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See detailInter-method variability in bone alkaline phosphatase measurement : clinical impact on the management of dialysis patients
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; GADISSEUR, Romy ULg et al

in Clinical Biochemistry (in press)

BACKGROUND: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is now recommended to assess bone turnover in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, little is known about potential variability between methods ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is now recommended to assess bone turnover in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, little is known about potential variability between methods available to measure BAP. METHODS: We measured BAP in 76 HD patients with six different assays (Beckman-Coulter Ostase IRMA, Beckman-Coulter Ostase Access, IDS iSYS Ostase, IDS Ostase enzyme immunoassay, DiaSorin Liaison Ostase and Quidel MicroVue BAP). RESULTS: We observed a high correlation between all the assays ranging from 0.9948 (IDS iSYS vs. IDS EIA) to 0.9215 (DiaSorin Liaison vs. Quidel MicroVue). However, using the regression equations, the equivalent concentration of a Beckman-Coulter Access value of 10μg/L can range from 7.7 to 14.4μg/L and of 20μg/L can range from 16.9 to 27.9μg/L with other assays. According to Beckman-Coulter Access, 13%, 50% and 37% of the patients presented BAP values ≤10, between 10 and 20 and ≥20μg/L, respectively. Discrepancies are observed when other assays are used (concordance from 10 to 100%). CONCLUSIONS: Analytical problems leading to inter-method variation should be overcome to improve the usefulness of this marker in clinical practice. According to correlation results, recalibration of BAP assays is necessary but should not be a major issue. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-modal freight terminal location in Europe : a strategic model
Jourquin, Bart; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in Proceedings of the BIVEC-GIBET, Transport Research Day 2007 (2007)

The political pressure in favour of multi- and inter-modal transport has oriented the focus on sustainable transport solutions. Inter-modal transport is one of the possible solutions, but its efficiency ... [more ▼]

The political pressure in favour of multi- and inter-modal transport has oriented the focus on sustainable transport solutions. Inter-modal transport is one of the possible solutions, but its efficiency strongly depends on the places where the container terminals are located. The number of possible locations on large scale networks becomes rapidly too large to be taken as input by exact location methods. That’s why the first goal of this paper is to outline a method that helps to identify the best potential locations out of the thousands of potential nodes. The basic idea is to use the flows of commodities and their geographic spreading as input to determine a set of good potential locations for transfer inter-modal terminals. This set can, in a second step, be used as input for already well known optimal location models in order to identify the optimal locations for container terminals in Europe. The methodology is illustrated over the whole trans-European networks. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results: the model predicts a reduction of the total transportation costs on the network and a modal shift from road to rail. It also evaluates the new modal shift and other indicators [less ▲]

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See detailInter-modal freight terminal location in Europe: a strategic model
Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2006)

The political pressure in favour of multi- and inter-modal transport has oriented the focus on sustainable transport solutions. Inter-modal transport is one of the (partial) possible solutions, but its ... [more ▼]

The political pressure in favour of multi- and inter-modal transport has oriented the focus on sustainable transport solutions. Inter-modal transport is one of the (partial) possible solutions, but its efficiency strongly depends on the places where the container terminals are located. The number of possible locations on large scale networks such as the European one becomes rapidly too large to be taken as input by exact location methods. That’s why the first goal of this paper is to outline a method that helps to identify the best potential locations out of the thousands of potential nodes. The basic idea is to use the flows of commodities and their geographic spreading as input to determine a set of good potential locations for transfer inter-modal terminals. This set can, in a second step, be used as input for already well known optimal location models in order to identify the optimal locations for container terminals in Europe. The complete methodology is illustrated by means on a case study that concerns multi-modal transport over the whole trans-European networks. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-modal freight terminals location: Discover the best potential locations on large networks
Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Jourquin, Bart

Conference (2005)

The optimal location of a facility is a rather complex task that was already studied many times. Several optimal location problems and solution exists, but only a few can be applied to the location of ... [more ▼]

The optimal location of a facility is a rather complex task that was already studied many times. Several optimal location problems and solution exists, but only a few can be applied to the location of multimodal freight terminals. Among the possible approaches, if theoretical solutions can be found in the literature, the computational complexity of the proposed methods make them impossible to be applied to real world large geographical networks. Indeed, many of them are based on linear programming, for which the number of constraints drastically increases with the number of terminals to take into account. This paper identifies the possible existing theoretical exact solutions and the framework of a new approach, in which the initial set of potential terminals is computed by means of the results obtained by the assignment of the flows of commodities on the trans-European network [less ▲]

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See detailInter-Modal Terminals for Freight
Limbourg, Sabine ULg; Jourquin, Bart

