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See detailL’incendie : feu purificateur ?
Close, Florence ULg

in Bulletin de la Société d'Art et d'Histoire du Diocèse de Liège (2013), LXX

Dans la nuit du 3 au 4 août 1312, la Cité de Liège est mise à feu et à sang. Sept siècles plus tard, la mémoire collective liégeoise compte encore cet évènement au nombre des jalons les plus tragiques de ... [more ▼]

Dans la nuit du 3 au 4 août 1312, la Cité de Liège est mise à feu et à sang. Sept siècles plus tard, la mémoire collective liégeoise compte encore cet évènement au nombre des jalons les plus tragiques de l’histoire de la Principauté. Les conditions dans lesquelles moururent les patriciens demeurent inqualifiables, de même que les moyens auxquels recourut la masse populaire révoltée pour venir à bout de son adversaire. Cet évènement anecdotique au regard de la grande histoire met en lumière la place ambivalente du feu dans la vie et la mentalité des hommes et des femmes du Moyen Âge. Il invite à une profonde réflexion mêlant des considérations juridiques, spirituelles, symboliques et anthropologiques [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive Effects on Risk Attitude in Small Probability Prospects
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Villeval, Marie-Claire; Vieider, Ferdinand

E-print/Working paper (2009)

Most studies on the role of incentives on risk attitude report data obtained from within-subject experimental investigations. This may however raise an issue of sequentiality of effects as later choices ... [more ▼]

Most studies on the role of incentives on risk attitude report data obtained from within-subject experimental investigations. This may however raise an issue of sequentiality of effects as later choices may be influenced by earlier ones. This paper reports instead between-subject results on the effect of monetary stakes on risk attitudes for small probability prospects in a laboratory experiment. Under low stakes, we find the typical risk seeking behavior for small probabilities predicted by the prospect theory. But under high stakes, we provide some evidence that risk seeking behavior is dramatically reduced. This could suggest that utility is not consistently concave over the outcome space, but rather contains a convex section for very small amounts. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive Effects on Risk Attitude in Small Probability Prospects
Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg; Vieider, Ferdinand; Villeval, Marie Claire

in Economics Letters (2010), 109(2),

We report between-subject results on the effect of monetary stakes on risk attitudes. While we find the typical risk seeking for small probabilities, risk seeking is reduced under high stakes. This ... [more ▼]

We report between-subject results on the effect of monetary stakes on risk attitudes. While we find the typical risk seeking for small probabilities, risk seeking is reduced under high stakes. This suggests that utility is not consistently concave. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive salience attribution under reward uncertainty: A Pavlovian model
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2015), 111(1), 6-18

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically ... [more ▼]

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or ‘wanting’) plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentives for BGP Guided IP-Level Topology Discovery
Donnet, Benoît ULg

in First International Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis (2009, May)

Internet topology discovery has been an attractive research field during the past decade. In particular, the research community was interested in modeling the network as well as providing efficient tools ... [more ▼]

Internet topology discovery has been an attractive research field during the past decade. In particular, the research community was interested in modeling the network as well as providing efficient tools, mostly based on traceroute, for collecting data. In this paper, we follow this track of rendering traceroute-based exploration more efficient. We discuss incentives for coupling passive monitoring and active measurements. In particular, we show that high-level information, such as BGP updates, might be used to trigger targeted traceroutes. As a result, the network dynamics might be better capture. We also provide a freely available tool for listening to BGP feeds and triggering dedicated traceroutes. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentives in Organizations
Gautier, Axel ULg

Doctoral thesis (2001)

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See detailL’inceppo e l’affondo: Oralità e figure di ripetizione in Raffaello Baldini
Benzoni, Pietro ULg

in Strumenti Critici (2007), 113(1), 90-104

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See detailInception of Taeniate Bisaccates pollen: further evidence and age implications for the Monte Alegre Formation (Pennsylvanian, Amazon Basin).
Melo, JHG; Loboziak, S; Dino, R et al

in Annals Academia Brazil Cienca (1997)

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See detailIncertitudes liées à la modélisation agro-environnementale en vue de développer des outils d'aide à la décision
Dumont, Benjamin ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

The European Nitrates Directive 91/6/76/EEC aims to ensure water quality by preventing pollution of surface and groundwater induced by nitrates originating from agricultural sources and by promoting ... [more ▼]

