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See detailInduction of long-lasting changes of visual cortex excitability by five daily sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in healthy volunteers and migraine patients
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Coppola, G.; Bohotin, V. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2006), 26(2), 143-149

We have shown that in healthy volunteers (HV) one session of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the visual cortex induces dishabituation of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) on ... [more ▼]

We have shown that in healthy volunteers (HV) one session of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the visual cortex induces dishabituation of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) on average for 30 min, while in migraineurs one session of 10 Hz rTMS replaces the abnormal VEP potentiation by a normal habituation for 9 min. In the present study, we investigated whether repeated rTMS sessions (1 Hz in eight HV; 10 Hz in eight migraineurs) on 5 consecutive days can modify VEPs for longer periods. In all eight HV, the 1 Hz rTMS-induced dishabituation increased in duration over consecutive sessions and persisted between several hours (n = 4) and several weeks (n = 4) after the fifth session. In six out eight migraineurs, the normalization of VEP habituation by 10 Hz rTMS lasted longer after each daily stimulation but did not exceed several hours after the last session, except in two patients, where it persisted for 2 days and 1 week. Daily rTMS can thus induce long-lasting changes in cortical excitability and VEP habituation pattern. Whether this effect may be useful in preventative migraine therapy remains to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) expression in human fibroblasts by breast adenocarcinoma cells.
Polette, M.; Gilles, Christine ULg; Marchand, V. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Metastasis (1997), 15(2), 157-63

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) has been recently described as an activator of proMMP-2 (MMP-2) which is involved in tumor invasion. We have shown by in situ hybridization that MT1-MMP ... [more ▼]

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) has been recently described as an activator of proMMP-2 (MMP-2) which is involved in tumor invasion. We have shown by in situ hybridization that MT1-MMP is produced by stromal cells in close contact to preinvasive and invasive tumor cells of breast carcinomas. Of particular interest was the observation that some fibroblasts express this enzyme in focal areas in preinvasive lesions, suggesting that particular tumor cells may stimulate fibroblasts to produce MT1-MMP. We have therefore compared the ability of two different breast cancer cell lines, one non-invasive (MCF7) and one invasive (MDA-MB-231) to stimulate MT1-MMP production in human fibroblasts with consequent proMMP-2-activation. The MDA-MB-231 conditioned medium induced MT1-MMP mRNAs in human fibroblasts and a parallel activation of proMMP-2 whereas MCF7 conditioned medium did not have any effect. These results suggest the existence of soluble factor(s) secreted by invasive or some preinvasive breast tumor cells which stimulate fibroblasts to produce and activate MMPs, and emphasize the cooperation between cancer and stromal cells in tumor invasion. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of nuclear factor-kappaB and its downstream genes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta has a pro-apoptotic role in pancreatic beta cells
Ortis, Fernanda; Pirot, P.; Naamane, N. et al

in Diabetologia (2008), 51

IL-1beta and TNF-alpha contribute to pancreatic beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Both cytokines activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but recent observations suggest that ... [more ▼]

