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See detailIn vivo evaluation of the skin tensile strength by the suction method: pilot study coping with hysteresis and creep extension.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in ISRN dermatology (2013), 2013

From an engineering standpoint, both the skin and subcutaneous tissue act as interconnected load-transmitting structures. They are subject to a variety of intrinsic and environmental influences. Changes ... [more ▼]

From an engineering standpoint, both the skin and subcutaneous tissue act as interconnected load-transmitting structures. They are subject to a variety of intrinsic and environmental influences. Changes in the cutaneous viscoelasticity represent an important aspect in a series of skin conditions. The aim of this work was to explore the methodology of biomechanical measurements in order to better appreciate the evolution and severity of some connective tissue diseases. The Cutometer MPA 580 (C+K electronic) was used in the steep and progressive suction procedures. Adapting measurement modalities was explored in order to mitigate any variability in data collection. The repeat steep suction procedure conveniently reveals the creep phenomenon. By contrast, the progressive suction procedure highlights the hysteresis phenomenon. These viscoelastic characteristics are presently described using the 2 and 4 mm probes on normal skin and in scleroderma, acromegaly, corticosteroid-induced dermatoporosis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The apposition of an additional outer contention on the skin altered differently the manifestations of the creep extension and hysteresis among the tested skin conditions. Any change in the mechanical test procedure affects the data. In clinical and experimental settings, it is mandatory to adhere to a strict and controlled protocol. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo evidence for ligand-specific receptor activation in the central CRF system, as measured by local cerebral glucose utilization.
Warnock, Geoffrey ULg; Moechars, Dieder; Langlois, Xavier et al

in Peptides (2009), 30(5), 947-54

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is well known for its role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and its involvement in stress and anxiety. CRF acts via two main receptor subtypes ... [more ▼]

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is well known for its role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and its involvement in stress and anxiety. CRF acts via two main receptor subtypes, CRF(1) and CRF(2). Other endogenous CRF-related peptide ligands are the Urocortins 1 and 2 and Stresscopin. While CRF is thought to mediate its anxiogenic-like properties through CRF(1), the role of CRF(2) and its endogenous ligands Urocortin 2 and Stresscopin are less clear, with a suggested role in mediating the delayed effects of stress. Measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) provides an estimate of neuronal activity, and is of potential use as a translational tool in comparison to FDG PET. We hypothesized that comparison of the patterns of metabolic changes induced by CRF-related peptides could provide further information on their role in the brain. The present studies examined the effects of CRF-related peptides on LCGU, and the role of CRF(1) and CRF(2) in the CRF-induced LCGU response. CRF induced increases in LCGU in hypothalamic, thalamic, cerebellar and hippocampal regions, and further studies using antagonists or mutant mice lacking a functional CRF(1) receptor clearly suggested a role for CRF(2) in this effect. Urocortin 1 increased LCGU in a dissected hindbrain region. However, central administration of the CRF(2)-selective agonists Urocortin 2 and Stresscopin failed to affect LCGU, which may suggest ligand-dependent receptor activation within the CRF system. The present data supports a role for CRF(2) in the regulation of neuronal glucose metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo evidence that the stromelysin-3 metalloproteinase contributes in a paracrine manner to epithelial cell malignancy
Masson, R.; Lefebvre, O.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (1998), 140

Stromelysin-3 (ST3; Basset, P., J.P. Bellocq, C. Wolf, I. Stoll, P. Hutin, J.M. Limacher, O.L. Podhajcer, M.P. Chenard, M.C. Rio, P. Chambon. 1990. Nature. 348:699–704) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-3 (ST3; Basset, P., J.P. Bellocq, C. Wolf, I. Stoll, P. Hutin, J.M. Limacher, O.L. Podhajcer, M.P. Chenard, M.C. Rio, P. Chambon. 1990. Nature. 348:699–704) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressed in mesenchymal cells located close to epithelial cells, during physiological and pathological tissue remodeling processes. In human carcinomas, high ST3 levels are associated with a poor clinical outcome, suggesting that ST3 plays a role during malignant processes. In this study we report the ST3 gene inactivation by homologous recombination. Although ST3 null mice (ST3−/−) were fertile and did not exhibit obvious alterations in appearance and behavior, the lack of ST3 altered malignant processes. Thus, the suppression of ST3 results in a decreased 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene-induced tumorigenesis in ST3−/− mice. Moreover, ST3−/− fibroblasts have lost the capacity to promote implantation of MCF7 human malignant epithelial cells in nude mice (P < 0.008). Finally, we show that this ST3 paracrine function requires extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated growth factors. Altogether, these findings give evidence that ST3 promotes, in a paracrine manner, homing of malignant epithelial cells, a key process for both primary tumors and metastases. Therefore, ST3 represents an appropriate target for specific MMP inhibitor(s) in future therapeutical approaches directed against the stromal compartment of human carcinomas. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo expression analysis of Microsporum canis secreted subtilisin-like serine proteases in feline dermatophytosis
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Descamps, F.; Brouta, F. et al

