How to Assess Data Availability, Accessibility and Format for Risk Analysis?
Humblet, Marie-France ; ; et al
in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2015), doi: 10.1111/tbed.12328
Risk assessments are mostly carried out based on available data, which do not reflect all data theoretically required by experts to answer them. This study aimed at developing a methodology to assess data ... [more ▼]
Risk assessments are mostly carried out based on available data, which do not reflect all data theoretically required by experts to answer them. This study aimed at developing a methodology to assess data availability, accessibility and format, based on a scoring system and focusing on two diseases: Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE), still exotic to Europe, and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis (EM), endemic in several Member States (MSs). After reviewing 36 opinions of the EFSA-AHAW Panel on risk assessment of animal health questions, a generic list of needed data was elaborated. The methodology consisted, first, in implementing a direct and an indirect survey to collect the data needed for both case studies: the direct survey consisted in a questionnaire sent to contact points of three European MSs (Belgium, France and the Netherlands), and the organization of a workshop gathering experts on both diseases. The indirect survey, focusing on the three MSs involved in the direct survey plus Spain, relied on web searches. Secondly, a scoring system with reference to data availability, accessibility and format was elaborated, to, finally, compare both diseases and data between MSs. The accessibility of data was generally related to their availability. Web searches resulted in more data available for VEE compared to EM, despite its current exotic status in the European Union. Hypertext markup language and portable document files were the main formats of available data. Data availability, accessibility and format should be improved for research scientists/assessors. The format of data plays a key role in the feasibility and rapidness of data management and analysis, through a prompt compilation, combination and aggregation in working databases. Harmonization of data collection process is encouraged, according to standardized procedures, to provide useful and reliable data, both at the national and the international levels for both animal and human health; it would allow assessing data gaps through comparative studies. The present methodology is a good way of assessing the relevance of data for risk assessment, as it allows integrating the uncertainty linked to the quality of data used. Such an approach could be described as transparent and traceable and should be performed systematically. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
How to Bind the International Criminal Court by Human Rights Standards?
Conference (2014, January 31)
Although no one seriously disputes the binding nature of human rights standards on the activity of the International Criminal Court (“the ICC” or “the Court”), the precise boundaries of this human rights ... [more ▼]
Although no one seriously disputes the binding nature of human rights standards on the activity of the International Criminal Court (“the ICC” or “the Court”), the precise boundaries of this human rights constraint still lack clarity. In particular, there is no consensus on the basis for such an obligation, especially given the fact that the Court is not party to the relevant international and regional instruments. It is argued that the lack of clarity on the exact foundations for the binding nature of human rights standards towards the Court presents a real threat to the development of international criminal jurisprudence. This is because the legal grounds on which the ICC is bound to respect individual rights are also determinative of the very content of the resulting obligations. This paper aims to contribute to remedy this lacuna by listing and critically assessing the theoretical legal constructions on the basis of which human rights law is commonly said to enter the framework of the Court. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 ULg)
How To Bring Orphan Genes Into Functional Families
; ; Vandenbol, Micheline et al
in Yeast (1999), 15(6),Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
How to build a biological linker dedicated to the engineering of novel drug delivery systems
Crasson, Oscar ; Galleni, Moreno ; et al
Poster (2014, May 15)Detailed reference viewed: 83 (17 ULg)
How to capture Doppelganger Brand Image with Brand Concept Mapping
Brandt, Céline ; Pahud de Mortanges, Charles ; et al
Scientific conference (2010, February)
In a Web 2.0 context, negative user-generated content (UGC) that damages the brand reputation can be easily produced and quickly spread. There is a lack of literature on how to measure the value ... [more ▼]
In a Web 2.0 context, negative user-generated content (UGC) that damages the brand reputation can be easily produced and quickly spread. There is a lack of literature on how to measure the value destruction, known as doppelgänger brand image (DBI). The authors define DBI as the appearance, or reinforcement, of negative associations at the brand reputation level. Brand reputation is the collective brand image that is shared by multiple stakeholders. Using brand concept mapping (BCM) on two corporate brands, this study shows the effect of exposure to negative UGC on the brand image perception and measures the impact of this exposure on DBI. The authors use a two*two between-subjects design with 280 consumers in order to study the effects of the type of media and source credibility, brand experience and Internet experience on the DBI. The results suggest that, the negative UGC will cause an increase in the frequency of mentions of negative associations. At the reputation level, if the brand already has a DBI, an exposure to negative UGC will reinforce it. However, if the brand reputation is mostly positive, a single exposure to negative UGC will not create a DBI. The results also confirm the effect of source credibility and type of media on the likelihood of DBI. The experience with the brand and with Internet will reduce the risk of DBI. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 259 (0 ULg)
How to Capture Life as it Happens ? An Aesthetical Approach to Joann Sfar’s Drawing
Conference (2009, October 17)
Which theoretical categories can we use to talk about an artist’s drawing? The quality of the line, the specific rhythm, the relationship between line and color, the degree of realism or the aesthetic ... [more ▼]