The European Nitrates Directive 91/6/76/EEC aims to ensure water quality by preventing pollution of surface and groundwater induced by nitrates originating from agricultural sources and by promoting agronomical good practices. While the implementation of this Directive seems effective, it appears however that the use of nitrogen has still increased by 6% over the last four years in 27 European countries. Furthermore, agricultural sources would be still at the origin of 50% of the total amount of nitrogen discharged into surface waters (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-nitrates/index_en.html). In Wallonia (Belgium), the Nitrates Directive has been transposed under the Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Agriculture Program (PGDA). Launched in 2002, it involves different sets of actions, like rules definitions concerning fertilizers application, specific and appropriate crop management in vulnerable areas, the control of potentially leachable nitrogen (APL) levels in soils, etc. This is the global context in which lies the present thesis. The main aim is to optimise the nitrogen fertiliser practices to ensure that the needs of a winter wheat culture (Triticum aestivum L.) could be met while reducing the environmental pressure. It relies on the use of crop models, which describe the growth and the development of a culture interacting with its environment, namely the soil and the atmosphere. The major difficulty while working with crop models and model-based decision support tools lies in the fact that different sources of uncertainties have an impact on the modelled phenomena. Indeed, crop models are constituted by a consequent number of differential non-linear equations, involving a lot of parameters which need to be determined as accurately as possible in order to match as close as possible observed sequences of measurements. The first source of uncertainty is thus constituted by the parameters definition. Once the model has been correctly and robustly calibrated it can be used to perform predictions. However, in an agronomical context, the time-delay between sowing and harvest is consequent. As the end-season yield is often the expected output, the uncertainty linked to the non-knowledge of the future implies for the modeller to refer to different hypothesis concerning upcoming climatic scenarios. Finally, moving from models to decision systems dealing with N management involves a last source of uncertainty. Indeed the main problem is that the impact of a given practice is delayed in time from its realisation. In addition to the uncertainty linked to climatic projections themselves, it is highly important to consider the interactions between the practices and the climate. Furthermore, in a decision-making process, it could be highly relevant to know the uncertainty's estimation that could be tolerated on the decision.. Therefore, the present thesis aims to study these different sources of uncertainty in order to design an efficient decision support system. It is divided into five parts. In the first part, a Bayesian sampling algorithm, known as DREAM (DiffeRential Evolution Adaptative Metropolis) will be presented. It was successfully coupled with the STICS soil-crop model used in this study. The a posteriori probability density function of many parameters was sampled in order to improve the simulations of the growth of a winter wheat culture (Triticum aestivum L.). The DREAM algorithm offers different advantages in comparison to usual methods. Among these, it is possible to study i) the most probable a posteriori parameters distributions, ii) the parameters correlations, and iii) the uncertainties impacted on model outputs. Furthermore, a new version of the likelihood function was proposed, making an explicit use of the coefficient of variation. Results showed that it allowed the noise existing on measurements to be considered, but also the heteroscedasticity phenomenon usually encountered in biological growth processes. In parallel, assimilation data is another way to improve models simulations. These techniques allow considering measurements performed in real-time (e.g. remote measures of LAI or soil water content) in order to correct and adjust the possible drift of model simulations. In particular, a recently developed algorithm, known as variational filter, was evaluated. Its superiority, both in term of state variables simulations improvement and parameter resampling, was demonstrated. The third part of the research focuses on the real-time end season yield prediction. It involves building climate matrix ensembles, combining different time ranges of projected mean data and real measured weather originating from the historical records. As the crop growing season progresses, the effects of real monitored data plays a greater role and the prediction reliability increases. Our results demonstrated that a reliable predictive delay of 3-4 weeks before harvest could be obtained. Finally, using real-time data acquired with a micrometeorological station enabled to (i) predict, daily, potential yield at the local level, (ii) detect stress occurrence, and (iii) quantify yield losses (or gains). Being based on projected seasonal norms, this methodology is in opposition to another technique that consists to offer a panel of solution for what concerns the future. Such probabilistic technique relies on the use of stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG in this case). However, in the fourth part of this thesis, on the basis of the convergence in law theorem, it was demonstrated that in 90% of the climatic situations, both approaches were equivalent, exhibiting RRMSE and normalised deviation criteria inferior to 10%. Furthermore the two approaches offered similar predictive delay-time. The main difference between techniques lies in the finality. The first allows to quickly simulate the remaining yield potential, while the second aims to quantify the uncertainty level associated to the predictions. In the fifth and last part of this thesis, in order to quantify the uncertainty level associated to different modalities of N applications, the STICS model answers were studied under stochastic climatic realisations. It was demonstrated that, if no N was applied, under our temperate climatic conditions, the yield distribution could be considered as normal. However, with increasing N practices, the asymmetry level was found itself increasing. As soon as N was applied, not only were the yields higher, but also was the probability to achieve yields that were at least superior to the mean of the distribution. This undoubtedly reduced the risk for the farmer to achieve low yields levels. To summary all the researches conducted in this thesis, a N strategic decision support system was developed. In a general way, for what concerns the Hesbaye Region, the superiority of three fractions N protocols was demonstrated. In addition, the three rates fertilisation management based on the systematic applications of 60 kgN.ha-1 at tillering and stem extension stages and offering the possibility to adapt the flag-leaf fraction in real-time appeared as an optimal strategy. Within this tool, the uncertainty associated to climatic variability could be finely characterised, and the risk encountered by the farmer was quantified for different investigated practices. But far more important, it was demonstrated that N management could be optimised in real-time. In a general way, the research should be pursued by studying more fundamentally and systematically a wide range of different agro-environmental situations. In particular, it would be interesting to study of the Genotype × Environment × Cultural practices interactions to ensure food security in a climatic changing world. [less ▲]

