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See detailInfectious bovine rhinotracheitis and the epidemiological role of the other ruminant species
Thiry, Julien ULg; Muylkens, Benoît ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja = Hungarian Veterinary Journal (2008), 130(1), 116-123

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See detailInfective endocarditis- Microbiological Diagnosis: Efficiency and usefulness
Melin, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2007, May 10)

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See detailInfective Endocarditis: Prevention, Diagnosis and Management
Pierard, Luc ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Galiuto, L.

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (1994), 1(2), 104-9

Infective endocarditis remains an important problem and the means of prevention are still insufficient. The causal bacteria have changed very little, but the incidence of nosocomial infections and ... [more ▼]

Infective endocarditis remains an important problem and the means of prevention are still insufficient. The causal bacteria have changed very little, but the incidence of nosocomial infections and endocarditis complicating intravenous drug abuse are increasing. The distinction between subacute and acute clinical presentations remains appropriate. Cardiac and neurological complications are frequent and carry a high risk of mortality. The diagnosis is obtained by the integration of clinical data and the results of blood cultures. Echocardiography is extremely useful for detecting vegetations, and for assessing the haemodynamic consequences and specific cardiac complications. Risk stratification can be obtained by correct integration of multiple parameters. The causal agent should be identified before the initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Surgery is frequently required, and should be performed rapidly when indicated. [less ▲]

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See detailInference and comparison of different genetic stratification techniques
Maus, Bärbel ULg; Génin, Emmanuelle; Mahachie John, Jestinah ULg et al

Conference (2012)

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See detailInference from adiabatic analysis of solar-like oscillations in red giants
Montalban Iglesias, Josefa ULg; Miglio, Andrea ULg; Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULg et al

in Astronomische Nachrichten (2010), 331

The clear detection with CoRoT and Kepler of radial and non-radial solar-like oscillations in many red giants paves the way to seismic inferences on the structure of such stars. We present an overview of ... [more ▼]

The clear detection with CoRoT and Kepler of radial and non-radial solar-like oscillations in many red giants paves the way to seismic inferences on the structure of such stars. We present an overview of the properties of the adiabatic frequencies and frequency separations of radial and non-radial oscillation modes, highlighting how their detection allows a deeper insight into the properties of the internal structure of red giants. In our study we consider models of red giants in different evolutionary stages, as well as of different masses and chemical composition. We describe how the large and small separations computed with radial modes and with non-radial modes mostly trapped in the envelope depend on the stellar global parameters and evolutionary state, and we compare our theoretical predictions and first Kepler data.Finally, we find that the properties of dipole modes constitute a promising seismic diagnostic of the evolutionary state of red-giant stars. [less ▲]

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See detailInference of Inhomogeneous Clouds in an Exoplanet Atmosphere
Demory, Brice-Olivier; de Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2013), 776

We present new visible and infrared observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b to determine its atmospheric properties. Our analysis allows us to (1) refine Kepler-7b's relatively large geometric albedo of ... [more ▼]

We present new visible and infrared observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b to determine its atmospheric properties. Our analysis allows us to (1) refine Kepler-7b's relatively large geometric albedo of Ag = 0.35 ± 0.02, (2) place upper limits on Kepler-7b thermal emission that remains undetected in both Spitzer bandpasses and (3) report a westward shift in the Kepler optical phase curve. We argue that Kepler-7b's visible flux cannot be due to thermal emission or Rayleigh scattering from H[SUB]2[/SUB] molecules. We therefore conclude that high altitude, optically reflective clouds located west from the substellar point are present in its atmosphere. We find that a silicate-based cloud composition is a possible candidate. Kepler-7b exhibits several properties that may make it particularly amenable to cloud formation in its upper atmosphere. These include a hot deep atmosphere that avoids a cloud cold trap, very low surface gravity to suppress cloud sedimentation, and a planetary equilibrium temperature in a range that allows for silicate clouds to potentially form in the visible atmosphere probed by Kepler. Our analysis does not only present evidence of optically thick clouds on Kepler-7b but also yields the first map of clouds in an exoplanet atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailInférence pragmatique et publicité : une mise au point
Dardenne, Benoît ULg

in Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale (1989), (4), 47-81

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See detailInférence statistique et critères de qualité de l'ajustement en régression logistique binaire
Palm, Rodolphe ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Notes de Statistique et d'Informatique (2011), (5), 32

The principles of statistical inference based on the maximum likelihood function are described and applied to binary logistic regression. Several goodness of fit statistics are also given. These topics ... [more ▼]

The principles of statistical inference based on the maximum likelihood function are described and applied to binary logistic regression. Several goodness of fit statistics are also given. These topics are illustrated by an example processed by Minitab and SAS softwares. [less ▲]

