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See detailIncreased Response of Blood Eosinophils to Various Chemotactic Agents in Quiescent Crohn Disease
Denis, M. A.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2001), 36(2), 190-5

BACKGROUND: The number of eosinophils is increased in the mucosae of the digestive and the respiratory tracts in Crohn disease, even clinically quiescent. The mechanisms underlying this panmucosal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The number of eosinophils is increased in the mucosae of the digestive and the respiratory tracts in Crohn disease, even clinically quiescent. The mechanisms underlying this panmucosal eosinophilia are unknown. METHODS: The response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents was assessed in 15 patients with clinically quiescent Crohn disease. The results were compared with 15 healthy controls. After purification, eosinophils were placed in Boyden microchambers and the chemotactic effect of PAF (10(-7) M), RANTES (50 ng/ml), IL-5 (0-20 ng/ml), IL-8 (0-50 ng/ml), Eotaxin (0-50 ng/ml) was evaluated. The number of eosinophils in induced sputum of these Crohn disease patients and controls was also assessed and the correlation between chemotaxis and eosinophil count in induced sputum was studied. RESULTS: PAF and RANTES induced a chemotactic effect both in Crohn disease patients and controls. The chemotactic index was significantly higher in Crohn than controls for PAF (2.09+/-0.24 versus 1.37+/-0.14; P < 0.05) but not RANTES. With IL-5, IL-8 and Eotaxin, there was no detectable chemotactic effect in controls while in Crohn, we observed a significant dose-dependent chemotactic effect. Furthermore, with Eotaxin 50 ng/ml, the chemotactic index was significantly higher in Crohn disease patients than controls (2.42+/-0.18 versus 1.56+/-0.28; P < 0.05). A significant increase in sputum eosinophil count and a significant decrease in sputum macrophage count in Crohn disease were observed. However, there was no correlation between eosinophil chemotaxis and sputum eosinophil count in individual patients. CONCLUSION: There is an increased response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents, mainly PAF and Eotaxin, in clinically quiescent Crohn disease. This may participate in the mucosal infiltration by eosinophils in this disease. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased risk of breast cancer among female relatives of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia: a causal relationship?
d'Almeida, A. K.; Cavaciuti, E.; Dondon, M. G. et al

in British Journal of Cancer (2005), 93(6), 730-732

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See detailIncreased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and serum organochlorine concentrations among neighbors of a municipal solid waste incinerator
Viel, Jean-François; Floret, Nathalie; Deconinck, Eric et al

in Environment International (2011), 37(2), 449-453

Organochlorine chemicals may contribute to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) within nonoccupationally exposed populations. Among these chemicals, dioxins and furans were mainly released by ... [more ▼]

Organochlorine chemicals may contribute to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) within nonoccupationally exposed populations. Among these chemicals, dioxins and furans were mainly released by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) until a recent past in France, a source of exposure that is of public concern. We investigated organochlorines and the risk of NHL among neighbors of a French MSWI with high levels of dioxin emissions (Besançon, France), using serum concentrations to assess exposure. The study area consisted of three electoral wards, containing or surrounding the MSWI. Pesticides, dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the serum of 34 newly diagnosed NHL cases (2003– 2005) and 34 controls. Risks of NHL associated with each lipid-corrected serum concentration were estimated using exact logistic regression. The pesticides β-hexachlorocyclohexane (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00–1.12, per 10 ng/g lipid) and p,p' dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.45, per 10 ng/g lipid) were associated with NHL risk. Evidence indicated an increased NHL risk associated with cumulative WHO1998-toxic equivalency factor (TEQ) concentrations (dioxins, OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.03–1.26; furans, OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03–1.35; dioxin-like PCBs, OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.00–1.07; and total TEQ, OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.05), as well as with non dioxin-like PCBs (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01–1.05, per 10 ng/g lipid). Most congener-specific associations were statistically significant. This study provides strong and consistent support for an association between serum cumulative WHO1998-TEQ concentrations, at levels experienced by people residing in the vicinity of a polluting MSWI, and risk of NHL. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Sister Chromatid Exchange Frequencies Observed in a Cohort of Inhabitants of a Village Located at the Boundary of an Industrial Dumping Ground: Phase I
Laurent, C.; Lakhanisky, T.; Jadot, P. et al

in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology (1993), 2(4, Jul-Aug), 355-62