IL-1beta and TNF-alpha contribute to pancreatic beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Both cytokines activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but recent observations suggest that NF-kappaB blockade prevents IL-1beta + IFN-gamma- but not TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma-induced beta cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha on cell death and the pattern of NF-kappaB activation and global gene expression in beta cells. METHODS: Cell viability was measured after exposure to IL-1beta or to TNF-alpha alone or in combination with IFN-gamma, and blockade of NF-kappaB activation or protein synthesis. INS-1E cells exposed to IL-1beta or TNF-alpha in time course experiments were used for IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation assay, detection of p65 NF-kappaB by immunocytochemistry, real-time RT-PCR and microarray analysis. RESULTS: Blocking NF-kappaB activation protected beta cells against IL-1beta + IFNgamma- or TNFalpha + IFNgamma-induced apoptosis. Blocking de novo protein synthesis did not increase TNF-alpha- or IL-1beta-induced beta cell death, in line with the observations that cytokines induced the expression of the anti-apoptotic genes A20, Iap-2 and Xiap to a similar extent. Microarray analysis of INS-1E cells treated with IL-1beta or TNF-alpha showed similar patterns of gene expression. IL-1beta, however, induced a higher rate of expression of NF-kappaB target genes putatively involved in beta cell dysfunction and death and a stronger activation of the IKK complex, leading to an earlier translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: NF-kappaB activation in beta cells has a pro-apoptotic role following exposure not only to IL-1beta but also to TNF-alpha. The more marked beta cell death induced by IL-1beta is explained at least in part by higher intensity NF-kappaB activation, leading to increased transcription of key target genes. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of phenolic compounds in two cultivars of cucumber by treatment of healthy and powdery mildew-infected plants with extracts of Reynoutria sachalinensis
Daayf, Fouad; Ongena, MARC ULg; Boulanger, Renald et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2000), 26

Accumulation of phenolic compounds (p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids and p-coumaric acid methyl ester) was followed in susceptible (Mustang) and tolerant (Flamingo) cucumber (Cucumis sativus ... [more ▼]

Accumulation of phenolic compounds (p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids and p-coumaric acid methyl ester) was followed in susceptible (Mustang) and tolerant (Flamingo) cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivars. The objective was to determine whether these compounds played a role in resistance against powdery mildew following a prophylactic treatment with Milsana (leaf extracts from the giant knot weed Reynoutria sachalinensis, polygonaceae). This treatment significantly reduced the incidence of powdery mildew in both cultivars. Phenolic compounds were extracted from leaves. In the hydrolyzed fraction containing phenolic aglycones, levels of p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids and of p-coumaric acid methyl ester increased in all treatments (with leaf extracts of R. Sachalinensis, powdery mildew, or both) except the control, one or two days after treatment. In the fraction containing free phenolics, from the tested compounds, only ferulic acid showed an increase in cv. Flamingo (tolerant), and was particularly evident following treatments. On the other hand, the amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids increased rapidly in the two cultivars following Milsana treatment, suggesting their role in disease reduction. All compounds showed antifungal activity when tetsed against common pathogens of cucumber (Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum, and P. aphanidermatum), but in general methyl esters were more fungitoxic than their corresponding free acids. This study suggests that cucumber is able to release antifungal compounds that are instrumental in repressing powdery mildew infection. This response is seemingly independent from the level of genetic resistance associated with each cultivar. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of photosynthetic electron transfer upon anoxia in Chlamydomonas: role of hydrogenase activity and PSI-cyclic electron flow
Godaux, Damien ULg; Berne, Nicolas ULg; Remacle, Claire ULg et al

Poster (2013)

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, anoxic environment leads to the expression of various fermentative/anaerobic pathways. Among them, oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons from ... [more ▼]