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See detailInferior clinical outcome of the CD4+ cell count-guided antiretroviral treatment interruption strategy in the SMART study: role of CD4+ Cell counts and HIV RNA levels during follow-up.
Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel; El-Sadr, Wafaa et al

in Journal of Infectious Diseases (2008), 197(8), 1145-55

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: The SMART study compared 2 strategies for using antiretroviral therapy-drug conservation (DC) and viral suppression (VS)-in 5,472 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts >350 cells/microL. Rates and predictors of opportunistic disease or death (OD/death) and the relative risk (RR) in DC versus VS groups according to the latest CD4+ cell count and HIV RNA level are reported. RESULTS: During a mean of 16 months of follow-up, DC patients spent more time with a latest CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL (for DC vs. VS, 31% vs. 8%) and with a latest HIV RNA level >400 copies/mL (71% vs. 28%) and had a higher rate of OD/death (3.4 vs. 1.3/100 person-years) than VS patients. For periods of follow- up with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/microL, rates of OD/death were increased but similar in the 2 groups (5.7 vs. 4.6/100 person-years), whereas the rates were higher in DC versus VS patients (2.3 vs. 1.0/100 person-years; RR, 2.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.4]) for periods with the latest CD4+ cell count >or= 350 cells/microL-an increase explained by the higher HIV RNA levels in the DC group. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk of OD/death in DC patients was associated with (1) spending more follow-up time with relative immunodeficiency and (2) living longer with uncontrolled HIV replication even at higher CD4+ cell counts. Ongoing HIV replication at a given CD4+ cell count places patients at an excess risk of OD/death. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inferior Non Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: A Major Surgical Risk During Thyroidectomy
Defechereux, Thierry ULg; Albert, V.; Alexandre, j et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2000), 100(2, Mar-Apr), 62-7

It is now widely established that systematic intraoperative location and diligent dissection of the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy are the keystones to assure its anatomic and ... [more ▼]

It is now widely established that systematic intraoperative location and diligent dissection of the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy are the keystones to assure its anatomic and functional preservation. The possibility of abnormal routes, like a non-recurrent cervical course of the inferior laryngeal nerve is an additional major argument for its systematic identification to avoid surgical damage. In 2517 cervicotomies performed between 1992 and 1997 for at least right thyroid lobe excision or parathyroid glands exploration, 20 cases of non recurrent laryngeal nerve were identified (0.79%). The embryological nature of such a nervous anatomical variation results originally from a vascular disorder, named arteria lusoria in which the fourth right aortic arch is abnormally absorbed, being therefore unable to drag the right recurrent laryngeal nerve down when the heart descends and the neck elongates during embryonic development. The surgeon must be aware of the possibility of a non recurrent laryngeal nerve, which arises directly from the cervical vagus and therefore represents a severe potential pitfall during thyroidectomy. Given the absence of reliable clinical symptoms and signs or investigations indicating preoperatively the possibility of a non recurrent nerve, guidelines are given to prevent intraoperatively this major surgical risk. [less ▲]

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See detailINFERNET : A neurocomputational model of binding and inference
Sougné, Jacques ULg

Doctoral thesis (1999)

We know that color and form are processed in distinct areas of the human brain. This information must somehow be brought together. How the brain might achieve these colorform associations, as well as all ... [more ▼]