Since the mid-eighties, a sand pit located at the boundary of Mellery, a small village in Belgium, has been used as a dumping ground for industrial waste. After a particularly dry summer, many people ... [more ▼]

Since the mid-eighties, a sand pit located at the boundary of Mellery, a small village in Belgium, has been used as a dumping ground for industrial waste. After a particularly dry summer, many people complained of very foul smells coming from the dumping ground. An analysis of the environmental atmosphere detected alkanes and chlorinated saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons in various concentrations. Consequently, the Belgian Ministry of the Environment requested additional measurements from the dumping site and the surrounding regions. Given the hazards and possible ill health effects associated with simultaneous exposure to low levels of many chemicals, biomarkers of personal exposure were measured in a representative group of people living in this village. The cytogenetic consequences of daily exposure to a mixture of genotoxicants were measured by the Sister Chromatid Exchange assay. The study included a group of 51 environmentally exposed persons (including 11 children) and 52 controls. A significant increase in Sister Chromatid Exchange frequency was detected among the inhabitants of the village compared to that of the control group, especially among the children living in Mellery as compared to the matched control children. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased synovial fluid levels of interleukin-12, sCD25 and sTNF-RII/sTNF-RI ratio delineate a cytokine pattern characteristic of immune arthropathies
Ribbens, Clio ULg; Andre, Béatrice ULg; Kaye, O. et al

in European Cytokine Network (2000), 11(4), 669-676

The assessment of cytokines and their soluble receptors in the synovial fluid (SF) of inflammatory arthropathies may be useful in studying pathogenetic and immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying different ... [more ▼]

The assessment of cytokines and their soluble receptors in the synovial fluid (SF) of inflammatory arthropathies may be useful in studying pathogenetic and immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying different diseases. The aim of this work was to study the cytokine network occurring in inflammatory arthropathies and to identify a cytokine profile which is characteristic of an immune-mediated synovitis. Levels of IL-12, as well as IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, sCD25, TNF-alpha and its soluble receptors were measured in the SF of various arthropathies, i.e. non-inflammatory arthropathies: "control" meniscus pathology (n = 21), osteoarthritis (n = 22) and chronic crystal arthritis (n = 9); a non-immune inflammatory arthropathy: acute crystal arthritis (n = 11); 2 immune inflammatory arthropathies: reactive arthritis (ReA) (n = 23) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 44). SF levels of IL-10, TNF-alpha and sTNF-RII were found to be increased in the three inflammatory arthropathies compared to the "control" meniscus group. Within the inflammatory group, acute crystal arthritis was characterized by a significantly higher sTNF-RI/TNF-alpha ratio and ReA by a significantly lower sTNF-RII/TNF-alpha ratio compared to the two other diseases. The two immune arthropathies, RA and ReA, were characterized by increased SF levels of IL-12, sCD25 and of the sTNF-RII/sTNF-RI ratio. ReA differed however from RA by showing lower IL-8 and IL-4 levels, higher IFN-gamma levels and a higher IL-12/IL-10 ratio, suggesting a more prevalent Th1 profile in ReA SF. Our data indicate that the measurement of SF cytokines and soluble receptors may discriminate between each inflammatory arthropathy and might be useful in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased synovial fluid levels of soluble CD23 are associated with an erosive status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Ribbens, Clio ULg; Bonnet, V.; Kaiser, Marie-Joëlle ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2000), 120(1), 194-199

Synovial fluid (SF) levels of soluble CD23 (sCD23) were determined in 96 patients presenting with an inflammatory knee effusion (73 with RA and 23 with reactive arthritis (ReA) serving as a control ... [more ▼]

