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See detailFunctional ANOVA with random functional effects: an application to event-related potentials modelling for electroencephalograms analysis
Bugli, Céline; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Statistics in Medicine (2006), 25

The di erential e ects of basic visual or auditory stimuli on electroencephalograms (EEG), named event related potentials (ERPs), are often used to evaluate the impact of treatments on brain performances ... [more ▼]

The di erential e ects of basic visual or auditory stimuli on electroencephalograms (EEG), named event related potentials (ERPs), are often used to evaluate the impact of treatments on brain performances. In the present paper, we propose a P-splines based model that can be used to evaluate treatment e ect on the timing and the amplitude of some peaks of the ERPs curves. Functional ANOVA is an adaptation of linear model or analysis of variance to analyse functional observations. The changes in the functional of interest e ects are generally described using smoothing splines. Eilers and Marx proposed to work with P-splines, a combination of B-splines and di erence penalties on coe cients. We de ne a Psplines model for ERPs curves combined with random e ects. In particular, we show that it is a useful alternative to classical strategies requiring the visual and usually imprecise localization of speci c ERP peaks from curves with a low signal-to-noise ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional brain imaging applications to differential diagnosis in the dementias
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Current Opinion in Neurology (2002), 15(4), 439-444

Purpose of review The diagnosis of dementia rests on an improved knowledge and a better detection of early impairments, to which functional imaging can certainly contribute. Recent findings Progress has ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The diagnosis of dementia rests on an improved knowledge and a better detection of early impairments, to which functional imaging can certainly contribute. Recent findings Progress has been observed at different levels. First, the understanding of different dementias has benefited from explorations of the neural substrate of dementia symptoms and from research into new markers. Second, diverse variables (clinical, anatomical, biochemical) have been related to impaired cerebral activity in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, and progress in image analysis and in multimodal data acquisition has allowed a better understanding of the significance of brain activity disturbances. Third, functional imaging has been applied in well-designed clinical studies, and has provided important arguments for the diagnosis of characteristic clinical syndromes in the dementias. Summary The functioning of neural networks responsible for clinical symptoms in dementia remains an important research topic for functional imaging. The development of new tracers and new techniques for image processing should also improve the usefulness of brain imaging as a diagnostic tool. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional brain imaging of human sleep
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg

in Journal of Sleep Research (1998), 7(Suppl. 1), 42-47

This paper presents an overview of the contribution of functional brain mapping to the study of human sleep. Early studies were essentially successful in describing the variations of the global level of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an overview of the contribution of functional brain mapping to the study of human sleep. Early studies were essentially successful in describing the variations of the global level of cerebral metabolism. More recently, regional distribution of cerebral blood flow was reported. The results suggest that the permissive and executive processes of slow wave sleep and REM sleep are similar in humans and in animals. They also show cortical blood flow distributions specific to each sleep stage. The cellular mechanisms underlying the involvement of these cortical areas in sleep are not yet precisely known. They should be looked for by further investigations in animals. Future research in functional neuroimaging will attempt to explore functional and, hopefully, effective connectivity between cerebral areas involved in sleep processes. This final goal will probably require the co-registration of two or more brain imaging techniques to precisely describe the spatio-temporal course of neuronal interactions occurring during sleep. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional cerebral changes in multiple sclerosis patients during an autobiographical memory test
Ernst, Alexandra ULg; Noblet, Vincent; Denkova, Ekaterina et al

in Memory (2015)

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See detailFunctional Changes Induced by Necrotic Laryngitis in Double Muscled Calves
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1987), 121(15), 353-355

The effects of necrotic laryngitis on the mechanics of breathing and gas exchange were investigated in five Belgian blue double muscled calves two to three months old. All the animals showed the typical ... [more ▼]

The effects of necrotic laryngitis on the mechanics of breathing and gas exchange were investigated in five Belgian blue double muscled calves two to three months old. All the animals showed the typical clinical picture of the respiratory syndrome associated with naturally occurring necrotic laryngitis. Highly significant increases in total pulmonary resistance, minute viscous work of breathing and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, and highly significant decreases in dynamic lung compliance and arterial oxygen tension were recorded in the infected animals, when compared to reference values for healthy cattle. The ratio of inspiratory to expiratory viscous work of breathing was also significantly increased probably because of a partial collapse of the extrathoracic trachea during inspiration. It was concluded that necrotic laryngitis disturbs pulmonary function to such an extent that it impedes the growing process and predisposes the infected animals to secondary bronchopneumonia and ventilatory failure due to respiratory muscle fatigue. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional characteristics of TauA binding protein from TauABC Escherichia coli system
Javaux, C.; Joris, Bernard ULg; De Witte, P.

