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See detailHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin: a hormone with immunological and angiogenic properties.
Tsampalas, M.; Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Berndt, Sarah ULg et al

in Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2010), 85(1), 93-8

The success of implantation depends on a receptive endometrium, a normal blastocyst and synchronized cross-talk at the maternal–fetal interface. The progression of pregnancy then requires immunological ... [more ▼]

The success of implantation depends on a receptive endometrium, a normal blastocyst and synchronized cross-talk at the maternal–fetal interface. The progression of pregnancy then requires immunological tolerance which allows conceptus survival. A cascade of cytokines mediates this dialogue and is crucial in the cross-talk between the immune and endocrine systems. The first known human embryo-derived signal is chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by which the embryo profoundly influences immunological tolerance and angiogenesis at the maternal–fetal interface. hCG levels coincide with the development of trophoblast tolerance. Indeed, it increases the number of uterine natural killer cells that play a key role in the establishment of pregnancy. hCG also intervenes in the development of local immune tolerance through the cellular system of apoptosis via Fas/Fas-Ligand. It modulates the Th1/Th2 balance and acts on complement C3 and C4A/B factors modulating decidual immunity. The transient tolerance evident during gestation is at least partially achieved via the presence of regulatory T cells which are attracted by hCG at the fetal–maternal interface. Finally, hCG treatment of activated dendritic cells results in an up-regulation of MHC class II, IL-10 and IDO expression, reducing the ability to stimulate T cell proliferation. Successful implantation requires an extensive endometrial angiogenesis in the implantation site. Recent data demonstrate angiogenic effects of hCG via its interaction with endometrial and endothelial LH/hCG receptors. Our review focuses on these functions of hCG, giving new insight into the endocrine–immune dialogue that exists between the conceptus and immune cells within the receptive endometrium at the time of implantation. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman cognition during REM sleep and the activity profile within frontal and parietal cortices: a reappraisal of functional neuroimaging data
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Ruby, P.; Maudoux, Audrey ULg et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2005), 150(Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology), 219-227

In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of positron emission tomography (PET) scans acquired during wakefulness, slow wave sleep and REM sleep, and focused especially on the brain areas in which the activity diminishes during REM sleep. Results show that quiescent regions are confined to the inferior and middle frontal cortex and to the inferior parietal lobule. Providing a plausible explanation for some of the features of dream reports, these findings may help in refining the concepts, which try to account for human cognition during REM sleep. In particular, we discuss the significance of these results to explain the alteration in executive processes, episodic memory retrieval and self representation during REM sleep dreaming as well as the incorporation of external stimuli into the dream narrative. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman consumption of Lepidoptera, termites, Orthoptera, and ants in Africa
Malaisse, François ULg

in Paoletti, Maurizio Guido (Ed.) Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs and Snails (2005)

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time awake and circadian phase
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Ly, Julien; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg et al

Poster (2015, January 27)

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time awake and circadian phase
Ly, Julien ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

Conference (2014, September 17)

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking ... [more ▼]

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking period. But what’s happen at the cortical cerebral level? We used a novel technique coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) to assess the influence of time spent awake and circadian phasis on human cortical excitability. Twenty-two healthy young men underwent 8 TMS/EEG sessions during a 28 hour sleep deprivation protocole. We found that cortical excitability depends on both time spent awake and circadian phasis. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time spent awake and circadian phase
Ly, Julien ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg et al

Scientific conference (2014, October 04)

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking ... [more ▼]

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking period. But what’s happen at the cortical cerebral level? We used a novel technique coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) to assess the influence of time spent awake and circadian phasis on human cortical excitability. Twenty-two healthy young men underwent 8 TMS/EEG sessions during a 28 hour sleep deprivation protocole. We found that cortical excitability depends on both time spent awake and circadian phasis. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time spent awake and circadian phase
Ly, Julien ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

Conference (2014, September 17)

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking ... [more ▼]

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking period. But what’s happen at the cortical cerebral level? We used a novel technique coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) to assess the influence of time spent awake and circadian phasis on human cortical excitability. Twenty-two healthy young men underwent 8 TMS/EEG sessions during a 28 hour sleep deprivation protocole. We found that cortical excitability depends on both time spent awake and circadian phasis. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman cultured adrenal fasciculata-reticularis cells are targets for angiotensin-II: effects on cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage, cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase, and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase messenger ribonucleic acid and proteins and on steroidogenic responsiveness to corticotropin and angiotensin-II.
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Jaillard, C.; Defayes, G. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1994), 78(6),

In the present study we have examined the effects of ACTH and angiotensin-II (A-II) on cultured human adult fasciculata-reticularis-specific functions. When cells were cultured in a chemically defined ... [more ▼]