in Veterinary Dermatology (2004), 15(suppl 1), 17-18

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See detailIn vivo expression of a Microsporum canis 43.5 kDa metalloprotease in infected guinea pigs
Brouta, F.; Descamps, F.; Monod, M. et al

Poster (2002)

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See detailIn Vivo Expression of Interleukin-1 Beta (Il-1 Beta), Il-2, Il-4, Il-6, Tumour Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interferon-Gamma in the Fetal Murine Thymus
Deman, J.; Van Meurs, M.; Claassen, E. et al

in Immunology (1996), 89(1), 152-7

Cytokines are known to play a role in T-cell lymphopoiesis as potent growth or differentiation factors, but many experiments focusing on their role in the thymus have been conducted only in vitro. We have ... [more ▼]

Cytokines are known to play a role in T-cell lymphopoiesis as potent growth or differentiation factors, but many experiments focusing on their role in the thymus have been conducted only in vitro. We have thus used frozen sections obtained from fetal thymuses of normal C57BL 6 mice to investigate by immunohistochemistry the presence of interleukin-1 beta (I4-1 beta), IL-2. IL-4. IL-6. interferon-7 (IFN-7) and tumour necrosis facor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The results reveal that apart from IL-2, which was not detected, all these cytokines display a time-dependent expression pattern in the normal fetal thymus. First, production of IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-alpha is detected around days 13 14; this is followed by a second wave on days 16 17, with a production of IL-1 beta, IL-4 and IL-6, and finally, just before birth (day 19), by a third wave of IL-1 beta, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-7 and TNF-alpha production. This supports the hypothesis that cytokines play a rote in T-cell lymphopoiesis. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vivo Free Radical Production after Cross-Clamping and Reperfusion of the Renal Artery in the Rabbit
DEFRAIGNE, Jean ULg; PINCEMAIL, Joël ULg; FRANSSEN, Colette ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Surgery (1993), 1(4), 343-9

Postischaemic reperfusion injury is often attributed to the generation of oxygenated free radicals which may subsequently promote lipid peroxidation in cell membranes. Electron paramagnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

Postischaemic reperfusion injury is often attributed to the generation of oxygenated free radicals which may subsequently promote lipid peroxidation in cell membranes. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in association with the spin trap molecule alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone allowed direct confirmation of lipid free radical production after renal ischaemia-reperfusion in an in vivo rabbit model. A 60-min period of ischaemia followed by reperfusion caused free radical production twofold greater than after 15 min of ischaemia. Glutathione and alpha-tocopherol have been measured in renal tissue, as indirect markers of lipid peroxidation. After 15 min of ischaemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion, the mean(s.e.m.) glutathione content of the ischaemic kidney was slightly but significantly reduced by 11.9(2.5)% (P < 0.003). The content of alpha-tocopherol was unchanged. However, 10 min of reperfusion following 60 min of ischaemia led to significant decrease in mean(s.e.m.) content of both glutathione (30.4(3.7)%) (2.23(0.2) versus 3.14(0.18) mumol/g wet tissue, P < 0.001) and alpha-tocopherol (46.1(7.8)%) (0.57(0.10) versus 1.09(0.14) micrograms/g wet tissue, P < 0.001) when compared to the control kidney. Under these experimental conditions, desferrioxamine (15 mg/kg administered intravenously before inducing ischaemia), a drug known to limit free radical production, significantly limited the decrease of alpha-tocopherol to 20.8(6.4)% (0.83(0.08) versus 1.05(0.04) micrograms/g wet tissue, P < 0.05), but did not prevent glutathione consumption in the reperfused kidney. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo imaging of murid herpesvirus-4 infection.
Milho, Ricardo; Smith, Christopher M; Marques, Sofia et al

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2009), 90(Pt 1), 21-32

Luciferase-based imaging allows a global view of microbial pathogenesis. We applied this technique to gammaherpesvirus infection by inserting a luciferase expression cassette into the genome of murine ... [more ▼]

