidus and osmotic diuresis. Extrarenal water losses from pulmonary origin may be observed in intubated or tracheotomized patients. Hypernatraemia with sodium and water retention may be encountered in patients suffering from Cushing diseases or syndromes, or more frequently in those who are given excessive amounts of sodium (hypertonic saline, sodium salts). Clinical manifestations of hypernatraemia consist of neurologic symptoms related to cellular dehydration; their severity is correlated with the rapidity of the onset of the electrolytic disorder. Depending on the pathophysiological mechanism, treatment of hypernatraemia involves stopping sodium intake, restoring normovolaemia and administering hypotonic fluids. Treatment of diabetes insipidus relies on the administration of the antidiuretic hormone and of drugs that increase its secretion rate or its responsiveness in the kidneys. [less ▲]

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See detailUne hyperparathyroïdie, vous êtes certain ?
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Actualité Médicale Belge (1997), 541

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See detailLes hyperparathyroidies primaires: étiologies, diagnostic et traitement.
Janssens, L.; Verbeke, V.; Petrossians, Patrick ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(11), 977-985

L'hyperparathyroïdie primaire est une maladie trop souvent méconnue. Son incidence est estimée à 28/100.000, soit environ 2.800 nouveaux cas par an en Belgique. La fréquence de l'hyperparathyroïdie ... [more ▼]

L'hyperparathyroïdie primaire est une maladie trop souvent méconnue. Son incidence est estimée à 28/100.000, soit environ 2.800 nouveaux cas par an en Belgique. La fréquence de l'hyperparathyroïdie augmente avec l'âge. En effet, 50 % des cas sont rencontrés après l'âge de 70 ans et 3 à 4 % des femmes au-delà de 70 ans sont touchées par l'affection. Cette affection peut être sporadique ou survenir dans un cadre étiologique plus complexe tel que les polyendocrinopathies ou la neurofibromatose. L'attention vers ce diagnostic doit être attirée par une symptomatologie, souvent bâtarde, de fatigue (parfois isolée), de polyurie, de polydipsie, d'hypertension artérielle ou la présence de lithiases rénales. Lorsque le diagnostic d'hyperparathyroïdie est renteu, il convient de localiser la ou les glande(s) pathologique(s) et de définir le contexte étiologique qui pourra déterminer le choix thérapeutique le plus approprié. Une étude biologique simple sera réalisée devant toute suspicion d'hyperparathyroïdie. Dans certains cas, le diagnostic sera aidé par la réalisation d'un test de surcharge calcique qui peut permettre de confirmer l'hyperparathyroïdie et d'apprécier son degré d'autonomisation. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 : Surgical trends and results : a 256-patient series from the genem study group
Goudet, P.; Cougard, P.; Verges, B. et al

in World Journal of Surgery (2001), 25(7), 886-890

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See detailLes hyperpaysages - Comment percevoir, interpréter et exprimer la complexité des sociétés derrière les paysages ?
Partoune, Christine ULg; Ericx, Michel

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2005), 45

The design of a landscape’s virtual tour starting from an interactive panoramic image (hyperlandscape) can become a way to develop and express a glance and a speech on the landscape integrating certain ... [more ▼]

The design of a landscape’s virtual tour starting from an interactive panoramic image (hyperlandscape) can become a way to develop and express a glance and a speech on the landscape integrating certain principles of the complex thought. In complement of discovery activities and field works appropriate to this objective, the design of a virtual structure of the space on combinative mode would put into our mind some dynamic mental maps for organizing our thoughts. These mental maps could constitute metaphors which would be used as support for structuring our perceptions and thought starting from a systemic groundwork. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperpaysages - Sensibiliser à l'aménagement du territoire par les nouvelles technologies
Partoune, Christine ULg; Pirenne, Marie; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2002)

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See detailHyperplasia of Intermediate Lobe may be related to mutation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Protein Gene in a Context of Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA)
Naves, L.; Costa, A.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in European Neuroendocrine Association - Liège, 22-25 septembre 2010 (2010, September)

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See detailHyperplasia of rat arteries smooth muscle cells associated with development and reversal of renal hypertension.
Rorive, G. L.; Carlier, P. J.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Clinical Science (1980), 59(suppl 6), 335-338

1. Renal hypertension produces a marked and rapidly detectable hypertrophy of the rat aorta, due to smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and connective tissue deposition. 2. As we described previously for ... [more ▼]

1. Renal hypertension produces a marked and rapidly detectable hypertrophy of the rat aorta, due to smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and connective tissue deposition. 2. As we described previously for collagen synthesis, cell hyperplasia is a very early event which reaches a maximum at a time when the blood pressure is far from its highest level, and thereafter progressively decreases. 3. Reserpine prevents the vascular wall changes on the arterial as well as the venous side of the circulation. On the other hand, captopril although effective in preventing the blood pressure rise does not suppress the hyperplastic response. 4. The arterial hypertensive disease appears to be reversible, when renal ischaemia is corrected. The smooth muscle cell hyperplasia is, however, only partly and slowly reversible. 5. These data suggest that blood pressure is not the only determinant of the vascular wall response, and that the effect of a drug on the blood pressure does nt necessarily predict the vascular wall response. [less ▲]

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