Synovial fluid (SF) levels of soluble CD23 (sCD23) were determined in 96 patients presenting with an inflammatory knee effusion (73 with RA and 23 with reactive arthritis (ReA) serving as a control inflammatory non-erosive group) and were correlated with the degree of joint destruction, with local immune parameters (IL-1beta, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and sCD25) and with serum markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. RA patients, classified as erosive or not according to Larsen's grade, were separated as follows: (i) 13 patients with non-erosive RA; (ii) 16 RA patients with erosions in hands but not in knees, matched for disease duration with the first group; (iii) 44 RA patients with hand and knee erosions, matched with the second group for rheumatoid factor positivity but of longer disease duration. SF sCD23 levels were significantly increased in both erosive RA groups compared with non-erosive diseases, whether RA or ReA (P < 0.05), whose SF levels were not different. SF IL-10 showed a similar profile to that of SF sCD23 and was the only other parameter characteristic of erosive RA, but no direct correlation was found between the two. SF sCD23 was significantly correlated with IL-12 (r = 0.65, P = 0.0001) and sCD25 (r = 0.39, P = 0.0019) exclusively in the two erosive RA populations. In conclusion, these data showing that increased levels of sCD23 are not only found in the SF of erosive joints but also in knee SF of patients with erosive RA but without knee x-ray-diagnosed erosions suggest that this parameter might be of predictive value for joint destruction. Longitudinal studies are however needed to confirm its potential clinical interest. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased TGFβ1 plasma level in patients with lung cancer: potential mechanisms
Barthelemy, Nicole ULg; David, Jean-Louis ULg; Bosquee, Léon ULg et al

in European Journal of Clinical Investigation (2002), 32(3), 193-198

Background Plasma transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) levels are elevated in patients with lung cancer. As TGFβ1 is mainly found in platelets and as nonmalignant pulmonary diseases (NMPD) are frequently ... [more ▼]

Background Plasma transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) levels are elevated in patients with lung cancer. As TGFβ1 is mainly found in platelets and as nonmalignant pulmonary diseases (NMPD) are frequently associated with lung cancer, we investigated the potential contribution of platelet degranulation and/or of a concomitant NMPD to the increased plasma levels of TGFβ1 reported in patients with lung cancer. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected in duplicate from 30 healthy subjects, 14 patients suffering from NMPD and 37 patients with lung cancer. The platelet count was determined and the samples were processed to obtain plasma. One sample was collected in EDTA (EDTA plasma) and the other in a mixture inhibiting platelet degranulation (PIM plasma). TGFβ1 concentrations and β-thromboglobulin (βTG) levels, an index of platelet degranulation, were measured in both plasma samples. Results TGFβ1 and βTG plasma levels measured in PIM plasma were lower than those obtained in EDTA plasma. With respect to PIM plasma, both TGFβ1 and βTG levels were higher in patients with lung cancer than those with NMPD and in healthy individuals. In patients with NMPD, only TGFβ1 levels were increased as compared to healthy controls, βTG levels being similar. Conclusion Methods for collecting and processing blood samples are critical in determining reliable circulating TGFβ1 levels. Increased TGFβ1 plasma levels observed in patients with lung cancer are related, at least partly, to concomitant NMPD and also to platelet degranulation as proved by increased βTG levels. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased topsoil mineral nutrient concentrations under exotic invasive plants in belgium
Vanderhoeven, SONIA ULg; Dassonville, N.; Meerts, P.

in Plant and Soil (2005), 275(1-2), 169-179

Exotic invasive plants can alter ecosystem processes. For the first time in Europe, we have analysed the impacts of exotic invasive plants on topsoil chemical properties. At eight sites invaded by five ... [more ▼]

Exotic invasive plants can alter ecosystem processes. For the first time in Europe, we have analysed the impacts of exotic invasive plants on topsoil chemical properties. At eight sites invaded by five exotic invasive species (Fallopia japonica, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Solidago gigantea, Prunus serotina and Rosa rugosa), soil mineral element composition was compared between invaded patches and adjacent, uninvaded vegetation. We found increased concentrations of exchangeable essential nutrients under the canopy of exotic invasive plants, most strikingly so for K and Mn (32% and 34% increase, respectively). This result fits in well with previous reports of enhanced N dynamics in invaded sites, partly due to higher net primary productivity in exotic invasive plants compared to native vegetation. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased uptake of the apoptosis-imaging agent (99m)Tc recombinant human annexin V in human tumors after one course of chemotherapy as a predictor of tumor response and patient prognosis
Belhocine, Tarik; Steinmetz, Neil; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2002), 8(9), 2766-2774