in Protein Journal (2007), 26(4), 231-238

Although TauA shares few common characteristics with other known periplasmic binding protein, TauA is a putative periplasmic binding protein, part of tauABCD gene cluster involved in sulfonate transport ... [more ▼]

Although TauA shares few common characteristics with other known periplasmic binding protein, TauA is a putative periplasmic binding protein, part of tauABCD gene cluster involved in sulfonate transport in sulphate starvation condition. This protein was expressed in E. coli BL 21 and purified before to assess its binding functionalities. Measurement of K (d) value (mean 11.3 nM) by binding/dialysis studies revealed high affinity and specificity with taurine and also indicated that TauA possessed a unique binding site for its ligand. Comparisons with other periplasmic binding proteins suggests TauA plays a major role in ABC transport system and could be ideal candidate to serve as taurine catcher in biological fluids. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional characterization of FRD3,  a citrate transporter, in Arabidopsis relatives
Scheepers, Maxime ULg; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Spielmann, Julien ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitutively over-expressed in A. halleri compared to A. thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation (1-3). A candidate gene ... [more ▼]

Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitutively over-expressed in A. halleri compared to A. thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation (1-3). A candidate gene encodes FRD3, a member of the MATE family of membrane transporters (56 members in A. thaliana). It is a citrate transporter involved in iron homeostasis (4-6) and playing a role in zinc tolerance in A. thaliana (7). We are aiming to analyse the FRD3 high expression in A. halleri and the FRD3 function in zinc and iron homeostasis in A. thaliana. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional characterization of glycolytic enzymes from Arabidopsis: do they only have a metabolic function?
Ros, Ros; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg et al

Conference (2009, November)

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See detailFunctional characterization of new allelic polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the human MxA gene.
Tran Thi Duc, Tam; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Cornet, Anne

in International Journal of Immunogenetics (2013), 40

The Mx proteins are high-molecular-weight dynamin-like proteins whose expression depends strictly on type-I and -III interferons (IFN). Some isoforms are able to inhibit the life cycle of one or several ... [more ▼]

The Mx proteins are high-molecular-weight dynamin-like proteins whose expression depends strictly on type-I and -III interferons (IFN). Some isoforms are able to inhibit the life cycle of one or several viruses and are thus components of innate immune response. The human MxA protein displays the broadest antiviral spectrum which makes it appear as a key antiviral effector of innate immunity. Allelic polymorphisms located in the MxA gene promoter can be expected to affect the magnitude of MxA mRNA transcription in response to IFNs and therefore to alter the severity of viral diseases in humans. Here, three single nucleotide polymorphism sites (-309, -101 and +20) were examined for their ability to alter MxA gene promoter-driven reporter expression. We show that, besides the previously reported role of 123A and -88T, the presence of -101G is equally important. Moreover, when a promoter construct carries these three critical nucleotides, a first additional positive effect is conferred by a C at position -309 and, in this latter case, a second additional effect is produced by a A at position +20. This finding is clinically useful to improve prediction of IFN-responsiveness in patients not only with viral diseases for which type-I IFN therapy is used. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Characterization of Snail2 Mediated E-Cadherin repression
Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULg; MacPherson, Matthew; Cano, Amparo et al

Poster (2007, December 02)

Snail2, also called Slug, is a member of the Snail-family of zinc-finger transcription factors that plays a significant role both during development and carcinogenesis, by controlling epithelial ... [more ▼]

