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See detailThe external voting right of Bolivians abroad: What role for emigrants in regime transformation in their homeland?
Hinojosa Gordonava, Alfonso; Domenech, Eduardo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in Emmerich, Gustavo; Alarcon Olguin, Victor (Eds.) Sufragio Transnacional y Extraterritorial Experiencias Comparadas (2016)

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian Government and its diaspora (particularly a er the coming to power of Evo Morales Ayma in 2006), we will demonstrate how the topic has progressively become central within Bolivian politics and how emigrants have played an active part in their own enfranchisement. In particular, we will see how “the process of change” instigated by the Morales government has found an extension among citizens abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailA "external" StandPoint on QMS
Massart, Sébastien ULg

Conference (2016, March)

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See detailExternalités et dépenses des villes centrales
Jurion, Bernard ULg

in Burgat, P.; Jeanrenaud, C. (Eds.) Services publics locaux (1987)

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See detailExternalizing behavior trajectories: the role of parenting, sibling relationships and child personality.
Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie ULg

in Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (2011), 32(1),

Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behaior ... [more ▼]

Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behaior (absolute level of parenting [ALP] and parental differential treatment [PDT]), parental self-efficacy (PSE), child personality and sibling relationships. Besides main effects, several interactions were tested. The effects of changes in parenting on changes in EPB were also examined. A total of 119 families from the French-speaking area of Belgium rearing a child (3- to 5-year-olds at the onset of the study) referred for EPB were studied. The effects of both level-of and changes-in mothers' ALP were partially confirmed, but for fathers, only ALP was predictive. There were some significant interactions between ALP and PDT for both parents. Mothers' PSE explained some variance in EPB, additional to that explained by the parenting measures. Some parenting by personality and by sibling relationship interactions were found. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive Silent Period of Temporalis Muscle in Menstrual Headaches
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bottin, D.; Sulon, J. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1991), 11(2), 87-91

The second exteroceptive silent period (ES2) of temporalis muscle was recorded on days 1 and 15 of the menstrual cycle in 17 women, 9 of whom suffered regularly from tension-type headaches during ... [more ▼]

The second exteroceptive silent period (ES2) of temporalis muscle was recorded on days 1 and 15 of the menstrual cycle in 17 women, 9 of whom suffered regularly from tension-type headaches during menstruation. Mean duration of temporalis ES2 was significantly shorter on day 1 of the cycle than on day 15. This difference was due to a marked menstrual reduction of ES2 in the headache subgroup. A positive correlation was found between ES2 durations and oestradiol/progesterone ratios. We hypothesize that the variations of ES2 during the ovarian cycle result from the modulatory effects of oestrogens on descending aminergic pathways that control excitability of inhibitory brainstem interneurons mediating exteroceptive suppression of jaw-closing motoneurons. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive silent periods of temporalis muscle in headache
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Van Steenberghe, D.; De Laat, A. (Eds.) EMG of jaw reflexes in man (1989)

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in chronic headache.
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Jamart, B.; Gerard, P. et al

in Neurology (1987), 37(12), 1834-6

Early (ES1) and late (ES2) exteroceptive suppression periods elicited by electrical stimulation of the labial commissure during teeth-clenching were recorded over the temporalis muscle in 45 headache ... [more ▼]

Early (ES1) and late (ES2) exteroceptive suppression periods elicited by electrical stimulation of the labial commissure during teeth-clenching were recorded over the temporalis muscle in 45 headache patients (25 tension headaches and 20 migraines) and 22 controls. Mean duration of ES2 for single shocks was significantly reduced in tension headache when compared with migraine or controls. At a stimulation rate of 2 Hz, ES2 was abolished in 40% of tension headache sufferers, but in none of the migraineurs. EMG analysis of temporalis late exteroceptive suppression might be a helpful diagnostic tool in functional headaches. Reduction of ES2 suggests that there is deficient activation or excessive inhibition of pontobulbar inhibitory interneurons which receive a strong input from limbic structures. ES2 might thus represent an interface between psychogenic and myogenic factors putatively involved in the pathogenesis of tension headache. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in patients with chronic headache and in normal volunteers: methodology, clinical and pathophysiological relevance.
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Headache (1993), 33(1), 3-17

Exteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity was studied in patients with chronic headache and in healthy controls. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG ... [more ▼]

Exteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity was studied in patients with chronic headache and in healthy controls. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG responses produces results with acceptable variability and discomfort. The late temporalis exteroceptive suppression period (ES2) is reduced on average in patients with chronic tension-type headache; this finding has been reproduced by several independent laboratories. Mean duration of temporalis ES2 is also diminished, but to a lesser degree, in daily drug abuse headache and, as shown by others, in episodic tension-type headache. It is normal in migraine between attacks, cluster headache and various types of symptomatic headaches. Temporalis ES2 may be decreased in untreated patients with major depression. In healthy volunteers, temporalis ES2 duration is reduced by a short-lasting painful stimulus to peripheral limbs after a delay of 50 to 60 ms, and by a sub-motor threshold electromagnetic stimulation to the contralateral cerebral cortex after a delay of 20 to 30 ms. In contrast, long-lasting trains of peripheral painful stimuli have no effect. Various pharmacological agents are able to modify temporalis ES2. Its duration is increased by 5-HT antagonists, but decreased by 5-HT uptake blockers. Pharmacological effects may differ between controls and patients. Considering these results and available data on the anatomo-functional organization of masticatory reflexes, we postulate that temporalis ES2 is a marker of the excitability of interneuronal nets in the ponto-medullary reticular formation. In chronic tension-type headache, excitability of these interneurons is decreased because of inadequate control by the serotonergic raphe magnus nucleus and the periaqueductal gray matter. Dysfunctioning of the latter structures might be caused by abnormal limbic inputs to the brain stem. Some steps of this pathophysiological hypothesis can be verified by modern neurophysiological techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in various types of headache.
Paulus, W.; Raubuchl, O.; Straube, A. et al

in Headache (1992), 32(1), 41-4

Exteroceptive suppression (ES) of temporalis muscle activity, particularly the multisynaptic ES2, has been reported to be significantly reduced in tension type headache, but not in migraine. We re ... [more ▼]

Exteroceptive suppression (ES) of temporalis muscle activity, particularly the multisynaptic ES2, has been reported to be significantly reduced in tension type headache, but not in migraine. We re-evaluated the methods of optimally analysing the single shock technique and its intra- and inter-individual variability in 26 normal subjects. These data were compared with the results in patients with migraine, post-lumbar puncture headache, headache due to meningitis, tension-type headaches in HIV infection and patients with symptomatic headache of various etiologies. ES2 was absent in about 50% of tension-type headache patients, but only in one normal subject. With the methods used here and when patients with absent ES2 were excluded, mean duration of ES2 was not significantly different between the various groups. It seems therefore necessary, in spite of increased discomfort for patients, to use complementary methods, such as averaging 16-32 responses and applying various stimulation sets, if one wants to increase the potency of temporalis ES2 as a diagnostic and pathophysiologic tool in headache. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity: methodological and physiological aspects.
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1993), 13(1), 3-10

In recent years studies of the suppression of EMG activity in temporalis muscle induced by stimulation in the trigeminal territory have opened new perspectives in headache research. The various methods ... [more ▼]

In recent years studies of the suppression of EMG activity in temporalis muscle induced by stimulation in the trigeminal territory have opened new perspectives in headache research. The various methods that have been used in different laboratories are reviewed and some of the physiological modulations of temporalis exteroceptive suppression are described. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG responses produces results with acceptable variability and discomfort. In order to obtain maximal responses the intensity of the stimulation should reach at least 20 mA. To avoid habituation of the second temporalis exteroceptive suppression period (ES2), the stimulation frequency has to be at 0.1 Hz or below. The level of voluntary contraction is not a critical variable as long as it reaches 50% of maximum. Some physiological variations of temporalis suppression are well documented. In females, ES2 is shorter during menstruation than at mid-cycle and correlated with the estradiol/progesterone ratio in plasma. Conditioning temporalis ES2 by a preceding peripheral stimulus markedly reduces its duration, which is partly reversible by naloxone. Various pharmacological agents are able to modify temporalis ES2: its duration is increased by 5-HT1 antagonists, but decreased by 5-HT uptake blockers; contradictory results have been obtained with acetylsalicylic acid. These results suggest that inhibitory brain-stem interneurons mediating temporalis ES2 are inhibited by serotonergic afferents, probably from the raphe magnus nucleus, and that the latter receives an excitatory input from the periaqueductal gray matter and other limbic structures, in part via opioid receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailL'extinction de Sphagnum austinii en Belgique
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Sottiaux, André; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Natura Mosana (2016), 69(1/2), 91-95

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See detailExtinction de l'hypothèque pour toutes créances futures par suite de la cessation de la relation bancaire ?
Biquet, Christine ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (5), 223-224

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See detailExtinction debt and colonization credit: When both phenomena are integrated
Piqueray, Julien ULg; Cristofoli, Sara; Bisteau, Emmanuelle et al

Conference (2010)

Calcareous grasslands are among the most species-rich ecosystems in temperate countries. These ecosystems suffered a high fragmentation process during the last century. Fragmentation can lead to the ... [more ▼]

