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See detailGemvid, an Open Source, Modular, Automated Activity Recording System for Rats Using Digital Video
Poirrier, Jean-Etienne; Poirrier, Laurent; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Circadian Rhythms (2006), 4

BACKGROUND: Measurement of locomotor activity is a valuable tool for analysing factors influencing behaviour and for investigating brain function. Several methods have been described in the literature for ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Measurement of locomotor activity is a valuable tool for analysing factors influencing behaviour and for investigating brain function. Several methods have been described in the literature for measuring the amount of animal movement but most are flawed or expensive. Here, we describe an open source, modular, low-cost, user-friendly, highly sensitive, non-invasive system that records all the movements of a rat in its cage. METHODS: Our activity monitoring system quantifies overall free movements of rodents without any markers, using a commercially available CCTV and a newly designed motion detection software developed on a GNU/Linux-operating computer. The operating principle is that the amount of overall movement of an object can be expressed by the difference in total area occupied by the object in two consecutive picture frames. The application is based on software modules that allow the system to be used in a high-throughput workflow. Documentation, example files, source code and binary files can be freely downloaded from the project website at http://bioinformatics.org/gemvid/. RESULTS: In a series of experiments with objects of pre-defined oscillation frequencies and movements, we documented the sensitivity, reproducibility and stability of our system. We also compared data obtained with our system and data obtained with an Actiwatch device. Finally, to validate the system, results obtained from the automated observation of 6 rats during 7 days in a regular light cycle are presented and are accompanied by a stability test. The validity of this system is further demonstrated through the observation of 2 rats in constant dark conditions that displayed the expected free running of their circadian rhythm. CONCLUSION: The present study describes a system that relies on video frame differences to automatically quantify overall free movements of a rodent without any markers. It allows the monitoring of rats in their own environment for an extended period of time. By using a low-cost, open source hardware/software solution, laboratories can greatly simplify their data acquisition and analysis pipelines and improve their workload. [less ▲]

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See detailGender and age at drinking onset affect voluntary alcohol consumption but neither the alcohol deprivation effect nor the response to stress in mice.
Tambour, Sophie ULg; Brown, Lauren L; Crabbe, John C

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2008), 32(12), 2100-6

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that initiation of alcohol drinking at an early age is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. Nevertheless ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that initiation of alcohol drinking at an early age is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. Nevertheless, relatively few studies using animal models have investigated the relationship between age of onset of drinking and ethanol drinking patterns in adulthood. Besides age at drinking onset, other factors such as gender could also affect the pattern of development of alcohol consumption. In rodents, many studies have shown that females drink more than males. However, even if it is assumed that hormonal changes occurring at puberty could explain these differences, only one study performed in rats has investigated the emergence of sex-specific alcohol drinking patterns in adolescence and the transition from adolescence to adulthood. The aim of the present study was to compare the acquisition of voluntary alcohol consumption, relapse-like drinking (the Alcohol Deprivation Effect-ADE) and stress-induced alcohol drinking in male and female outbred mice that acquired alcohol consumption during adolescence or adulthood. METHODS: Separate groups of naive female and male WSC-1 mice aged +/- 28 days (adolescents) or +/-70 days (adults) were given ad libitum access to water and 6% ethanol solution for 8 weeks (1st to 8th week) before undergoing a 2-week deprivation phase (9th and 10th week). After the deprivation period, 2-bottle preference testing (ethanol vs. water) resumed for 3 weeks (11th to 13th). During the 13th week, all animals were subjected to restraint stress for 2 consecutive days. RESULTS: Over the entire time course of the experiment, ethanol intake and preference increased in females (both adults and adolescents). Adolescent animals (both females and males) showed a transient increase in alcohol consumption and preference compared to adults. However, by the end of continuous alcohol exposure (when all mice were adults), ethanol intake was not affected by age at drinking onset. A deprivation phase was followed by a rise in ethanol intake (ADE) that was not affected by sex or age. Finally, stress did not alter alcohol self-administration either during or after its occurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Emergence of greater alcohol consumption in adult females does not seem to be limited to a specific developmental period (i.e., puberty). Age of voluntary drinking onset (adolescence vs. adulthood) does not affect eventual alcohol intake in adult WSC-1 mice and does not modify the transient increase in ethanol consumption after alcohol deprivation. [less ▲]

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See detailGender and attachment representations in the preschool years: Comparisons between five countries.
Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie ULg

in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2009), 40(4),

Bowlby proposed that the individual’s social experiences, as early as in infancy, contribute to the construction of Internal Working Models (IWMs) of attachment, which will later guide the individual’s ... [more ▼]