We know that color and form are processed in distinct areas of the human brain. This information must somehow be brought together. How the brain might achieve these colorform associations, as well as all other associations of this type, is one of the central themes of this dissertation. When looking at a field of poppies on a sunny day, how can we correctly associate the color red with the poppies, green with the grass, and blue with the sky, while avoiding associating the color red with the grass and the color blue with poppies? How can we associate the perception of red poppies with the name “red poppy,” and with its superordinate category “flower?” A red poppy is composed of several features, like its shape, color, texture, etc. How might a cognitive system bind these features to build a coherent whole? If we see Louise picking a red poppy, how can we correctly associate Louise with the picker and the red poppy with the picked object, without making the opposite and incorrect association? These associations may seem easy to us, but how does the brain achieve them? How a cognitive system binds a set of features together, associates a filler with a role, a value with a variable, an attribute with a concept, ... is what we mean by “the binding problem.” This thesis focuses on the neurobiological processes that enable connectionist cognitive systems to display binding abilities, on the constraints that affect the binding process, and on the cognitive consequences of these constraints. To study these processes, we developed a computer model of them. This method forces a detailed and unequivocal description of processes used by the simulation. This method is also a powerful means of generating new hypotheses. In this study we attempt to link psychological processes with the neuronal constraints that act on brain functioning. The brain is composed of approximately 10 billion highly interconnected neurons. To achieve binding it is necessary for neurons to communicate with each other because it has been shown that different aspects of a perceived object are not processed in the same cortical areas. Therefore, there must be a means for binding neurons responding to each of these different aspects. The neurons responding to the color red, to the object’s shape, and to its name must be linked to produce a coherent whole representing the red poppy. Neurons are connected by synapses. The functioning of these connections is constrained by the architecture of the brain and by the process of signal transmission. A particular neuron is connected to a relatively small set of other neurons. Therefore, communication between any two neurons generally requires a chain of transmission through intermediate neurons. A pre-synaptic neuron has an effect on another neuron (called the post-synaptic neuron) only if the pre-synaptic neuron emits an action potential (i.e., if it fires). As a consequence, this brief polarization, which last a few milliseconds, results in a modification of other neurons' firing potential. Transmission efficiency depends on the strength of the connecting synapses and the state of the post-synaptic neuron. When a neuron emits an action potential, it is completely insensitive to incoming signals for a short period, then its sensitivity slowly increases. A single pre-synaptic cortical neuron cannot alone provoke the post-synaptic neuron firing. This post-synaptic neuron must receive convergent and more or less synchronized signals from many synapses in order to fire. These neurobiological properties of neurons and neuronal firing constrain the way in which the brain can achieve binding. Among the various hypotheses of how this could be done, we chose synchronization of action potentials for our model. In the red poppy example, neurons responding to the color red will fire in synchrony with those responding to the shape of the flower and to the name “red poppy.” This particular synchronized cluster corresponding to “red poppy” must be temporally distinguished from the cluster responding to “green grass.” Numerous neurobiological studies seem to confirm this action-potential synchrony hypothesis. They show that synchronization involves a particular timing precision and occurs at a particular oscillation frequency. This oscillation requires participating neurons to fire repeatedly and rhythmically for a particular period of time. These properties of firing timing and duration have been implemented in a computer simulation called INFERNET. This artificial neural network uses integrate-and-fire nodes (artificial neuronlike elements). These nodes fire at a precise moment and transmit their activation, with a particular strength and delay, to nodes connected to them. When the potential of the node reaches a particular threshold, it emits a spike. Thereafter, the potential is reset to a resting value. As with real neurons, this node will then be completely insensitive to incoming signals for a short period, after which its sensitivity will slowly increase. INFERNET solves the binding problem by means of oscillation synchrony. Symbols are represented by clusters of nodes firing in synchrony. Fillers are also bound to their roles by synchrony. This synchronous activity defines a window of synchrony i.e., an interval during which the required nodes fire. This time interval takes neurally plausible values. Object discrimination is achieved by a succession of windows of synchrony. Bindings are maintained in memory by the use of particular oscillations. The rhythmic activity and the synchrony precision constrain the number of distinct entities that the system is able to maintain in memory. This represents the short term memory span of INFERNET. We show that this span is comparable with human short term memory span. The limited number of windows of synchrony also constrains predicate representations. This prediction is tested on human participants. If there are too many windows of synchrony, these will interfere with each other. In addition, binding strength decreases with time. These two properties explain why the short-term memory of INFERNET displays primacy and recency effects similar to those observed in humans. Bindings in INFERNET are also constrained by the number of intermediate steps required for particular role nodes to enter into synchrony with the filler nodes. This constraint is shown to provided a plausible explanation of various differences human reasoning. The last INFERNET constraint concerns multiple instantiation. This problem arises in connectionist networks as soon as a symbol has to be simultaneously used twice in different ways. Since INFERNET’s short term memory is the transient activation of parts of long term memory, it cannot make multiple copies of a symbol, in the same way, for example, that a symbolic system does. The INFERNET solution to the multiple instantiation problem involves superposition of different node oscillations. This process is constrained by the refractory period of the nodes. A number of simulations with INFERNET and experiments on humans show that this solution is psychologically plausible. Multiple instantiation is also shown to be a plausible explanation of certain similarity effects in short term memory. INFERNET is also shown to be capable of symbolic processing with using neurologically and psychologically plausible mechanisms that have the advantages of generalization and noise tolerance found in connectionist networks. Finally, under certain circumstances, noise is shown to enhance INFERNET’s processing capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailL'inferno del romanzo: Riflessioni sulla post-letteratura
Millet, Richard; Ricciardi, Stefania ULg

Book published by Transeuropa (2011)

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See detailInferring biological networks with output kernel trees
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Touleimat, Nizar; Dutreix, Marie et al

in BMC Bioinformatics (2007), 8(Suppl. 2), 4

Background: Elucidating biological networks between proteins appears nowadays as one of the most important challenges in systems biology. Computational approaches to this problem are important to ... [more ▼]