Calcareous grasslands are among the most species-rich ecosystems in temperate countries. These ecosystems suffered a high fragmentation process during the last century. Fragmentation can lead to the creation of an extinction debt in remaining habitat patches. In our study site, it was shown in a previous study that Fragmented habitat patches (area loss since 1965 >80%) exhibited an extinction debt in comparison to Stable habitat patches (area loss since 1965 <80%). However, human activities also created new habitat patches in the landscape and provided therefore opportunities for calcareous grassland plant species to colonize new sites. They also provide opportunities for studying species colonization abilities in the context of habitat restoration. We analyzed species richness in these new patches in comparison to old patches in order to detect colonization credit. When taking as reference Fragmented patches (that exhibit an extinction debt) or all old patches (Fragmented and Stable), we concluded to the occurrence of a colonization credit in New patches. However, when the reference is Stable patches (the less likely to exhibit an extinction debt) alone, no colonization credit could be detected. Moreover, correspondence analysis revealed that New patches were similar to old patches in term of species composition. These results are encouraging for restoration programs. They also showed that the presence of an extinction debt in reference habitats can lead to mistaken conclusion in restoration monitoring. Extinction debt occurrence should be taken into account in the choice of reference habitats for evaluation of restoration success. [less ▲]

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See detailL'extinction des peines
Jacobs, Ann ULg; Derre, Sylvie

in Postal Memorialis (2001)

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See detailL’extinction des servitudes : de nuances en précisions
Lecocq, Pascale ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2007)

Les servitudes du fait de l'homme peuvent s'éteindre par non usage trentenaire, celui-ci pouvant d'ailleurs être partiel. L'article étudie ce phénomène d'extinction, en le comparant à d'autres et ... [more ▼]

Les servitudes du fait de l'homme peuvent s'éteindre par non usage trentenaire, celui-ci pouvant d'ailleurs être partiel. L'article étudie ce phénomène d'extinction, en le comparant à d'autres et, notamment, à l'extinction judiciaire d'une servitude pour cause de perte de toute utilité. [less ▲]

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See detailExtinction dynamics of gymnosperms: unequal vulnerability, sampling bias or both?
Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Cleal, Christopher J.; Ferrer, Javier et al

Conference (2011, November)

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See detailExtinction law classification and lens redshift estimate by means of the principal component analysis
Jean, C.; Surdej, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 471(3), 807-812

Aims. We propose a method based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to classify and estimate the redshift of an extinction law in a distant gravitational lens galaxy. Such extinction laws are very ... [more ▼]

Aims. We propose a method based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to classify and estimate the redshift of an extinction law in a distant gravitational lens galaxy. Such extinction laws are very poorly known and an efficient method to characterize them is badly needed. Methods. We first compute the principal axes of an exhaustive collection of redshifted theoretical extinction laws. Then, we project on these new axes the extinction law we wish to classify. The position of its projection among those redshifted extinction laws from the collection allows us to characterize it and to estimate its redshift. Results. Monte Carlo simulations show that the method is efficient and relatively precise for reasonably good signal-to-noise ratio data. The application of the method to a real case, the gravitational lens system SBS 0909+532, leads to very encouraging results. [less ▲]

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See detailExtinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility
Fischer, Valentin ULg; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7(10825), 1-11

Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous ... [more ▼]

Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosytems during the Cenomanian. [less ▲]

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See detailThe extinction of ichthyosaurs is a facet of a major Cenomanian turnover in marine ecosystems
Fischer, Valentin ULg

Conference (2013, October)

Untangling geosphere-biosphere interactions is crucial to understand the biodiversity and how it might evolve in a changing environment. But little is known about the possible impact of environmental ... [more ▼]

Untangling geosphere-biosphere interactions is crucial to understand the biodiversity and how it might evolve in a changing environment. But little is known about the possible impact of environmental changes on animals occupying the highest levels of the marine trophic chains. The Cretaceous period offers a fantastic opportunity to investigate such relationship, being characterized by a globally warm but changing climate and a diverse assemblage of aquatic reptiles that underwent profound modifications during this period, ultimately permitting the diversification of the animals dominating nowadays marine ecosystems. The origin, magnitude and nature of these turnovers are poorly understood and have rarely been investigated in a global canvas. Especially, how and why ichthyosaurs, the ‘fish-shaped’ marine reptiles, went extinct at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous has been a mystery for decades. Previous assessments of their diversity suggested ichthyosaurs were already on the decline since the end of the Jurassic; their final extinction was therefore regarded as anecdotal. Several theories have proposed unique biological drivers to this event, including a break in the food chain or competition with other marine vertebrates. The reassessment of the taxonomy, phylogeny and paleoecology Cretaceous ichthyosaurs from Eurasia tells a much different story. Ichthyosaurs were ecologically and taxonomically diverse in several Eurasian ecosystems up to the latest Early Cretaceous. This revision also reveals that their extinction is diachronic, being staggered over four phases that span the entire Cenomanian stage. Detailed comparison with other groups suggests the multiphased extinction of ichthyosaurs is not an isolated event, as was previously assumed, but correlates with profound, multiphased turnovers among other marine animals, such as microplankton, rudists, ammonoids, and pythonomorphs. The diversity and contemporaneity of the biotic responses suggest worldwide physicochemical drivers for this profound reorganization of the marine ecosystems. The extinction of ichthyosaurs therefore appears as one of the facets of a much wider event that affected most of the marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian. [less ▲]

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