In the present study we have examined the effects of ACTH and angiotensin-II (A-II) on cultured human adult fasciculata-reticularis-specific functions. When cells were cultured in a chemically defined medium, the mRNA levels of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17 alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P45017 alpha), and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) progressively declined, so that by day 6 of culture, less than 20% of those observed in freshly isolated cells were present. ACTH and A-II, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, enhanced the mRNA levels of the three enzymes and the protein levels of P45017 alpha and 3 beta HSD, but not protein levels of P450scc. At maximal concentrations, the effects of ACTH on P450scc mRNA levels and P45017 alpha mRNA and protein levels were significantly greater than those induced by A-II, but the effects of both hormones on 3 beta HSD mRNA and protein were similar. At maximal concentrations, the effects of ACTH and A-II were additive only on 3 beta HSD mRNA and protein. The cortisol production of cells pretreated with ACTH or A-II was significantly higher than that of control cells, but the effects of ACTH were greater than those of A-II. Moreover, the acute steroidogenic responses to ACTH or A-II of cells pretreated with either hormone, were significantly higher than those of control cells. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that human adult adrenal fasciculata-reticularis cells are targets for A-II, because 1) A-II acutely stimulates cortisol secretion and causes a long term increase in P450scc, P45017 alpha, and 3 beta HSD mRNA levels; 2) the steroidogenic responsiveness of A-II-pretreated cells to both ACTH and A-II was increased; and 3) the positive effects of A-II alone or in association with ACTH on steroidogenic enzyme gene expression are opposite those previously reported on bovine and ovine adrenal cells. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VII C and bovine dermatosparaxis are caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase gene.
Colige, Alain ULg; Sieron, A. L.; Li, S. W. et al

in American Journal of Human Genetics (1999), 65(2), 308-17

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC is a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder, characterized by extreme skin fragility, characteristic facies, joint laxity, droopy skin, umbilical hernia ... [more ▼]

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIIC is a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder, characterized by extreme skin fragility, characteristic facies, joint laxity, droopy skin, umbilical hernia, and blue sclera. Like the animal model dermatosparaxis, EDS type VIIC results from the absence of activity of procollagen I N-proteinase (pNPI), the enzyme that excises the N-propeptide of type I and type II procollagens. The pNPI enzyme is a metalloproteinase containing properdin repeats and a cysteine-rich domain with similarities to the disintegrin domain of reprolysins. We used bovine cDNA to isolate human pNPI. The human enzyme exists in two forms: a long version similar to the bovine enzyme and a short version that contains the Zn++-binding catalytic site but lacks the entire C-terminal domain in which the properdin repeats are located. We have identified the mutations that cause EDS type VIIC in the six known affected human individuals and also in one strain of dermatosparactic calf. Five of the individuals with EDS type VIIC were homozygous for a C-->T transition that results in a premature termination codon, Q225X. Four of these five patients were homozygous at three downstream polymorphic sites. The sixth patient was homozygous for a different transition that results in a premature termination codon, W795X. In the dermatosparactic calf, the mutation is a 17-bp deletion that changes the reading frame of the message. These data provide direct evidence that EDS type VIIC and dermatosparaxis result from mutations in the pNPI gene. [less ▲]

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See detailThe human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in European patients with advanced colorectal cancer harbors infrequent mutations in its tyrosine kinase domain.
Metzger, B.; Chambeau, L.; Begon, Dominique ULg et al

in BMC medical genetics (2011), 12(1), 144

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptors, is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase (TK) activated by the binding of extracellular ligands of ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptors, is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase (TK) activated by the binding of extracellular ligands of the EGF-family and involved in triggering the MAPK signaling pathway, which leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain are frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, to date, only very few, mainly non-European, studies have reported rare EGFR mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: We screened 236 clinical tumor samples from European patients with advanced CRC by direct DNA sequencing to detect potential, as yet unknown mutations, in the EGFR gene exons 18 to 21, mainly covering the EGFR TK catalytic domain. RESULTS: EGFR sequences showed somatic missense mutations in exons 18 and 20 at a frequency of 2.1% and 0.4% respectively. Somatic SNPs were also found in exons 20 and 21 at a frequency of about 3.1% and 0.4% respectively. Of these mutations, four have not yet been described elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: These mutation frequencies are higher than in a similarly sized population characterized by Barber and colleagues, but still too low to account for a major role played by the EGFR gene in CRC. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman error : Towards a systemic approach: a case study in anesthesia
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

Doctoral thesis (1997)

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See detailHuman erythroleukemia: is the two-hit model of mouse leukemogenesis valid in human disease?
Coulon, Séverine; Vandekerckhove, Julie; Dussiot, Michael et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2007)

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See detailHuman Exposure of Bisphenol A: Review of the Urinary Biomarker Levels in the General Population
PIRARD, Catherine ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Gibert, Yann (Ed.) Bisphenol A: Sources, Risks of Environmental Exposure and Human Health Effects (2014)

Bipshenol A (2,2’-bis-[4-hydroxyphenyl]propane) involved as monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, is found in a wide variety of products including food packaging, baby ... [more ▼]