Background: Elucidating biological networks between proteins appears nowadays as one of the most important challenges in systems biology. Computational approaches to this problem are important to complement high-throughput technologies and to help biologists in designing new experiments. In this work, we focus on the completion of a biological network from various sources of experimental data. Results: We propose a new machine learning approach for the supervised inference of biological networks, which is based on a kernelization of the output space of regression trees. It inherits several features of tree-based algorithms such as interpretability, robustness to irrelevant variables, and input scalability. We applied this method to the inference of two kinds of networks in the yeast S. cerevisiae: a protein-protein interaction network and an enzyme network. In both cases, we obtained results competitive with existing approaches. We also show that our method provides relevant insights on input data regarding their potential relationship with the existence of interactions. Furthermore, we confirm the biological validity of our predictions in the context of an analysis of gene expression data. Conclusion: Output kernel tree based methods provide an efficient tool for the inference of biological networks from experimental data. Their simplicity and interpretability should make them of great value for biologists. [less ▲]

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See detailInferring bounds on the performance of a control policy from a sample of one-step system transitions
Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Murphy, Susan A.; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

in 28th Benelux Meeting on Systems and Control (2009)

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See detailInferring bounds on the performance of a control policy from a sample of trajectories
Fonteneau, Raphaël ULg; Murphy, Susan; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning (ADPRL-09) (2009)

We propose an approach for inferring bounds on the finite-horizon return of a control policy from an off-policy sample of trajectories collecting state transitions, rewards, and control actions. In this ... [more ▼]

We propose an approach for inferring bounds on the finite-horizon return of a control policy from an off-policy sample of trajectories collecting state transitions, rewards, and control actions. In this paper, the dynamics, control policy, and reward function are supposed to be deterministic and Lipschitz continuous. Under these assumptions, a polynomial algorithm, in terms of the sample size and length of the optimization horizon, is derived to compute these bounds, and their tightness is characterized in terms of the sample density. [less ▲]

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See detailInferring causal relationships using information-theoretic measures
Olsen, Catharina; Meyer, Patrick ULg; Bontempi, Gianluca

Conference (2009)

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See detailInferring Groups of Correlated Failures
Lepropre, Jean; Leduc, Guy ULg

Poster (2006, December)

We compare and evaluate different methods to infer groups of correlated failures. These methods try to group failure events occurring nearly simultaneously in clusters. Indeed if several failures occur ... [more ▼]

We compare and evaluate different methods to infer groups of correlated failures. These methods try to group failure events occurring nearly simultaneously in clusters. Indeed if several failures occur nearly at the same moment in a network, it is possible that these failures have the same root cause. The input data of our algorithms are IP failure notifications that can be provided by several sources. We consider two sources: IS-IS Link State Packets (LSPs) and Syslog messages. Our first results on the Abilene and GÉANT networks show that the inference methods behave differently and that using IS-IS LSPs provides more accurate results than using Syslog messages. [less ▲]

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See detailInferring internal anatomy from the trilobite exoskeleton: the relationship between frontal auxiliary impressions and the digestive system
Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Hegna, Thomas; Olive, Sébastien ULg

in Lethaia (2011), 44(2),

The digestive system of trilobites is rarely preserved. As a result, many aspects of its organization remain unknown. Fortunately, the exoskeleton sometimes preserves evidence of soft-tissue attachment ... [more ▼]

The digestive system of trilobites is rarely preserved. As a result, many aspects of its organization remain unknown. Fortunately, the exoskeleton sometimes preserves evidence of soft-tissue attachment sites that can be used to infer internal anatomy. Among them are the frontal auxiliary impressions (FAIs), probable soft-tissue insertion sites located on the fronto-median glabellar lobe of some trilobites. FAIs are herein described in the Carboniferous trilobite Phillipsia belgica Osmo´ lska 1970 – representing the only known example of such structures in the Proetida and their youngest occurrence. A taphonomic scenario is proposed to explain their variable preservation. Although particularly common in the Phacopina, FAIs or FAI-like structures are also found in several orders that differ greatly. Comparisons with modern analogues suggest that FAIs might represent attachment sites for extrinsic muscles associated with a differentiated crop within the foregut. A review of purported remains of the trilobite digestive system indicates that it usually consisted of a tube-like tract flanked by a variable number of metamerically paired diverticulae. Its anterior portion is not particularly individualized, except in a few specimens that might hint at the presence of a crop. This differentiation of a crop might have constituted a secondarily evolution of the foregut in trilobites, occurring independently in different clades. Accompanied by a strengthening of associated extrinsic muscles, this modification of the foregut might explain the presence of more conspicuous muscle insertion sites on the glabella. Study of FAIs might therefore provide new data on the anatomy of the foregut in trilobites and evidence of diverse feeding habits. [less ▲]

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