Which theoretical categories can we use to talk about an artist’s drawing? The quality of the line, the specific rhythm, the relationship between line and color, the degree of realism or the aesthetic influence of past masters: these are not easy to describe in an original way. The difficulties encountered in the traditional field of the fine arts also present themselves when considering comics because the drawing is specific and implicates a different temporality. The artists themselves regret the lack of a real aesthetic approach to their works, but we cannot simply transpose the usual discourse to the study of comics: as a young medium, this art form deserves relevant categories of analysis. My research will investigate what Aesthetics, as formal approach, could add to comics studies. I propose to read Joan Sfar’s auto-biographical notebooks published by L’association between 2002 and 2005 – in particular: Harmonica, Ukulélé, Parapluie, Piano, Caravan. These notebooks contain precious insight into his work method and his drawing. I would like to highlight several recurring themes. Sfar first criticizes the “academic drawing” he learned at school as being too “realist,” “anatomical,” and devoid of life. He explains that it took him a long time to depart from this kind of drawing. By contrast, he heartily advocates drawing directly from the perception of movement, situation, and expression, implying rapid and freehand drawing. In this context, Sfar refers to the famous illustrator Quentin Blake, who describes his career path, accompanied by relevant drawings, in La vie de la page (1995). I propose to compare Joan Sfar’s ideas on drawing with this principal influence on his work. Finally, the theory of color and light shows – in another way – the importance of the accidental and the uncalculated in his art. My arguments will be supported by various examples of Sfar’s work. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
How to check analytically the robustness of a building submitted to a column loss - A premiere
Huvelle, Clara ; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ; Demonceau, Jean-François
in Proceedings of Eurosteel 2014 conference (2014, September)
Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to Eurocodes and some ... [more ▼]
Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorism attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under an exceptional event. According to Eurocodes and some other national design codes, the structural integrity of civil engineering structures should be guaranteed through appropriate measures and one way to guarantee it is to ensure an appropriate robustness of the structure, which may be defined as the ability of a structure to remain globally stable in case of exceptional event leading to local damages. However, although global design approaches are provided in modern codes and standards, no easy-to-apply practical guidelines are provided. The present paper reflects recent researches realised at the University of Liege with the scope of proposing such practical guidelines for the activation of alternative load path in the structure, design strategy generally leading to the most economical solutions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (16 ULg)
How to choose a suitable dissolution test for BCS II drugs?
Thiry, Justine ; Pestieau, Aude ; Krier, Fabrice et al
Conference (2015, May)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
How to choose an appropriate carrier for platinum drugs
De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ; Houssier, Claude
in Biochimie (1978), 60Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
How to combine citizenship and Diversities: The Challenge of a EU Multicultural citizenship?
in Lewis, R. (Ed.) Multiculturalism Observed. Exploring Identity (2006)Detailed reference viewed: 59 (6 ULg)
How to combine Integration and Diversities : The challenge of an EU multicultural citizenship
Book published by EUMC Discussion Paper (2004)Detailed reference viewed: 109 (2 ULg)
How to combine pedigree and marker information into a single estimator for the calculation of relationships?
Bömcke, Elisabeth ; Soyeurt, Hélène ; et al
in Book of Abstracts of the 60th Annual Meeeting of the European Association for Animal Production (2009, August)
Relationship coefficients are particularly useful to improve genetic management of endangered populations. These coefficients are traditionally based on pedigree data. In case of incomplete or missing ... [more ▼]
Relationship coefficients are particularly useful to improve genetic management of endangered populations. These coefficients are traditionally based on pedigree data. In case of incomplete or missing pedigree, they are replaced by coefficients calculated from molecular data when this information is available. However, genotyping a complete population for a sufficient number of markers can be impossible. The main objective of this study was therefore to develop a new method to estimate relationship by combining molecular with pedigree data. It will be useful for specific situations, where neither pedigree nor molecular data are complete. In a companion paper, the compatible coefficients were determined. In this study, based on simulations of pedigree and marker data, the method to combine the selected coefficients was determined. Various parameters were taken into account in the model: number and quality of the marker (e.g. marker informativeness), mutation rate, quality of the pedigree (e.g. generation-equivalents), … The combined estimator has several advantages. Especially, negative relationship values obtained in literature with molecular-based estimators in case of small inbred populations can be avoided. In conclusion, this combined estimator was originally developed for the management of an endangered horse population. It should also be a promising alternative to traditionally used estimators, e.g. for the management of small and/or rare breeds; especially in case of inbred populations, with both incomplete pedigree and partial molecular information. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 67 (7 ULg)
How to control the recombinant prion protein adhesion for successful storage through modification of surface properties Biointerphases
; ; et al
in Biointerphases (2012)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
How to correctly determine the kinetics of a photocatalytic degradation reaction?
Pirard, Sophie ; Malengreaux, Charline ; Toye, Dominique et al
in Chemical Engineering Journal (2014), 249Detailed reference viewed: 28 (8 ULg)
How to correctly determine the kinetics of pollutant degradation in water over a photocatalytic film?
Pirard, Sophie ; Malengreaux, Charline ; Toye, Dominique et al
Conference (2013, July 08)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg)
How to count elephants in West African savannahs? Synthesis and comparison of main gamecount methods
Bouché, Philippe ; Lejeune, Philippe ; Vermeulen, Cédric
in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2012), 16(1), 77-91
The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and ... [more ▼]
The comparison of some elephants count methods – aerial sampling count, aerial total count and direct foot count – has been presented through surveys’ study cases implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. We compare them in terms of effort and cost to survey an area (sampling efficiency), efficiency in data collection (detection efficiency) as well as accuracy and precision. Aerial sampling count returns low sampling and detection efficiency and very low precision and accuracy figures when counting elephants populations below 0.5 elephant.km-2. Precision can partly be improved by stratification. Direct foot count returns the best sampling and detection efficiency but insufficient data number to produce reliable estimates. Therefore some authors often produced no results for elephants. Aerial total count is a costly method in absolute value. It requires important logistic and no measure of error is possible. However it provides relatively good sampling and detection efficiency as well as relatively accurate figures appreciated by wildlife managers if technical requirements are respected. Aerial total count could be recommended to survey small population of West African elephants each 3 to 5 years to minimize yearly count costs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 261 (20 ULg)