Bipshenol A (2,2’-bis-[4-hydroxyphenyl]propane) involved as monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, is found in a wide variety of products including food packaging, baby bottles, food and drink cans or containers. Because of the migration of bisphenol A from the food container to the food itself, the dietary ingestion has been estimated to be the main source for the general population. The Human exposure is increasingly studied either through the determination of dietary intake or more frequently via the measurement of urinary biomarker. This chapter is reporting results from roughly 200 publications dedicated to the bisphenol A levels found in the urine of the worldwide general population and measured within the different Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies conducted in this last decade. The exposure of children and pregnant women, both known as particularly vulnerable populations, is separately examined. The impact of the different legislations implemented in different countries to reduce children’s exposure on one hand and the different campaigns dedicated to the general public on the other hand, is not observed yet through temporal trend, likely because of the quite recent character of these actions. The advantages and the limitations of biomonitoring studies are also addressed, like the high within-person variability, the difficulties to access to reliable analytical techniques, the poor inter-study comparability, and the current need of longitudinal studies to establish links between BPA exposure and chronic diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman exposure to endocrine disrupters: consequences of gastroplasty on plasma concentration of toxic pollutants
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in International Journal of Obesity (2002), 26(11), 1465-1468

BACKGROUND: Body weight loss occurring after a hypoenergetic diet or a gastroplasty could be followed by an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic pollutants that can interfere with the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Body weight loss occurring after a hypoenergetic diet or a gastroplasty could be followed by an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic pollutants that can interfere with the hormonal system (endocrine disrupters). DESIGN: Thirty obese individuals recruited for gastroplasty were compared before and after treatment with 45 normal-weight people. MEASUREMENTS: Blood samples were analyzed for DDT, DDE, HCB and PCBs no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The results indicate clearly that body weight loss occurring after gastroplasty increases plasma concentration of lipophilic pollutants. CONCLUSION: Gastroplasty increases plasma concentration of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, which could be a risk factor of endocrine disruption. Future longitudinal research will have to determine if the advantages of body weight loss are reduced by this potentially harmful effect. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Factors main cause of accidents and main factor for preventing accidents
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

Scientific conference (2004, April)

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See detailHuman Fdc Express Prpc in Vivo and in Vitro
Thielen, Caroline ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Mélot, France ULg et al

in Developmental Immunology (2001), 8(3-4), 259-66

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by accumulation of abnormal prion protein (protease-resistant prion, PrPres). PrPres accumulation is also detected in lymphoid organs after ... [more ▼]

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by accumulation of abnormal prion protein (protease-resistant prion, PrPres). PrPres accumulation is also detected in lymphoid organs after peripheral infection. Several studies suggest that follicular dendritic cells (FDC) could be the site of PrPres retention and amplification. Here we show that human follicular dendritic cells can express normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) both in situ and in vitro. When tonsillar cryosections were treated with anti-PrP antibody, the label was found on some very delicate cell extensions inside the lymphoid follicles, especially in the germinal centres. These extensions react with DRC1 antibody, used frequently to label FDC. Other structures labelled with anti-PrP antibody were the keratinocytes. To confirm the ability of FDC to synthesise PrPc, we isolated FDC by a non-enzymatic procedure and cultured them. By cytochemistry and flow cytometry it was clearly shown that FDC do produce PrPc. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman follicular dendritic cells in vitro
Tsunoda, R.; Heinen, Ernst ULg; Imai, Y. et al

in Dendritic Cells (1994), 4

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See detailHuman follicular dendritic cells in vitro and follicular dendritic-cell-like cells.
Tsunoda, R.; Bosseloir, A.; Onozaki, K. et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (1997), 288(2), 381-9

Human follicular dendritic cell (FDC)-like cells (FLC) have been utilized for the in vitro analysis of germinal center reactions. However, there is no consensus whether FLC represent FDC in vitro. The ... [more ▼]

Human follicular dendritic cell (FDC)-like cells (FLC) have been utilized for the in vitro analysis of germinal center reactions. However, there is no consensus whether FLC represent FDC in vitro. The purpose of the present study has therefore been to determine distinguishing features of FDC and FLC in vitro. The expression of CD40, CD54, CD49d, cytokine (gamma-IFN and IL-4)-dependent MHC-class II, and CD106 was observed to be specific for the determination of FDC in long-term culture. The cytokine-dependent emperipolesis of germinal center B cells was establised as another discriminating property for FDC in vitro. In 2 out of 72 long-term cultures of FDC, we encountered dividing cells among the non-dividing population of FDC. The dividing cells expressed accessory molecules similar to those of FDC but showed emperipolesis only for the initial few days of their growth. FDC did not enhance the CD40-dependent proliferation of germinal center B cells; in contrast, FLC augumented it. Both types of cells produced a significant amount of cytokine-dependent IL-6. Further studies are needed to determine whether FLC originate from FDC in vitro. [less ▲]

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