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See detailIncertitudes sur l'habitus
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Archives Européennes de Sociologie = European Journal of Sociology = Europaisches Archiv für Soziologie (2005), XLVI(3), 469-494

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives ... [more ▼]

Bourdieu fut le fondateur d’un paradigme structuraliste aujourd’hui appliqué à l’envi par certains sociologues et radicalement évincé par d’autres. Nous nous intéresserons ici aux tentatives intermédiaires de Lahire et Corcuff qui, sans omettre de pointer des impasses, ont bien vu l’intérêt du concept d’habitus « singulier ». Après avoir repris leurs approches, nous proposerons une définition « fictionnelle » de cet habitus afin de rendre ce paradigme opérationnel sur des terrains pour lesquels sa capacité heuristique est faible (comme les nouveaux mouvements sociaux). Bourdieu was the founder of a structuralist paradigm which is now often applied by some sociologists and strongly criticised by others. We are interested here in the intermediate attempts of Lahire and Corcuff. Without omitting to notice some dead ends, they understood the interest of the "singular" habitus concept. After following their approach, we propose a "fictional" definition of this habitus in order to make this paradigm operational in areas where its heuristic capacity is low (like the new social movements). [less ▲]

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See detailL'inceste dans les Métamorphoses d'Ovide, un thème emprunté à Parthénios de Nicée?
Vandersmissen, Marc ULg

in Latomus : Revue d'Etudes Latines (2012), 71(4), 1015-1025

Le présent article a pour but de mettre en relief les parallèles entre le traitement du thème de l’inceste dans l’unique œuvre conservée de Parthénios, les Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα et dans les Métamorphoses ... [more ▼]

Le présent article a pour but de mettre en relief les parallèles entre le traitement du thème de l’inceste dans l’unique œuvre conservée de Parthénios, les Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα et dans les Métamorphoses d’Ovide. [less ▲]

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See detailInceste et abus de pouvoir
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Perspectives : Revue sur les Enjeux Sociaux des Pratiques Psychologiques (1991), 18

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See detailInceste et Famille: confrontation et complémentarité des notions structuralistes et de pertes ambiguës dans la prise en charge systémique (atelier)
Bullens, Quentin ULg; Wilmet, Aurélie; Dechamps, Michel

Conference (2013, May 17)

Dans le travail avec les familles connaissant une situation d’inceste, le paradigme structura liste de Minuchin (1974) apparaît souvent comme l’angle d’approche systémique privilégié. Bien qu’initialement ... [more ▼]