Purpose: Many anticancer therapies exert their therapeutic effect by inducing apoptosis in target tumors. We evaluated in a Phase I study the safety and the feasibility of Tc-99m-Annexin V for imaging ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Many anticancer therapies exert their therapeutic effect by inducing apoptosis in target tumors. We evaluated in a Phase I study the safety and the feasibility of Tc-99m-Annexin V for imaging chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in human cancers immediately after the first course of chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Fifteen patients presenting with lung cancer (n = 10), lymphoma (n = 3), or breast cancer (n = 2) underwent Tc-99m-Annexin V scintigraphy before and within 3 days after their first course of chemotherapy. Tumor response was evaluated by computed tomography and F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans, 3 months in average after completing the treatment. Median follow-up was 117 days. Results: In all cases, no tracer uptake was observed before treatment. However, 24-48 h after the first course of chemotherapy, 7 patients who showed Tc-99m-Annexin V uptake at tumor sites, suggesting apoptosis, had a complete (n = 4) or a partial response In = 3). Conversely, 6 of the 8 patients who showed no significant posttreatment tumor uptake had a progressive disease. Despite the lack of tracer uptake after treatment, the 2 patients with breast cancer had a partial response. Overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly related to tracer uptake in treated lung cancers and lymphomas (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and the safety of Tc-99m-Annexin V for imaging apoptosis in human tumors after the first course of chemotherapy. Initial data suggest that early Tc-99m-Annexin V tumor uptake may be a predictor of response to treatment in-patients with late stage lung cancer and lymphoma. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing coverage and efficiency of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine and introducing universal varicella vaccination in Europe : A role for the combined vaccine
Vesikari, Timo; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg et al

in Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (2007), 26(7), 632-638

Universal mass vaccination according to a 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine schedule is recommended by the World Health Organization and is fundamental to the control of these important diseases ... [more ▼]

Universal mass vaccination according to a 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine schedule is recommended by the World Health Organization and is fundamental to the control of these important diseases. Very high coverage (first dose, >= 95%; second dose, >= 80%) is necessary to achieve and sustain high population immunity, and eventually interrupt indigenous transmission of these diseases. In 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices issued a recommendation for 2 doses of varicella vaccine to be given universally to children. Coadministration of MMR and varicella vaccines, though efficacious and well tolerated, can be difficult because of the 2 separate injections and associated compliance issues. In addition to the general advantages of a combined vaccine, recently registered measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccines could facilitate introduction of varicella universal mass vaccination by simplifying administration and providing the potential to achieve high coverage rates for these 4 diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability.
Nelis, Delphine ULg; Kotsou, Ilios; Quoidbach, Jordi ULg et al

in Emotion (2011), 11(2), 354-66

This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors ... [more ▼]

This study builds on earlier work showing that adult emotional competencies (EC) could be improved through a relatively brief training. In a set of 2 controlled experimental studies, the authors investigated whether developing EC could lead to improved emotional functioning; long-term personality changes; and important positive implications for physical, psychological, social, and work adjustment. Results of Study 1 showed that 18 hr of training with e-mail follow-up was sufficient to significantly improve emotion regulation, emotion understanding, and overall EC. These changes led in turn to long-term significant increases in extraversion and agreeableness as well as a decrease in neuroticism. Results of Study 2 showed that the development of EC brought about positive changes in psychological well-being, subjective health, quality of social relationships, and employability. The effect sizes were sufficiently large for the changes to be considered as meaningful in people's lives. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing emotional intelligence: (How) is it possible?
Nelis, Delphine ULg; Quoidbach, Jordi ULg; Mikolajczak, M. et al

in Personality & Individual Differences (2009), 47(1), 36-41

The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the individual differences in the perception, processing, regulation, and utilization of emotional information. As these differences have been shown ... [more ▼]

The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the individual differences in the perception, processing, regulation, and utilization of emotional information. As these differences have been shown to have a significant impact on important life outcomes (e.g., mental and physical health, work performance and social relationships), this study investigated, using a controlled experimental design, whether it is possible to increase El. Participants of the experimental group received a brief empirically-derived El training (four group training sessions of two hours and a half) while control participants continued to live normally. Results showed a significant increase in emotion identification and emotion management abilities in the training group. Follow-up measures after 6 months revealed that these changes were persistent. No significant change was observed in the control group. These findings suggest that El can be improved and open new treatment avenues. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing incidence of equine motor neurone disease in Belgium
Christmann, U; Noppe, E; Cassart, Dominique ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (1999), 19