In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, anoxic environment leads to the expression of various fermentative/anaerobic pathways. Among them, oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons from reduced ferredoxin resulting in the production of molecular hydrogen. A possible role of chloroplast hydrogenase in the anaerobic induction of photosynthesis has been suggested forty years ago (Kessler, 1973) but never further explored. H2 evolution is a minor and transient phenomenon which is often considered as a safety mechanism to protect photosynthetic chain from overreduction (Melis and Happe, 2001; Hemschemeier et al., 2009). Recent data about hydrogen production in a pgrl1 (Proton Gradient Regulation like1) mutant with limited capacity for PSI-cyclic electron flow (CEF) also suggested a participation of CEF in photosynthesis reactivation after short dark-anoxic periods (Tolleter et al., 2011). Because H2 evolution is improved in pgrl1 mutant, authors came to the conclusion that H+ gradient generated by CEF strongly prevents electron supply to the hydrogenase and is thus a limitating factor for hydrogen production. The aim of our work is to further study the role of hydrogenase and CEF in the photosynthesis reactivation process after short (~1h) or long (>18h) dark-anoxic periods. We take advantage of the availability of hydrogenase-deficient mutants (hydEF, hydG) (Posewitz et al., 2005; Godaux et al., 2013) and above-mentioned CEF-deficient pgrl1 mutant. Light-induced photosynthetic electron transfer is studied by measuring hydrogen and oxygen evolution, as well as by following kinetics of chlorophyll fluorescence emission and P700 oxidoreduction. Firstly, we show that during the induction of photosynthesis after long dark-anoxic periods, there is a linear relationship between hydrogen evolution, PSI and PSII activities, meaning that an hydrogenase- dependent photosynthetic linear electron flow (LEF) mainly operates. Moreover, PSI and PSII photochemical yield are almost null in hydrogenase-deficient mutants. We conclude that hydrogenase is the main sink for photosynthetic electrons upon illumination after prolonged anoxia. Similarly, a linear correlation can be established between hydrogen evolution, hydrogenase expression/activity, and PSI or PSII photochemical yields upon adaptation to anoxia. In the next part of our work, we focus our attention on the role of PSI-CEF in the induction of photosynthesis upon anoxia. Combined measurements of PSI/PSII activities and O2/H2 evolution show that induction of photosynthesis is delayed in a Pgrl1-deficient strain. In absence of Pgrl1 protein, the H+ gradient is also lower and we thus propose that a lack of ATP is responsible for the delayed Calvin cycle reactivation, so that hydrogen production can be achieved for a longer time without inactivation of hydrogenase activity by evolved O2. These results are in good agreement with other results obtained by our group, demonstrating that state transition is a critical process for induction of photosynthesis in anoxia (Ghysels et al., accepted). In conclusion, a Pgrl1-dependent CEF seems to be in first importance to photosynthesis induction after one hour of dark-anaerobiosis adaptation, acting together with an hydrogenase dependant LEF to set favourable conditions for Calvin cycle activation. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber sprouting by hydrogen peroxide.
Bajji, M.; M'Hamdi, M.; Gastiny, F. et al

in Free Radical Research (2003), 37

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See detailInduction of protective immunity to bovine herpesvirus type 1 in cattle by intranasal administration of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 expressing glycoprotein gC or gD
Gogev, S.; Vanderheijden, N.; Lemaire, Mylène et al

in Vaccine (2002), 20(9-10), 1451-1465

Replication-defective human adenoviruses type 5 (HAd5) expressing the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gC or gD under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter ... [more ▼]

Replication-defective human adenoviruses type 5 (HAd5) expressing the bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gC or gD under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter/enhancer (AdCMVgC or AdCMVgD) or the 5' regulatory region of the human desmin gene (AdDESMgC or AdDESMgD) were generated. A preliminary experiment performed on rabbits showed that the intranasal administration of AdCMV elicited higher levels of BHV-1 neutralizing antibodies than the intramuscular administration of AdDESM. The obtained results allowed to select the replication-defective AdCMVgC and AdCMVgD for further assessment of their potential as a recombinant vaccine in cattle. Calves were injected intranasally twice 3 weeks apart with either AdCMVgC or AdCMVgD or a combination of these two recombinants or a commercially available live vaccine for comparison. The highest BHV-1 neutralizing antibody titres were obtained with AdCMVgD followed by the live vaccine and to a lower extent with the combination of the two recombinants (AdCMVgC+AdCMVgD). Calves were protected against intranasal BHV-1 challenge performed 3 weeks after the second immunization. In view of the obtained results, recombinant HAd5 may be developed as an intranasal vaccine vector in cattle administrated either alone or sequentially with non-human adenovirus-based vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of Sparc by Vegf in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells
Kato, Y.; Lewalle, J. M.; Baba, Y. et al