Luciferase-based imaging allows a global view of microbial pathogenesis. We applied this technique to gammaherpesvirus infection by inserting a luciferase expression cassette into the genome of murine herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4). The recombinant virus strongly expressed luciferase in lytically infected cells without significant attenuation. We used it to compare different routes of virus inoculation. After intranasal infection of anaesthetized mice, luciferase was expressed in the nose and lungs for 7-10 days and in lymphoid tissue, most consistently the superficial cervical lymph nodes, for up to 30 days. Gastrointestinal infection was not observed. Intraperitoneal infection was very different to intranasal, with strong luciferase expression in the liver, kidneys, intestines, reproductive tract and spleen, but none in the nose or lungs. The nose has not previously been identified as a site of MuHV-4 infection. After intranasal infection of non-anaesthetized mice, it was the only site of non-lymphoid luciferase expression. Nevertheless, lymphoid colonization and persistence were still established, even at low inoculation doses. In contrast, virus delivered orally was very poorly infectious. Inoculation route therefore had a major impact on pathogenesis. Low dose intranasal infection without anaesthesia seems most likely to mimic natural transmission, and may therefore be particularly informative about normal viral gene functions. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vivo Immunology: Regulatory Processes during Lymphopoiesis and Immunopoiesis
Heinen, Ernst ULg; Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg; Boniver, Jacques ULg et al

Book published by Plenum Press (1994)

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See detailIn vivo importance of heparan sulfate-binding glycoproteins for murid herpesvirus-4 infection.
Gillet, Laurent ULg; May, Janet S; Stevenson, Philip G

in Journal of General Virology (The) (2009), 90(Pt 3), 602-13

Many herpesviruses bind to heparan sulfate (HS). Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) does so via its envelope glycoproteins gp70 and gH/gL. MuHV-4 gp150 further regulates an HS-independent interaction to make ... [more ▼]

Many herpesviruses bind to heparan sulfate (HS). Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) does so via its envelope glycoproteins gp70 and gH/gL. MuHV-4 gp150 further regulates an HS-independent interaction to make that HS-dependent too. Cell binding by MuHV-4 virions is consequently strongly HS-dependent. Gp70 and gH/gL show some in vitro redundancy: an antibody-mediated blockade of HS binding by one is well tolerated, whereas a blockade of both severely impairs infection. In order to understand the importance of HS binding for MuHV-4 in vivo, we generated mutants lacking both gL and gp70. As expected, gL(-)gp70(-) MuHV-4 showed very poor cell binding. It infected mice at high dose but not at low dose, indicating defective host entry. But once entry occurred, host colonization, which for MuHV-4 is relatively independent of the infection dose, was remarkably normal. The gL(-)gp70(-) entry deficit was much greater than that of gL(-) or gp70(-) single knockouts. And gp150 disruption, which allows HS-independent cell binding, largely rescued the gL(-)gp70(-) cell binding and host entry deficits. Thus, it appeared that MuHV-4 HS binding is important in vivo, principally for efficient host entry. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo infection of sheep by bovine leukemia virus mutants.
Willems, Luc ULg; Kettmann, Richard ULg; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Journal of virology (1993), 67(7),

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See detailIn Vivo Long-Term Precision of Spinal Bone Mass Measurement by Dual Photon Absorptiometry
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Geusens, P.; Nijs, J. et al

in Bone and Mineral (1989), 6(2), 225-9

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See detailIn vivo m-RNA expression analysis of Microsporum canis secreted subtilisin-like serine proteases in feline dermatophytosis
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Vermout, Sandy; Brouta, F. et al

in Advances in Veterinary Dermatology (2005)

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See detailIn vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals connections and functional properties of the songbird vocal control system
Van der Linden, A.; Verhoye, M.; Van Meir, V. et al

in Neuroscience (2002), 112(2), 467-474

Injection of manganese (Mn2+), a paramagnetic tract tracing agent and calcium analogue, into the high vocal center of starlings labeled within a few hours the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X ... [more ▼]

Injection of manganese (Mn2+), a paramagnetic tract tracing agent and calcium analogue, into the high vocal center of starlings labeled within a few hours the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X as observed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Structures highlighted by Mn2+ accumulation assumed the expected tri-dimensional shape of the nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X as identified by classical histological or neurochemical methods. The volume of these nuclei could be accurately calculated by segmentation of the areas highlighted by Mn2+. Besides confirming previously established volumetric sex differences, Mn2+ uptake into these nuclei revealed new functional sex differences affecting Mn2+ transport. A faster transport was observed in males than in females and different relative amounts of Mn2+ were transported to nucleus robustus archistriatalis and area X in males as compared to females. This new in vivo approach, allowing repeated measures, opens new vistas to study the remarkable seasonal plasticity in size and activity of song-control nuclei and correlate neuronal activity with behavior. It also provides new insights on in vivo axonal transport and neuronal activity in song-control nuclei of oscines. (C) 2002 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo model of varicella-zoster virus latency in the nervous system
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Merville-Louis, Marie Paule; Delrée, P. et al