Bowlby proposed that the individual’s social experiences, as early as in infancy, contribute to the construction of Internal Working Models (IWMs) of attachment, which will later guide the individual’s expectations and behaviors in close relationships all along his or her life. The qualitative, individual characteristics of these models reflect the specificity of the individual’s early experiences with attachment figures. The attachment literature globally shows that the qualities of IWMs are neither gender specific nor cultural specific. Procedures to evaluate IWMs in adulthood have been well established, based on narrative accounts of childhood experiences. Narrative procedures at earlier ages (e.g., in the preschool years) have been proposed, such as Bretherton’s Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT), to evaluate attachment representations. More than 500 ASCT narratives of preschoolers, coming from five different countries, have been collected, in the perspective of examining possible interactions between gender and culture regarding attachment representations. A specific Q-Sort coding procedure (CCH) has been used to evaluate several dimensions of the narratives. Girls’ narratives appeared as systematically more secure than those of same-age boys, whatever their culture. The magnitude of gender differences, however, varied between countries. Taylor’s model of gender-specific responses to stress and Harwood’s and Posada’s hypothesis on intercultural differences regarding caregiving are evoked to understand the differences across gender and countries. [less ▲]

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See detailGender and culture in father-daughter succession within the family business: A case study in Canada
Begin, Lucie; Constantinidis, Christina ULg; Halkias, Daphne et al

in Halkias, Daphne; Swiercz; Smith, C. (Eds.) et al Father-daughter succession in family business: A cross-cultural perspective (2011)

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See detailGender and diagnostic performance of the growth hormone response to clonidine for major depression : A large scale multicenter study
Schittecatte, Michel; Charles, Gerard; Machowski, R. et al

in American Journal of Psychiatry (The) (1994)

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See detailGender and Diversity: the intersectionality and transversality stakes
Cornet, Annie ULg; Johnson

Conference (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 ULg)
See detailGender and leadership
Cornet, Annie ULg

Speech/Talk (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (7 ULg)
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See detailGender and success in entrepreneurship research: A critical perspective
Chasserio, Stéphanie; Constantinidis, Christina ULg; Lee-Gosselin, Hélène et al

in 12th EURAM Annual Conference Proceedings (2012, June)

This paper aims to challenge the conventional definition of success in entrepreneurship. It pinpoints the inadequacy of its masculine gendered definition to take into account the vision of women ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to challenge the conventional definition of success in entrepreneurship. It pinpoints the inadequacy of its masculine gendered definition to take into account the vision of women entrepreneurs (WEs). It focuses on the concept of success and its various meanings for WEs. The paper is grounded in three qualitative studies on WEs undertaken in Quebec, France and Belgium, reaching 151 diverse entrepreneurs. The findings reveal that the commonly accepted definition and measure of entrepreneurial success, business growth and financial performance, is not adequate for most WE s. Broader visions of success and complex meanings exist among Wes; success is a multi-dimensional reality rather than a simple dominant goal: profits or growth. Our contribution is to challenge the relevance of traditional theoretical frameworks in entrepreneurship, and we plead for their widening, for women and men. We also propose a conceptual grid to reconsider success in entrepreneurship which could be exploited in other research. [less ▲]

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See detailGender budgeting
Cornet, Annie ULg; Cecchini, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2005, July)

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See detailGender budgeting : facteurs de succès et difficultés
Cornet, Annie ULg

Conference (2005, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (10 ULg)
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See detailGender dependent accumulation of dioxins in smokers
Fierens, S.; Eppe, Gauthier ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Occupational and Environmental Medicine (2005), 62(1), 61-62

Aims: To evaluate the contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation. Methods: Dioxin (17 PCDD/F) concentrations in fasting blood from 251 subjects ( 161 never smokers, 54 past smokers, and 36 ... [more ▼]

Aims: To evaluate the contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation. Methods: Dioxin (17 PCDD/F) concentrations in fasting blood from 251 subjects ( 161 never smokers, 54 past smokers, and 36 current smokers) were quantified. Results: Whereas serum dioxin concentrations of male smokers were on average 40% higher than those of nonsmokers, in women, smoking was associated with significantly lower serum dioxin levels. A synergistic potentiation of dioxin metabolism by tobacco smoke in women is postulated to explain these paradoxical findings. Conclusions: Current smoking is associated with gender dependent effects on dioxin body burden and is a potential source of confounding in human studies using blood dioxins as indicators of exposure. [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences in responses in Gammarus pulex exposed to BDE-47: a gel-free proteomic approach
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2015), 122

Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and ... [more ▼]

Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and females under control conditions (unexposed) and after 96 h exposure to BDE-47. Using gel-free proteomic analysis, we have identified 45 proteins, of which 25 were significantly differently expressed according to sex and/or BDE-47 exposure. These proteins were involved in several biological processes such as energy metabolism, chaperone proteins, or transcription/translation. In unexposed amphipods, 11 proteins were significantly over-expressed in females, and 6 proteins were over-expressed in males. Under BDE-47 stress, 7 proteins were differently impacted according to sex. For example, catalase was over-expressed in exposed females and under-expressed in exposed males, as compared to respective controls. Conversely, proteins involved in energy metabolism were up-regulated in males and down-regulated in females. Our proteomic study showed differences in responses of males and females to BDE-47 exposure, emphasizing that sex is a confounding factor in ecotoxicological assessment. However, due to the limited information existing in databases on Gammarids, it was difficult to define a BDE-47 mechanism of action. The gel-free proteomic seems to be a promising method to develop in future ecotoxicological studies and thus, to improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of xenobiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences in skin aging and the changing profile of the sex hormones with age.
FARAGE, Miranda; MILLER, Kenneth W.; ZOUBOULIS, Christos C. et al

in Journal of Steroids and Hormonal Science (2012), 3(1000109),

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See detailGender differences in Variability and Extreme Scores
Baye, Ariane ULg; Lafontaine, Dominique ULg; Monseur, Christian ULg

Conference (2011, September 15)

This study examines academic gender differences in variance and at the extreme tails of score distributions in reading, mathematics and science. Ten databases from IEA and PISA were used to analyse such ... [more ▼]

This study examines academic gender differences in variance and at the extreme tails of score distributions in reading, mathematics and science. Ten databases from IEA and PISA were used to analyse such gender differences in an international perspective from 1995 to 2009. Differences in standard deviation, effect size and variance ratios were computed. The main results may be summarised as follows. The gender differences at the extreme tails of the distribution are often more substantial than the gender differences at the mean, which may suggest the need to rethink education policies for low-achieving boys in reading and for high-achieving girls in mathematics and science. The “greater male variability hypothesis” is confirmed, although our results suggest that this may depend on the test content, the study design and the computed statistics. [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences in variability and extreme scores in an international context
Baye, Ariane ULg; Monseur, Christian ULg

in Large-scale Assessments in Education (2016), 4(1),

This study examines gender differences in the variability of student performance in reading, mathematics and science. Twelve databases from IEA and PISA were used to analyze gender differences within an ... [more ▼]

This study examines gender differences in the variability of student performance in reading, mathematics and science. Twelve databases from IEA and PISA were used to analyze gender differences within an international perspective from 1995 to 2015. Effect sizes and variance ratios were computed. The main results are as follows. (1) Gender differences vary by content area, students’ educational levels, and students’ proficiency levels. The gender differences at the extreme tails of the distribution are often more substantial than the gender differences at the mean. (2) Exploring the extreme tails of the distributions shows that the situation of the weakest males in reading is a real matter of concern. In mathematics and science, males are more frequently among the highest performing students. (3) The “greater male variability hypothesis” is confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailGender differences in Youths'political engagement and participation. The role of parents and adolescents'social and civic participation
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard et al

in Human Affairs (2011)

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See detailGender differences in youths'political engagement and participation. The role of parents and of adolescents'social and civic participation
Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna; Fournier, Bernard ULg et al

in Journal of Adolescence (2012)

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See detailGender effect on the scapular 3D posture and kinematic in healthy subjects
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Rigaux, Elise et al

in Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging (2016)

Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However ... [more ▼]

Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However the literature reports, for the shoulder, differences in the range of motion between genders. The specific influence of gender on the scapula-thoracic kinematics has not been studied yet. The dominant shoulder of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated in three dimensions for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematics and range of motion were studied separately. For flexion and abduction and with regard to the scapular kinematic, external rotation were significantly larger for women than men. The differences were of at least 5° at 120° of humeral elevation. Upward rotations were identical. Women also showed larger average active humero-thoracic range of motion. The mean differences were of 13°, 7°, 12° and 5° for abduction, flexion, internal rotation and external rotation, respectively. No difference was observed between the scapular resting positions of both populations. The observed differences concerning both the scapular and humeral patterns would indicate that the shoulder behavior of men and women should not be expected to be similar. [less ▲]

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