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2001), 287(2), 422-6

SPARC/osteonectin/BM-40 is a matricellular protein that is thought to be involved in angiogenesis and endothelial barrier function. Previously, we have detected high levels of SPARC expression in ... [more ▼]

SPARC/osteonectin/BM-40 is a matricellular protein that is thought to be involved in angiogenesis and endothelial barrier function. Previously, we have detected high levels of SPARC expression in endothelial cells (ECs) adjacent to carcinomas of kidney and tongue. Although SPARC-derived peptide showed an angiogenic effect, intact SPARC itself inhibited the mitogenic activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for ECs by the inhibiting phosphorylation of flt-1 (VEGF receptor 1) and subsequent ERK activation. Thus, the role of SPARC in tumor angiogenesis, stimulation or inhibition, is still unclear. To clarify the role of SPARC in tumor growth and progression, we determined the effect of VEGF on the expression of SPARC in human microvascular EC line, HMEC-1, and human umbilical vein ECs. VEGF increased the levels of SPARC protein and steady-state levels of SPARC mRNA in serum-starved HMEC-1 cells. Inhibitors (SB202190 and SB203580) of p38, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, attenuated VEGF-stimulated SPARC production in ECs. Since intact SPARC inhibits phosphorylation ERK MAP kinase in VEGF signaling, it was suggested that SPARC plays a dual role in the VEGF functions, tumor angiogenesis, and extravasation of tumors mediated by the increased permeability of endothelial barrier function. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of superovulation in cattle
Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Wouters-Ballman, P.; Viviers-Donnay, I. et al

Conference (1987, September 04)

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See detailInduction of superovulation in domestic ruminants
Gonzalez, F.; Calero, P.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg

in Renaville, R.; BurnY, A. (Eds.) Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry (2001)

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See detailInduction of the 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) in the rat medulla oblongata after vagus nerve injury.
Hopkins, D. A.; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Currie, R. W.

in Experimental Neurology (1998), 153(2), 173-83

The 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) is constitutively expressed in motor and sensory neurons of the brainstem. Hsp27 is also rapidly induced in the nervous system following oxidative and cellular ... [more ▼]

The 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) is constitutively expressed in motor and sensory neurons of the brainstem. Hsp27 is also rapidly induced in the nervous system following oxidative and cellular metabolic stress. In this study, we examined the distribution of Hsp27 in the rat medulla oblongata by means of immunohistochemistry after the vagus nerve was cut or crushed. After vagal injury, rats were allowed to survive for 6, 12, 24 h, 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 30, or 90 days. Vagus nerve lesions resulted in a time-dependent up-regulation of Hsp27 in vagal motor and nodose ganglion sensory neurons that expressed Hsp27 constitutively and de novo induction in neurons that did not express Hsp27 constitutively. In the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus, the levels of Hsp27 in motor neurons were elevated within 24 h of injury and persisted for up to 90 days. Vagal afferents to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) and area postrema showed increases in Hsp27 levels within 4 days that were still present 90 days postinjury. In addition, increases in Hsp27 staining of axons in the NTS and DMV suggest that vagus nerve injury resulted in sprouting of afferent axons and spread into areas of the dorsal vagal complex not normally innervated by the vagus. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that Hsp27 plays a role in long-term survival of distinct subpopulations of injured vagal motor and sensory neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of the adrenoleukodystrophy-related gene (ABCD2) by thyromimetics
Genin, Emmanuelle ULg; Gondcaille, Catherine; Trompier, Doriane et al

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (2009), 116 (1-2)

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 (ALD) gene. The ABCD2 gene, its closest homolog, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency when ... [more ▼]