Conference (1989)

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See detailAn in vivo model of varicella-zoster virus latent infection of dorsal root ganglia
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg; Delrée, P. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1990), 26(1), 83-89

We describe here the first in vivo model of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) latent infection in the adult rat peripheral nervous system. Infected Mewo cells were injected subcutaneously along the spine of ... [more ▼]

We describe here the first in vivo model of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) latent infection in the adult rat peripheral nervous system. Infected Mewo cells were injected subcutaneously along the spine of healthy adult rats. No clinical sign of infection was observed even 9 months after inoculation. Humoral immune response to VZV was detected in all infected animals throughout the study (9 months). The presence of viral material in dissociated and cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from inoculated animals was studied by immunoperoxidase and in situ hybridization. When DRGs from infected animals were plated in culture from 1 month and up to 9 months after inoculation, viral nucleic acids and proteins were detected in neurons. Furthermore, trypsinization and subcultivation of infected neurons in culture is needed to reactivate infectious virus at least in some of the neurons. This model provides a useful tool for studying 1) the molecular mechanisms leading to an in vivo latency, 2) the role of the immune system, in particular cellular immunity, on the establishment, maintenance, and reactivation of latency, 3) the neurotropism of mutant viruses, and 4) the effects of antiviral agents. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo modulation of the innate response to pneumovirus by type-I and -III interferon-induced Bos taurus Mx1
Dermine, Martin ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research (2012), 32(7), 332-337

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen of the human species. This pneumovirus is a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children and maintains an excessive hospitalization rate ... [more ▼]

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major pathogen of the human species. This pneumovirus is a prominent cause of airway morbidity in children and maintains an excessive hospitalization rate despite decades of research. As involvement of a genetic vulnerability is a possibility supported by recent data, we addressed the question of whether the Mx gene products, the typical target of which consists in single-stranded negative-polarity RNA viruses, could alter the course of pneumovirus-associated disease in vivo. Wild-type and Bos taurus Mx1-expressing transgenic FVB/J mice were inoculated with the mouse counterpart and closest phylogenetic relative of RSV, pneumonia virus of mice. Survival data and follow-up of body weight, histological scores, lung virus spread and lung viral load unequivocally showed that the viral infection was severely repressed in Mx-transgenic mice, thus suggesting that pneumoviruses belong to the antiviral spectrum of mammalian Mx GTPases. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level could reveal critical information for the development of new anti-RSV molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo MR imaging of the seasonal volumetric and functional plasticity of song control nuclei in relation to song output in a female songbird
Van Meir, V.; Pavlova, D.; Verhoye, M. et al

in Neuroimage (2006), 31(3), 981-992

In temperate zone songbird species, seasonal plasticity in the morphological and functional state of brain regions involved in song production occurs in association with seasonal changes in song output ... [more ▼]

In temperate zone songbird species, seasonal plasticity in the morphological and functional state of brain regions involved in song production occurs in association with seasonal changes in song output. Following MHCl2-injections in HVC (used as proper name) of female starlings, in vivo tract-tracing by Manganese Enhanced-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ME-MRI) provided repeated measures of the volume of two HVC targets, the nucleus robustus arcopallii (RA) and area X, along with measures of the activity of the caudal motor pathway and rostral basal-ganglia pathway that control singing. Mn2+- labeling (volume labeled and signal intensity) of both nuclei was dramatically reduced in July (post-breeding season) when birds did not sing, compared to March (breeding season) when birds produced song. Seasonal changes in telencephalon volume did not exceed 4% and were not significant but were surprisingly correlated with individual measures of song rate and song bout length. Although individual song rates were variable in March, all MnCl2-injections led to a reliable labeling of area X and RA. In July, delineation of area X was only possible in two birds and RA could be delineated in 50% of the population; its volume had decreased by 46% as compared to March. The birds in which RA could be delineated in July had in March a higher activity of the HVC to area X projection as reflected by the total amount of Mn2+ accumulated in area X, which suggests unexpected relationships between the two types of HVC projection neurons. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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