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See detailExternal constraints on optical control strategies in molecular orientation and photofragmentation: role of zero-area fields
Sugny, Dominique; Vranckx, Stéphane; Ndong, Mamadou et al

in Journal of Modern Optics (2014), 61

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See detailExternal constraints on optimal control strategies in molecular orientation and photofragmentation: role of zero-area fields
Sugny, dominique; Vranckx, Stéphane; Ndong, Mamadou et al

in Journal of Modern Optics (2014), 61

We propose a new formulation of optimal and local control algorithms which enforces the constraint of time-integrated zero-area on the control field. The fulfillment of this requirement, crucial in many ... [more ▼]

We propose a new formulation of optimal and local control algorithms which enforces the constraint of time-integrated zero-area on the control field. The fulfillment of this requirement, crucial in many physical applications, ismathematically implemented by the introduction of a Lagrange multiplier aiming at penalizing the pulse area. This method allows one to design a control field with an area as small as possible, while bringing the dynamical system close to the target state. We test the efficiency of this approach on two control purposes in molecular dynamics, namely, orientation and photodissociation. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Costs as Competitiveness Factors for Freight Transport — A State of the Art
Mostert, Martine ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in Transport Reviews (2016), 36(6), 692-712

External costs have been a key issue in the last years of transport research. In Europe, this trend is in line with the political willingness to internalize externalities in transport pricing policies ... [more ▼]

External costs have been a key issue in the last years of transport research. In Europe, this trend is in line with the political willingness to internalize externalities in transport pricing policies. This paper has two purposes. It first identifies the recent work achieved in the field of external costs of road and intermodal freight transport, where each paper is assessed in terms of its perspective (academic or project oriented), its objective (prescription, application, projection), the type of externality (air pollution, climate change, noise, accidents, congestion) and the type of cost (marginal, average, total) that is considered. The literature review reveals a gap in the development of generic mathematical functions for external costs of transport. The second objective of the paper is thus to highlight the usefulness of such functions by identifying the main parameters that influence freight transport competitiveness in terms of external costs, and by determining which of these parameters should be incorporated in further research works. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Evaluation Report Über Die Common Security and Defence Policy Modules
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by Ministry of Defence and Sports of the Federal Republic of Austria (2011)

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See detailExternal nasal valve collapse: validation of novel outcome measurement tool.
POIRRIER, Anne-Lise ULg; Ahluwalia, S.; Kwame, I. et al

in Rhinology (2014), 52(2), 127-32

BACKGROUND: We aim to validate a clinical scoring system of external nasal valve collapse. External nasal valve collapse is a rare and challenging condition. We attempted to simplify the examination of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: We aim to validate a clinical scoring system of external nasal valve collapse. External nasal valve collapse is a rare and challenging condition. We attempted to simplify the examination of the external valve, the surgical planning and the outcome measure. To validate our external valve score, we first assessed its reliability (inter-rater agreement and test-retest repeatability). We secondly considered the clinical relevance by using our scoring system in patients undergoing septorhinoplasty for external valve collapse. METHODOLOGY: For validation, 16 Rhinologists scored patients separately on two occasions. For the clinical relevance, 26 patients with external valve collapse were scored pre- and post-operatively (responsiveness). The external valve score was correlated to peak nasal inspiratory flow. RESULTS: The devised scoring system was reliable (substantial agreement between 16 surgeons with reproducibility over time). All patients in our prospective series showed significant improvement in their external valve score. The quality of life measured by the SNOT-22 tool showed significant improvement after surgery. CONCLUSION: External nasal valve collapse can be diagnosed and graded using this simple scoring system in the outpatient clinic. This paper reinforces the pivotal role of septorhinoplasty surgery in nasal airway reconstruction and the ongoing need to quantify success. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Quality Assessment (Eqa) of Belgian Clinical Laboratories. The Telematics Paradigm
Albert, Adelin ULg; De Moor, G.; Libeer, J. C.

in Clinica Chimica Acta (1998), 270(1), 43-54

Technology that enables communication between information systems has recently become cheaper and more powerful. It is therefore timely to consider the effects of the introduction of such techniques in ... [more ▼]