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See detailIncreasing incidence of megabacteriosis in canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus)
Marlier, Didier ULg; Leroy, Cécile ULg; Sturbois, M. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2006), 172(3), 549-552

A total of 312 post-mortem examinations of 178 canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus), 40 parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus) and 94 parrots (Amazona aestiva, Psitaccus erithacus ... [more ▼]

A total of 312 post-mortem examinations of 178 canaries (Serinus canarius domesticus), 40 parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus) and 94 parrots (Amazona aestiva, Psitaccus erithacus) were conducted at the Birds and Rabbits Service of the University of Liege, Belgium. After a detailed gross examination, tissue samples were collected for virological and/or bacteriological and/or parasitological examination to complete the diagnosis. In all cases, a microscopic examination of the proventricular mucus layer was undertaken for the detection of the anamorphic ascomycetous yeast Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, which causes the non-zoonotic but important disease in cage birds known as megabacteriosis. At the time of death, megabacteriosis was diagnosed respectively in 28% of canaries and 22.5% of budgerigars (P value for Fisher's exact test = 0.5576), but was not diagnosed in parrots (P value for Fisher's exact test < 0.0001). The incidence of megabacteriosis significantly increases along the years (P value for chi(2) test < 0.0001, Cramer's coefficient = 0.3405). The most common gross lesions seen at necropsy of the 59 megabacteriosis cases was proventricular dilatation (86.1%). All the birds diagnosed as typical megabacteriosis cases were free of Salmonella spp. infections and of any parasitic infections. Four megabacteriosis cases (three canaries, one parakeet) were not included in statistical analysis as salmonellosis, pseudotuberculosis, coccidiosis and chlamydophilosis were diagnosed concomitantly in these birds. With the exception of megabacteriosis, the most frequent causes of death were protozoan (coccidiosis, lankesterellosis) infections (18.4%) and salmonellosis (17.1%) in canaries, and psittacosis (31.5%) and viral hepatitis (26.3%) in parakeets. In parrots, the most common causes of death were psittacosis (28.6%) and aspergillosis (28.5%). (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)
Van As, D; Andersen, ML; Petersen, D et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2014), 60(220), 314-322

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region ... [more ▼]

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godtha ̊bsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing organic cotton production in Benin West Africa with a supplementary food spray product to manage pests and beneficial insects
Mensah, Robert K.; Vodouhê, Davo Simplice; SANFILIPPO, Damien ULg et al

in International Journal of Pest Management (2012), 58(1), 53-64

Organic cotton is considered a high-value crop in Benin, West Africa, but problems of high costs and reduced yield arising from the lack of effective pest control have left cotton farmers with low profit ... [more ▼]

Organic cotton is considered a high-value crop in Benin, West Africa, but problems of high costs and reduced yield arising from the lack of effective pest control have left cotton farmers with low profit margins. We have developed a novel supplementary food spray product (Benin Food Product, BFP) to attract and retain beneficial insects on these crops to improve the management of pests. Applications of BFP to organic cotton, with and without other biological control agents, attracted and increased the densities of predatory insects, significantly reducing pest insect numbers and producing higher yields than in cotton treated with neem extract or in cotton that was untreated. In economic terms, the average gross profit margin on the BFP-treated plot was 125,340 FCFA (French Communaute Financie`re Africaine; USA $1 ¼ 483 FCFA) with 80,248, 89,450 and 968 FCFA on plots treated with neem extract, synthetic insecticides, and no control agent, respectively. These results clearly show that a supplementary food spray, combined with biological pesticides such as neem extract, sugar, and nuclear polyhedrosis virus, could have a positive economic impact on organic cotton production in Benin. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing seed oil content in oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.) by over-expression of a yeast glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of a seed-specific promoter.
Vigeolas, Hélène ULg; Waldeck, Peter; Zank, Thorsten et al

in Plant Biotechnology Journal (2007), 5(3), 431-41

Previous attempts to manipulate oil synthesis in plants have mainly concentrated on the genes involved in the biosynthesis and use of fatty acids, neglecting the possible role of glycerol-3-phosphate ... [more ▼]