Conference (2005)

The optimal location of terminals and logistic centres is an up-to-date research topic. The first goal of this paper is to outline a method that helps to isolate the best potential locations. The basic ... [more ▼]

The optimal location of terminals and logistic centres is an up-to-date research topic. The first goal of this paper is to outline a method that helps to isolate the best potential locations. The basic idea is to use the flows of commodities and their geographic spreading as input to determine a set of good potential locations for inter-modal terminals on the trans-European networks. This set can then be used in conjunction with already known optimal location models. Some approaches to solve the optimal location problems will be briefly presented. After that, the method used to obtain a detailed O-D matrix for European international freight traffic will be outlined, in addition to a short explanation on the way the demand can be assigned on a multi-modal freight transportation network. The assigned flow will be used as input to compute a set of potential locations. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-observer variation in the histopathological diagnosis of clinically suspicious pigmented skin lesions.
Brochez, Lieve; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Grosshans, Edouard et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2002), 196(4), 459-66

When a biopsy is taken of a suspicious pigmented skin lesion, histological examination is expected to establish the definitive diagnosis. This study evaluated the inter-observer variation of 20 ... [more ▼]

When a biopsy is taken of a suspicious pigmented skin lesion, histological examination is expected to establish the definitive diagnosis. This study evaluated the inter-observer variation of 20 pathologists in the histological diagnosis of a randomly selected set of suspicious pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), by comparing their diagnoses to a reference diagnosis. Overall sensitivity for melanoma was 87%, ranging from 55% to 100% between the observers. Sensitivity was significantly lower for thin (Breslow thickness <1 mm) than for thick melanomas (83% versus 97%, p=0.005). Overall melanoma specificity was 94%, ranging from 83% to 100% between observers. Dysplastic naevus was the most important source of false-positive diagnoses, mainly in situ melanomas. Positive and negative predictive values in the given test set were 75% and 97%, respectively. In the case of melanoma, there was quite some variation in measured Breslow thickness. This would have led to a different therapeutic approach in 12% of the readings. Some of the variation seemed to be due to a different interpretation of the presence of a co-existent naevus. In 9% (3/35) of the readings, participants did not agree on the presence of ulceration. These results reflect a tendency to overdiagnose mainly thin melanomas in general histopathological practice. They also demonstrate variation in the assessment of major prognostic factors of melanoma. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-organizational innovation projects developed within the framework of a public policy - Discussion and observations about the nature of innovations, cooperation practices and their interrelationships
Antoine, Mélanie ULg

Conference (2008, May)

In recent years, the promotion of R&D partnerships between universities, research labs and companies has become a key feature of innovation and development public policies. However, these collaborations ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the promotion of R&D partnerships between universities, research labs and companies has become a key feature of innovation and development public policies. However, these collaborations turn out to be fragile and their management very complex. In our literature review, the congruence between the nature of innovations (i.e. their radicalness) and the cooperation practices appears as a potentially powerful explanatory factor of interfirm innovation project’s outcome. Following this hypothesis, we explore, on two case studies of projects subsidized by the Walloon Competitive Clusters program, the way actors innovate and organize their actions. Though they face similar constraints, these projects illustrate diverse configurations, not only as to the nature of innovations but also as to cooperation practices. Besides, the analysis reveals that the criteria used to characterize the nature of innovations do not necessarily form a homogeneous set of factors. Considering these observations, we try to identify the main challenges faced by both projects’ partners. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-organizational learning within innovation projects : critical stages, issues and good practices
Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Chalant, Ingrid ULg; Degré, Julie ULg et al

Conference (2009, October 13)

In September 2005, the Walloon Government decided to adopt “the Walloon Marshall Plan”, one of the priorities of which is the setting up of competitiveness clusters bringing together different ... [more ▼]

In September 2005, the Walloon Government decided to adopt “the Walloon Marshall Plan”, one of the priorities of which is the setting up of competitiveness clusters bringing together different contributors (businesses, private & public research centres and training centres). In this context, our aim is to understand how the businesses and the research and training centres are managing to put in place partnership dynamics in order to create innovative projects. To achieve this, we have chosen to focus primarily on the dynamics of inter-organizational learning. Consequently, within the five competitiveness clusters set up in mid-2006, we have opted to focus in particular on 4 projects which have emerged from them. The conceptual model upon which we have based our initiative is structured around this aim and makes use of various analytical benchmarks. Inspired in particular by the work of Holmqvist (2003), this model constitutes our reading and analysis framework for the projects selected from the four competitiveness clusters selected. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-professional cooperation between family, occupational and social insurance physicians in managing long-term sickness absence
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg et al