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 (ALD) gene. The ABCD2 gene, its closest homolog, has been shown to compensate for ABCD1 deficiency when overexpressed. We previously demonstrated that the ABCD2 promoter contains a functional thyroid hormone response element. Thyroid hormone (T3) through its receptor TRbeta can induce hepatic Abcd2 expression in rodents and transiently normalize the VLCFA level in fibroblasts of Abcd1 null mice. In a therapeutic perspective, the use of selective agonists of TRbeta should present the advantage to be devoid of side effects, at least concerning the cardiotoxicity associated to TRalpha activation. In this study, we compared the effects of T3 with those of two thyromimetics (GC-1 and CGS 23425) specific of TRbeta. Using a gene reporter assay, we demonstrated that the rat Abcd2 promoter responds to the thyromimetics in a dose-dependent way similar to what is observed with T3. We then investigated the effects of 2-, 4- and 10-day treatments on the expression of ABCD2 and its paralogs ABCD3 and ABCD4 in human cell lines by RT-qPCR. Both thyromimetics trigger up-regulation of ABCD2-4 genes in HepG2 cells and X-ALD fibroblasts. Interestingly, in X-ALD fibroblasts, while T3 is associated with a transient induction of ABCD2 and ABCD3, the treatments with thyromimetics allow the induction to be maintained until 10 days. Further in vivo experiments in Abcd1 null mice with these thyromimetics should confirm the therapeutic potentialities of these molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of the Alternative NF-{kappa}B Pathway by Lymphotoxin {alpha}{beta} (LT{alpha}{beta}) Relies on Internalization of LT{beta} Receptor
Ganeff, Corine; Remouchamps, Caroline ULg; Boutaffala, Layla et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2011), 21

Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still ... [more ▼]

Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still poorly understood. Using lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) as a prototype, we showed that activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway relied on internalization of the receptor. Further molecular analyses revealed a specific cytosolic region of LTβR essential for its internalization, TRAF3 recruitment, and p100 processing. Interestingly, we found that dynamin-dependent, but clathrin-independent, internalization of LTβR appeared to be required for the activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway. In vivo, ligand-induced internalization of LTβR in mesenteric lymph node stromal cells correlated with induction of alternative NF-κB target genes. Thus, our data shed light on LTβR cellular trafficking as a process required for specific biological functions of NF-κB. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of Thymocyte Proliferation by Supernatants from a Mouse Thymic Epithelial Cell Line
Villa-Verde, Dea; Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg; Greimers, Roland ULg et al

in Cellular Immunology (1991), 136(1), 113-21

The thymic stroma plays a critical role in the generation of T lymphocytes by direct cell-to-cell contacts as well as by secreting growth factors or hormones. The thymic epithelial cells, responsible for ... [more ▼]

The thymic stroma plays a critical role in the generation of T lymphocytes by direct cell-to-cell contacts as well as by secreting growth factors or hormones. The thymic epithelial cells, responsible for thymic hormone secretion, include morphologically and antigenically distinct subpopulations that may exert different roles in thymocyte maturation. The recent development of thymic epithelial cell lines provided an interesting model for studying thymic epithelial influences on T cell differentiation. Treating mouse thymocytes by supernatants from one of TEC line (IT-76M1), we observed an induction of thymocyte proliferation and an increase in the percentages of CD4-/CD8- thymocytes. This proliferation was largely inhibited when thymocytes were incubated with IT-76M1 supernatants together with an anti-thymulin monoclonal antibody, but could be enhanced by pretreating growing epithelial cells by triiodothyronine. We suggest that among the target cells for thymulin within the thymus, some putative precursors of early phenotype might be included. [less ▲]

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See detailInduction of tissue resorption in echinoderms
Dubois, P.; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Gyoot, M.

Poster (1993)

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See detailInduction of tissue resorption in globiferous pedicellariae of the echinoid Sphaerechinus granularis
Dubois, P.; Ghyoot, M.; Bureau, Fabrice ULg

in David, B.; Guille, A.; Féral, J.-P. (Eds.) et al Echinoderms Through Time (1994)

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See detailInduction-Déduction en anthropologie
Strivay, Lucienne ULg; Genard, Jean-Louis

Conference (2008, May 16)

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