Dans le travail avec les familles connaissant une situation d’inceste, le paradigme structura liste de Minuchin (1974) apparaît souvent comme l’angle d’approche systémique privilégié. Bien qu’initialement celui-ci ne s’adresse pas spécifiquement aux situations de maltraitances infantiles et plus particulièrement d’inceste, nous proposons d’illustrer, au travers du cheminement d’une vignette clinique, combien un tel regard permet la mise en lumière du fonctionnement familial et, dans le respect de l’éthique systémique, de dessiner les pistes thérapeutiques par le biais même de la démarche diagnostique. notre pratique clinique dans une équipe spécialisée nous montre cependant que le travail avec la famille connaissant une situation d’inceste ne peut se résumer à mieux comprendre le passé pour préparer l’avenir. en effet, bien souvent, ces familles connaissent une situation qui, selon nous, s’apparente à ce que pauline Boss (1999, 2006) a nommé la perte ambiguë. après un exposé théorique des notions de pertes et de frontières ambiguës (Boss, 1999, 2006) auxquelles il est très certainement moins fréquent de faire appel dans la prise en charge (systémique) de l’inceste, nous montrerons au travers l’exploration de la même vignette clinique pourquoi et comment ce cadre conceptuel a toute sa pertinence dans le travail clinique. enfin, après avoir démontré l’utilité, la complémentarité et les différences entre l’approche de Minuchin et celle de Boss, nous pourrons nous tourner vers les questions soulevées par notre exposé. en effet, dans les situations d’inceste et d’agression sexuelle en général, l’étude des mécanismes à l’œuvre, tant du point de vue individuel que systémique, a permis et permet de mieux comprendre les facteurs impliqués et dès lors de prévenir et soigner. toutefois, s’il est bien naturel que les projecteurs se tournent vers la transgression des interdits sexuels, il n’en reste pas moins que la famille se trouve confrontée, dans l’ici et maintenant, à une inéluctable réorganisation. les difficultés inhérentes à celle-ci, si elles ne sont pas prises en compte, pourraient amener à ne pas permettre l’expression des compétences familiales (ausloos, 1995) au moment où leur évaluation est pourtant requise, et à offrir aux familles un soutien davantage adapté à leur histoire qu’à leur actualité. [less ▲]

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See detailIncidence and direct social costs of hip fracture from 1984 to 1993 in Belgium
GILLET, Pierre ULg; Reginster-Haneuse, G; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1995), 10(S1), 463

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See detailIncidence and direct social costs of hip fractures from 1984 to 1993 in Belgium
Gillet, Pierre ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1995)

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See detailIncidence and distribution of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis at indirect computed tomography venography in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism.
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Ghaye, Benoit; Noukoua, Charlemagne T. et al

in Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2007), 97(4), 566-72

Indirect computed tomography (CT) venography reportedly provides high accuracy for detection of venous thrombosis in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE). Nevertheless, the extent of the scanning ... [more ▼]

Indirect computed tomography (CT) venography reportedly provides high accuracy for detection of venous thrombosis in patients suspected of pulmonary embolism (PE). Nevertheless, the extent of the scanning range for lower limb and abdominal veins remains to be determined. It was the objective of this study to investigate the distribution of venous thrombosis in order to identify the most appropriate extent of scanning range when using CT venography. We reviewed 1,408 combined CT pulmonary angiographies (CTPA) and indirect CT venographies of the lower limbs, performed in patients suspected of PE. Percentage of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes PE and/or venous thrombosis was calculated. Location and the upper end of clots were recorded in 37 venous segments per patient from calf to diaphragm. PE, venous thrombosis and VTE, were found respectively in 272 (19.3%), 259 (18.4%) and 329 (23.4%) patients. Addition of CT venography to CTPA increased depiction of VTE in 17.3%. The upper end of venous thrombosis was located below the knee in 48%, between knee and inguinal ligament in 36% of the patients, and above the inguinal ligament in 15%. Ninety-six patients had thrombosis in a single vein, of which none occurred above the iliac crests in a patient without PE at CTPA. In conclusion, when added to CTPA, optimal scanning of CT venography should extent from calves to the iliac crests in patients suspected of VTE. [less ▲]

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See detailincidence and etiologic factors for acquired brain lesions in very low birthweight infants
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Danhaive, O.; Detry, J. et al

Conference (1993)

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See detailIncidence and prevalence of pituitary tumors
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2007, March)

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