Conference (2014, September 30)

Background In the Belgian health system, sickness absence (SA) management implies complementary roles for general practitioners (GPs), social insurance physicians (SIPs) and occupational physicians (OPs ... [more ▼]

Background In the Belgian health system, sickness absence (SA) management implies complementary roles for general practitioners (GPs), social insurance physicians (SIPs) and occupational physicians (OPs): GPs deliver sick notes and treatment, SIPs control SA benefits and OPs strive to adapt work environments to workers’ remaining capacities. In practice however, there is little cooperation between the three physicians. In 2009, the Ministry of Employment commissioned a study to identify GP-OP-SIP cooperation channels in order to prevent long-term work disability. Methods The study involved two phases. 1) Researchers from the three groups agreed on 15 proposals to enhance cooperation: to establish a formal contact between GP, SIP and OP for patients with > 3 months SA (n=3) ; SIP decision to end SA benefit to be forwarded to the GP (n=2) ; work-related information to be provided by the OP to GP and/or SIP (n=4); website giving contact data of GPs, SIPs, and OPs (n=2) ; initial and continuous education focusing on inter-physician cooperation (n=3); electronic data exchange when dealing with long-term SA (n=1). 2) A Delphi study was conducted in 2012 to validate these proposals: 61 experts representing professional groups of physicians (GP, SIP, OP), patients, government, employers and labor unions were asked to participate. A 18-items questionnaire (the 15 proposals and 3 open questions) was used in a 2-round Delphi study. Proposals were accepted if 80% of experts agreed. For drafting the final proposals, the research team relied on a multidisciplinary expert group. Results Participation rate was 77% (47/61 experts) in round 1 and 7 out of the 15 proposals were accepted. During round 2, participation rate was 94% (44/47); 2 of the remaining proposals reached agreement level. Public authorities were thus advised to invest in a) promotion of pre-return to work visit with the OP for sick-listed patients; b) a website with OPs contact data; c) joint guidelines for return to work guidance; d) joint training of the 3 physician groups; 5) methods ensuring safe electronic information exchange. Conclusions The need for inter-physician cooperation in disability management may exceed individual goodwill and should best be organised by public authorities. The current study may be a first step in this process. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-session, inter-tester and inter-site reproducibility of isometric trunk muscle strength measurements
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Grosdent, Stéphanie ULg; Debois, I. et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2006), 14(4), 317-325

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-session, inter-tester and inter-site reproducibility of trunk muscle strength scores in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. Ten healthy ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-session, inter-tester and inter-site reproducibility of trunk muscle strength scores in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. Ten healthy students were tested on four apparatus with a 7-10 day break between sessions. The first two sessions were identical while the other two differed either by the tester or by the site. Furthermore, 10 patients with chronic low back dysfunction (CLBD) were assessed with the four apparatus, once only. For all tests, CV ranged from 3.4% to 7.6% and from 3.9% to 8.1% in the inter-session and inter-tester studies, respectively (p > 0.05 except for inter-session reproducibility of trunk flexor strength). Peak torque (PT) was more variable from site to site with a CV ranging from 4.2% to 12.7%, particularly in extension and left lateral flexion (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference in the strength ratios (flexion/extension, right/left lateral-flexion and right/left rotation) were found between sessions or testers (4.9% < CV < 9.7%). The inter-site reproducibility of ratios was lower. Comparison between the CLBD patients and the healthy subjects with regard to PT normalized to body weight indicated significantly decreased performance for the former except for flexion and rotation scores in males. We conclude that in the case of healthy subjects, inter-session and inter-tester trunk strength measurements derived from these devices are reproducible. The low inter-site reproducibility suggests that caution should be exercised when interpreting findings originating from different sites. The lower extension strength scores in CLBD patients test lends some validity to the system. However, further studies focusing on reproducibility and validity of this system in CLBD patients are critical before any conclusion regarding their clinical viability may be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 1. Accumulation patterns in harbour seals and harbour porpoises
Weijs, Liesbeth; Dirtu, Alin C; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2009), 157

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl ... [more ▼]

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and sum of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were 23.1 mg/g lipid weight (lw) and 0.33 mg/g lw in blubber of harbour seals (n ¼ 28) and 12.4 mg/g lw and 0.76 mg/g lw in blubber of harbour porpoises (n¼ 35), respectively. For both species, the highest PCB concentrations were observed in adult males indicating bioaccumulation. On the contrary, the highest PBDE concentrations were measured in juveniles, likely due to better-developed metabolic capacities with age in adults. A higher contribution of lower chlorinated and non-persistent congeners, such as CB 52, CB 95, CB 101, and CB 149, together with higher contributions of other PBDE congeners than BDE 47, indicated that harbour porpoises are unable to metabolize these compounds. Harbour seals showed a higher ability to metabolize PCBs and PBDEs. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 2. Biomagnification in harbour seals and harbour porpoises
Weijs, Liesbeth; Dirtu, Alin C; Das, Krishna ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2009), 157