Snail2, also called Slug, is a member of the Snail-family of zinc-finger transcription factors that plays a significant role both during development and carcinogenesis, by controlling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes. Snail2 has been also described as a direct transcriptional repression of E-cadherin during EMT being implicated as a prosurvival factor during tumorogenesis. Snail1 and Snail2 are highly homologous factors, containing a common N-terminal transrepressor domain (SNAG), a C-terminus DNA binding domain of four (Snail1) or five (Snail2) zinc fingers, and a divergent central region, which in Snail2 is formed by a unique domain called `Slug domain´ whose function remains to be elucidated. Snail1 repressor activity has been shown to be dependent on SNAG-mediated interaction with a repression complex formed by the corepressor mSin3a and histone deacetylases 1/2 (HDAC1/2). Importantly Snail1 transcription factor is further regulated through phosphorylation by various kinases. However, at date little is known about the control of Snail2 repressor activity. Here, we present interesting data shedding light into the regulation and function of Snail2 as a E-cadherin repressor. For this purpose we have performed ectopic expression of several Snail2 deletion mutants and examined the contribution of the specific domains to protein stability, localization and E-cadherin repressor activity. These data reveal a key role for the `Slug domain´ to repress E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, in vivo phosphorylation analysis revealed that specific phosphorylation on Snail2 protein is implicated in Snail2 function as a transcriptional repressor whose functional significance is currently being investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Characterization of Snail2 repression complex
Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULg; MacPherson, Matthew; Cano, Amparo et al

Poster (2007, September 10)

Snail2, also called Slug, is a member of the Snail-family of zinc-finger transcription factors that plays a significant role both during development and carcinogenesis, by controlling epithelial ... [more ▼]

Snail2, also called Slug, is a member of the Snail-family of zinc-finger transcription factors that plays a significant role both during development and carcinogenesis, by controlling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes. Snail2 has been also described as a direct transcriptional repression of E-cadherin during EMT being implicated as a prosurvival factor during tumorogenesis. Snail1 and Snail2 are highly homologous factors, containing a common N-terminal transrepressor domain (SNAG), a C-terminus DNA binding domain of four (Snail1) or five (Snail2) zinc fingers, and a divergent central region, which in Snail2 is formed by a unique domain called `Slug domain´ whose function remains to be elucidated. Snail1 repressor activity has been shown to be dependent on SNAG-mediated interaction with a repression complex formed by the corepressor mSin3a and histone deacetylases 1/2 (HDAC1/2). Importantly Snail1 transcription factor is further regulated through phosphorylation by various kinases. However, at date little is known about the control of Snail2 repressor activity. Here, we present interesting data shedding light into the regulation and function of Snail2 as a E-cadherin repressor. For this purpose we have performed ectopic expression of several Snail2 deletion mutants and examined the contribution of the specific domains to protein stability, localization and E-cadherin repressor activity. These data reveal a key role for the `Slug domain´ to repress E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, in vivo phosphorylation analysis revealed that specific phosphorylation on Snail2 protein is implicated in Snail2 function as a transcriptional repressor whose functional significance is currently being investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional connectivity and dynamic causal modeling
Phillips, Christophe ULg

Scientific conference (2010, May 03)

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See detailFunctional connectivity and recognition of familiar faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Kurth, Sophie ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Moyse, Evelyne ULg et al

in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (2014)

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See detailFunctional connectivity in the default network during resting state is preserved in a vegetative but not in a brain dead patient.
Boly, Mélanie ULg; Tshibanda, Luaba ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg et al

in Human Brain Mapping (2009), 30(8), 2393-400

Recent studies on spontaneous fluctuations in the functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in awake healthy subjects showed the presence of coherent fluctuations among functionally ... [more ▼]

Recent studies on spontaneous fluctuations in the functional MRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in awake healthy subjects showed the presence of coherent fluctuations among functionally defined neuroanatomical networks. However, the functional significance of these spontaneous BOLD fluctuations remains poorly understood. By means of 3 T functional MRI, we demonstrate absent cortico-thalamic BOLD functional connectivity (i.e. between posterior cingulate/precuneal cortex and medial thalamus), but preserved cortico-cortical connectivity within the default network in a case of vegetative state (VS) studied 2.5 years following cardio-respiratory arrest, as documented by extensive behavioral and paraclinical assessments. In the VS patient, as in age-matched controls, anticorrelations could also be observed between posterior cingulate/precuneus and a previously identified task-positive cortical network. Both correlations and anticorrelations were significantly reduced in VS as compared to controls. A similar approach in a brain dead patient did not show any such long-distance functional connectivity. We conclude that some slow coherent BOLD fluctuations previously identified in healthy awake human brain can be found in alive but unaware patients, and are thus unlikely to be uniquely due to ongoing modifications of conscious thoughts. Future studies are needed to give a full characterization of default network connectivity in the VS patients population. [less ▲]

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