Technology that enables communication between information systems has recently become cheaper and more powerful. It is therefore timely to consider the effects of the introduction of such techniques in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes on both users and organizers. Traditionally, results are returned to EQA organizers as hand-written numbers on structured forms. These data are then manually entered into a computer. The process is time-consuming, slow (as it depends on the postal service), prone to error at every transcription stage, and expensive, as clerical staff must be employed to input the data. Computer-to-computer communication allows this process to be improved. A telematics system for electronic data interchange has been developed for the Belgian EQA programme and it offers several advantages, such as the use of standardized semantics, expression of results in laboratory familiar units, possible interface with the Laboratory Information System, faster data analysis, shorter report time and long-term performance evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal quality grading of Jonagold apples using a multi-spectral vision system
Kleynen, Olivier; Leemans, Vincent ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Balsa-Canto E., Mora J.; Onate E. (Eds.) II International Workshop - Information Technologies and Computing Techniques for the Agro-Food Sector (2003)

This paper presents a method to sort Jonagold apples using a four bands multi-spectral image acquisition device. Multi-spectral images of sound tissue and various defects were acquired. Defects could be ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a method to sort Jonagold apples using a four bands multi-spectral image acquisition device. Multi-spectral images of sound tissue and various defects were acquired. Defects could be divided into four classes: slight defects (e.g. small russet), more serious defects (scar tissue), defects leading to the rejection of the fruit (e.g. rot) and recent bruises (between one hour and two hours old). Image segmentation was based on the Bayes' theorem. Each pixel of the fruit was classified into 'healthy' or 'defect' classes according to the probability distribution of the spectral components of each class. Once segmented, the fruit was graded by linear discriminant analysis on the basis of the relative area of the defect and statistical parameters computed on the spectral components of the two tissues classes. Results (cross validation) showed 94% and 84% if the sound and defective fruits respectively well classified. Most of the misclassified defective fruits (89%) belonged to the slight defect category. [less ▲]

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See detailExternal Voting and migrants’ political influence in the home country
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2010, October 06)

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See detailExternal Voting and Voter Turnout: A Discussion on Migrants Decisions to Register and Vote in Home Country Elections
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in CEDEM Working Paper Series (2010)

What factors influence migrants’ decision to participate in home country elections? While existing literature on general voter turnout and turnout of minority and migrant voters has long attempted to ... [more ▼]

What factors influence migrants’ decision to participate in home country elections? While existing literature on general voter turnout and turnout of minority and migrant voters has long attempted to explain why migrants become involved in the politics in their place of residence, little is known about what drives emigrants to vote in their home country elections from abroad. This paper builds up on this literature to determine what variables should be analyzed to understand the behavior of external voters, and also points out possible alternative variables. To support this discussion, the paper relies on analyses of four countries - Italy, Belgium, Mexico and Bolivia - that have implemented external voting mechanisms in recent years. [less ▲]

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See detailThe external voting right of Bolivians abroad: What role for emigrants in regime transformation in their homeland?
Hinojosa Gordonava, Alfonso; Domenech, Eduardo; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

in Emmerich, Gustavo; Alarcon Olguin, Victor (Eds.) Sufragio Transnacional y Extraterritorial Experiencias Comparadas (2016)

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we propose to analyze the development of the external voting issue in the Bolivian political context between 2003 and 2009. Examining the evolution of relations between the Bolivian Government and its diaspora (particularly a er the coming to power of Evo Morales Ayma in 2006), we will demonstrate how the topic has progressively become central within Bolivian politics and how emigrants have played an active part in their own enfranchisement. In particular, we will see how “the process of change” instigated by the Morales government has found an extension among citizens abroad. [less ▲]

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See detailA "external" StandPoint on QMS
Massart, Sébastien ULg

Conference (2016, March)

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See detailExternalités et dépenses des villes centrales
Jurion, Bernard ULg

in Burgat, P.; Jeanrenaud, C. (Eds.) Services publics locaux (1987)

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See detailExternalizing behavior trajectories: the role of parenting, sibling relationships and child personality.
Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Stievenart, Marie ULg

in Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology (2011), 32(1),

Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behaior ... [more ▼]

Based on longitudinal multilevel modeling and using a multi-informant strategy, this study examines trajectories of externalizing problem behavior (EPB) in childhood as predicted by parental behaior (absolute level of parenting [ALP] and parental differential treatment [PDT]), parental self-efficacy (PSE), child personality and sibling relationships. Besides main effects, several interactions were tested. The effects of changes in parenting on changes in EPB were also examined. A total of 119 families from the French-speaking area of Belgium rearing a child (3- to 5-year-olds at the onset of the study) referred for EPB were studied. The effects of both level-of and changes-in mothers' ALP were partially confirmed, but for fathers, only ALP was predictive. There were some significant interactions between ALP and PDT for both parents. Mothers' PSE explained some variance in EPB, additional to that explained by the parenting measures. Some parenting by personality and by sibling relationship interactions were found. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive Silent Period of Temporalis Muscle in Menstrual Headaches
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Bottin, D.; Sulon, J. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1991), 11(2), 87-91