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were found to differ in the ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs ... [more ▼]

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were found to differ in the ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Biomagnification factors (BMFs), calculated between both predators and their prey (sole – Solea solea and whiting – Merlangius merlangus), had a large range of variation (between 0.5 and 91 for PCBs and between 0.6 and 53 for PBDEs). For the higher chlorinated PCBs and the highest brominated PBDEs, the BMF values in adult males were significantly higher than in the juvenile individuals of both species. BMF values of hexa- to octa-PCBs were the highest, suggesting reduced ability to degrade these congeners. Harbour porpoises had higher BMFs for lower chlorinated PCBs and for all PBDEs compared to harbour seals. Other factors, which may influence biomagnification, such as the octanol–water partition coefficients and the trophic level position measured through stable isotope (d15N) analysis, were found to be of lesser importance to predict biomagnification in the studied food chain. [less ▲]

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See detailInterações entre professores e alunos em atividades esportivas selecionadas: o aluno como ponto de partida
Piéron, Maurice; Cloes, Marc ULg

in ArtUS (1981), 9/11

In physical education, many studies of the teaching process started by analysing verbal interactions between teacher and students. Observationsal systems used in classroom were applied as such in physical ... [more ▼]

In physical education, many studies of the teaching process started by analysing verbal interactions between teacher and students. Observationsal systems used in classroom were applied as such in physical education setting or were modified to better suit the specific aspects of the subject matter. The image provided by interaction analysis is supposed to reflect the climate of the class. ... [less ▲]

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See detailThe Interacting Early-Type Binary BD +40°4220 (V729 Cyg): Modeling the Colliding Winds Region
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg; Bohannan, B.

in Astrophysical Journal (1999), 517

We present an analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic observations of the mysterious early-type binary BD +40 deg4220. A new orbital solution is derived from the radial velocities of the absorption ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic observations of the mysterious early-type binary BD +40 deg4220. A new orbital solution is derived from the radial velocities of the absorption lines. We confirm that the secondary star is highly overluminous for its mass. The absorption lines of both components display phase-locked profile variations, with some of the secondary's lines going into emission between phi=0.20 and phi=0.55. A detailed investigation of the profile variability of the He II lambda4686 emission line reveals that the pattern of variability of this line is very stable. We show that part of the He II lambda4686 emission is produced in the wind interaction region between the stars. Most of the emission lines in the visual spectrum of BD +40 deg4220 display variations that are reminiscent of those observed on the He II lambda4686 line, pointing toward a similar origin. We present numerical simulations of emission-line profiles in a colliding winds binary, showing that an important part of the variability observed in BD +40 deg4220 can be explained by a colliding winds phenomenon. The properties of the wind interaction region can be accounted for if we assume that the secondary star is an evolved object, most probably some kind of Ofpe/WN9 transition star, with a mass loss rate of ~5.5x10^-6 M_solar yr^-1. We finally discuss the fundamental parameters of the binary, concluding that mass transfer must have played a crucial role in the evolution of this system. [less ▲]

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See detailInteracting elementary excitations in ultrarelativistic plasmas: Damping mechanisms and plasma thermodynamics
Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg

Doctoral thesis (1998)

This dissertation examines the properties of the elementary excitations in quark-gluon and electromagnetic plasmas. Due to Debye screening and Landau damping mechanisms, the interaction fields fall off at ... [more ▼]

This dissertation examines the properties of the elementary excitations in quark-gluon and electromagnetic plasmas. Due to Debye screening and Landau damping mechanisms, the interaction fields fall off at large distances, except for static magnetic and color-magnetic fields. The lack of screening of the magnetic interaction leads to a singularity at small momentum transfer in the matrix element for fermion-fermion scattering via the exchange of a single gluon, or a single photon. We analyze the effects of this singularity on the quasiparticle lifetimes in plasmas at zero and at finite temperature T. First, at T = 0, we find that the fermion excitations above the ground state are long-lived, as the Pauli exclusion principle limits the collision phase space. Because the magnetic interaction is long-ranged, the damping rates of the excitations near the edge of the Fermi sea vary linearly with the excitation energy. The quasiparticles are therefore not as well- defined as those encountered in non-relativistic plasmas, with short-ranged interactions, where the variation of the damping rates away from the Fermi surface is quadratic, thus slower. Second, we find that in plasmas at finite temperatures, the magnetic interaction introduces correlations between the successive scatterings of the fermion quasiparticles on the charges in the system. This effect leads to a decay law that decreases in time more rapidly than an exponential; however the quasiparticles are long-lived. We also derive a framework for ascertaining the effects of the long-ranged magnetic interaction on the thermodynamic properties of relativistic plasmas. Our method generalizes the concept of conserving, Φ-derivable, approximations to relativistic field theories. By treating the interaction field as a dynamical degree of freedom, we are able to derive the thermodynamical potential in terms of full propagators. This approach allows us to resolve the entropy into contributions from its interacting elementary excitations. [less ▲]