Previous attempts to manipulate oil synthesis in plants have mainly concentrated on the genes involved in the biosynthesis and use of fatty acids, neglecting the possible role of glycerol-3-phosphate supply on the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis. In this study, a yeast gene coding for cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1) was expressed in transgenic oil-seed rape under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter. It was found that a twofold increase in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity led to a three- to fourfold increase in the level of glycerol-3-phosphate in developing seeds, resulting in a 40% increase in the final lipid content of the seed, with the protein content remaining substantially unchanged. This was accompanied by a decrease in the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the direct precursor of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The levels of sucrose and various metabolites in the pathway from sucrose to fatty acids remained unaltered. The results show that glycerol-3-phosphate supply co-limits oil accumulation in developing seeds. This has important implications for strategies that aim to increase the overall level of oil in commercial oil-seed crops for use as a renewable alternative to petrol. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the Coverage of a Cooperative Internet Topology Discovery Algorithm
Donnet, Benoît ULg; Huffaker, Bradley; Friedman, Timur et al

in Proceedings IFIP/TC6 Networking (2007, May)

Recently, Doubletree, a cooperative algorithm for large-scale topology discovery at the IP level, was introduced. Compared to classic probing systems, Doubletree discovers almost as many nodes and links ... [more ▼]

Recently, Doubletree, a cooperative algorithm for large-scale topology discovery at the IP level, was introduced. Compared to classic probing systems, Doubletree discovers almost as many nodes and links while strongly reducing the quantity of probes sent. This paper examines the problem of the nodes and links missed by Doubletree. In particular, this paper's first contribution is to carefully describe properties of the nodes and links that Doubletree fails to discover. We explain incomplete coverage as a consequence of the way Doubletree models the network: a tree-like structure of routes. But routes do not strictly form trees, due to load balancing and routing changes. This paper's second contribution is the Windowed Doubletree algorithm, which increases Doubletree's coverage up to 16% without increasing its load. Compared to classic Doubletree, Windowed Doubletree does not start probing at a fixed hop distance from each monitor, but randomly picks a value from a range of possible values. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the Detection Limit of the Parkinson Disorder through a Specific Surface Chemistry Applied onto Inner Surface of the Titration Well
Mille, Caroline; Debarnot; Zorzi, Willy ULg et al

in Journal of Functional Biomaterials (2012), 2

The main objective of this paper was to illustrate the enhancement of the sensitivity of ELISA titration for neurodegenerative proteins by reducing nonspecific adsorptions that could lead to false ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this paper was to illustrate the enhancement of the sensitivity of ELISA titration for neurodegenerative proteins by reducing nonspecific adsorptions that could lead to false positives. This goal was obtained thanks to the association of plasma and wet chemistries applied to the inner surface of the titration well. The polypropylene surface was plasma-activated and then, dip-coated with different amphiphilic molecules. These molecules have more or less long hydrocarbon chains and may be charged. The modified surfaces were characterized in terms of hydrophilic—phobic character, surface chemical groups and topography. Finally, the coated wells were tested during the ELISA titration of the specific antibody capture of the α-synuclein protein. The highest sensitivity is obtained with polar (Θ = 35°), negatively charged and smooth inner surface. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the efficiency of Organic Rankine Cycle Technology by means of Multivariable Predictive Control
Hernandez Naranjo, Jairo Andrés ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Ionescu, Clara et al

Conference (2014, August 25)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has become very popular, as it is extremely suitable for waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources. As the ORC system is a strongly coupled nonlinear ... [more ▼]

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has become very popular, as it is extremely suitable for waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources. As the ORC system is a strongly coupled nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) process, conventional control strategies (e.g. PID) may not achieve satisfactory results. In this contribution our focus is on the accurate regulation of the superheating, in order to increase the e fficiency of the cycle and to avoid the formation of liquid droplets that could damage the expander. To this end, a multivariable Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy is proposed, its performance is compared to the one of PI controllers for the case of variable waste-heat source profi les. [less ▲]

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