The second exteroceptive silent period (ES2) of temporalis muscle was recorded on days 1 and 15 of the menstrual cycle in 17 women, 9 of whom suffered regularly from tension-type headaches during ... [more ▼]

The second exteroceptive silent period (ES2) of temporalis muscle was recorded on days 1 and 15 of the menstrual cycle in 17 women, 9 of whom suffered regularly from tension-type headaches during menstruation. Mean duration of temporalis ES2 was significantly shorter on day 1 of the cycle than on day 15. This difference was due to a marked menstrual reduction of ES2 in the headache subgroup. A positive correlation was found between ES2 durations and oestradiol/progesterone ratios. We hypothesize that the variations of ES2 during the ovarian cycle result from the modulatory effects of oestrogens on descending aminergic pathways that control excitability of inhibitory brainstem interneurons mediating exteroceptive suppression of jaw-closing motoneurons. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive silent periods of temporalis muscle in headache
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Van Steenberghe, D.; De Laat, A. (Eds.) EMG of jaw reflexes in man (1989)

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in chronic headache.
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Jamart, B.; Gerard, P. et al

in Neurology (1987), 37(12), 1834-6

Early (ES1) and late (ES2) exteroceptive suppression periods elicited by electrical stimulation of the labial commissure during teeth-clenching were recorded over the temporalis muscle in 45 headache ... [more ▼]

Early (ES1) and late (ES2) exteroceptive suppression periods elicited by electrical stimulation of the labial commissure during teeth-clenching were recorded over the temporalis muscle in 45 headache patients (25 tension headaches and 20 migraines) and 22 controls. Mean duration of ES2 for single shocks was significantly reduced in tension headache when compared with migraine or controls. At a stimulation rate of 2 Hz, ES2 was abolished in 40% of tension headache sufferers, but in none of the migraineurs. EMG analysis of temporalis late exteroceptive suppression might be a helpful diagnostic tool in functional headaches. Reduction of ES2 suggests that there is deficient activation or excessive inhibition of pontobulbar inhibitory interneurons which receive a strong input from limbic structures. ES2 might thus represent an interface between psychogenic and myogenic factors putatively involved in the pathogenesis of tension headache. [less ▲]

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See detailExteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity in patients with chronic headache and in normal volunteers: methodology, clinical and pathophysiological relevance.
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Headache (1993), 33(1), 3-17

Exteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity was studied in patients with chronic headache and in healthy controls. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG ... [more ▼]

Exteroceptive suppression of temporalis muscle activity was studied in patients with chronic headache and in healthy controls. Among different methods of recording, averaging 10 full-wave rectified EMG responses produces results with acceptable variability and discomfort. The late temporalis exteroceptive suppression period (ES2) is reduced on average in patients with chronic tension-type headache; this finding has been reproduced by several independent laboratories. Mean duration of temporalis ES2 is also diminished, but to a lesser degree, in daily drug abuse headache and, as shown by others, in episodic tension-type headache. It is normal in migraine between attacks, cluster headache and various types of symptomatic headaches. Temporalis ES2 may be decreased in untreated patients with major depression. In healthy volunteers, temporalis ES2 duration is reduced by a short-lasting painful stimulus to peripheral limbs after a delay of 50 to 60 ms, and by a sub-motor threshold electromagnetic stimulation to the contralateral cerebral cortex after a delay of 20 to 30 ms. In contrast, long-lasting trains of peripheral painful stimuli have no effect. Various pharmacological agents are able to modify temporalis ES2. Its duration is increased by 5-HT antagonists, but decreased by 5-HT uptake blockers. Pharmacological effects may differ between controls and patients. Considering these results and available data on the anatomo-functional organization of masticatory reflexes, we postulate that temporalis ES2 is a marker of the excitability of interneuronal nets in the ponto-medullary reticular formation. In chronic tension-type headache, excitability of these interneurons is decreased because of inadequate control by the serotonergic raphe magnus nucleus and the periaqueductal gray matter. Dysfunctioning of the latter structures might be caused by abnormal limbic inputs to the brain stem. Some steps of this pathophysiological hypothesis can be verified by modern neurophysiological techniques. [less ▲]

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