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See detailInteracting surface of the receptor-binding domain.
Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Callebaut, Isabelle; Van Lint, Carine et al

in Société Belge de Biochimie et de Biologie moléculaire. (2002, February 22)

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See detailInteracting winds in massive binaries
Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Pavlovski, Kresimir; Tkachenko, Andrew; Torres, Guillermo (Eds.) EAS Publications Series (2013, February 01)

Massive stars feature highly energetic stellar winds that interact whenever two such stars are bound in a binary system. The signatures of these interactions are nowadays found over a wide range of ... [more ▼]

Massive stars feature highly energetic stellar winds that interact whenever two such stars are bound in a binary system. The signatures of these interactions are nowadays found over a wide range of wavelengths, including the radio domain, the optical band, as well as X-rays and even γ-rays. A proper understanding of these effects is thus important to derive the fundamental parameters of the components of massive binaries from spectroscopic and photometric observations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interaction between a protein and a ligand molecule studied by linear and non-linear optical spectroscopies
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Méthivier, C.; Sartenaer, Y. et al

in Physical Chemical News (2007), 36

We use infrared reflection-adsorption (IRRAS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopies to study the interaction between a protein (avidin) and a ligand molecule (biocytin or its thiol derivative ... [more ▼]

We use infrared reflection-adsorption (IRRAS) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopies to study the interaction between a protein (avidin) and a ligand molecule (biocytin or its thiol derivative) adsorbed on metals (Au and Ag) and insulators (CaF2 in two separate spectral ranges 2800-3500 cm-1 and 1400-1800 cm-1, respectively. No specific interaction is detected by SFG when the measurements are carried out on metals although IRRAS measurements attest the presence of a protein ad-layer. This is explained by the disordered character of the adsorbed film of avidin which is therefore SFG inactive. When the experiments are performed on an insulating substrate, no change of the biocytin/CaF2 SFG spectrum is detected in the low spectral range (1400-1800 cm-1) after immersion in an avidin solution in contrast with what was clearly demonstrated in the 2800-3500 cm-1 spectral range. Finally, we report, for the first time, the observation by SFG of the CH2 scissor vibration mode at 1465 cm-1. [less ▲]

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See detailInteraction between antimicrobial peptides and membranes
Deleu, Magali ULg

Conference (2004)

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See detailInteraction between Antitumor Drugs and a Double-Stranded Oligonucleotide Studied by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (1999), 34(12), 1328-1337

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to investigate the complex formation between a double-stranded oligonucleotide and various antitumor drugs belonging to two categories: intercalators ... [more ▼]

Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to investigate the complex formation between a double-stranded oligonucleotide and various antitumor drugs belonging to two categories: intercalators (ethidium bromide, amsacrine and ascididemin) and minor groove binders (Hoechst 33258, netropsin, distamycin A, berenil and DAPI). The goal of this study was to determine whether the relative intensities in the mass spectra reflect the relative abundances of the species in the solution phase. The full-scan mass spectra suggest non-specific binding for the intercalators and specific binding for the minor groove binders. The preferential stoichiometries adopted by each minor groove binder were determined by studying the influence of the drug concentration on the spectra. We obtained 2:1 > 1:1 for distamycin, 1:1 > 2:1 for Hoechst 33258 and DAPI and only the 1 : 1 complex for netropsin and berenil. These features reflect their known behavior in solution. The compared tandem mass spectra of the 1 : 1 complexes with Hoechst 33258 and netropsin, when correlated with published crystallographic data, suggest the possibility of inferring some structural information. The relative binding affinities of the drug for the considered duplex were deduced with two by two competition experiments, assuming that the relative intensities reflect the composition of the solution phase. The obtained affinity scale is netropsin > distamycin A > DAPI > Hoechst 33258 > berenil. These examples show some of the potential uses of mass spectrometry as a useful tool for the characterization of specific drug binding to DNA, and possibly a rapid drug screening method requiring small amounts of materials. [less ▲]

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