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See detailFredrik Barth, os estudos sobre etnicidade e a ciência politica
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Lask, Tomke (Ed.) Fredrik Barth. O guru, o iniciador e outras variações antropológicas (2000)

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See detailFree Energy Rhythms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Dynamic Perspective with Implications for Ribosomal Biogenesis
Gross, A.; Li, Caroline M.; Remacle, Françoise ULg et al

in Biochemistry (2013), 52(9), 1641-1648

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See detailFree fatty acids regulate the uncoupling protein and alternative oxidase activities in plant mitochondria.
Sluse, Francis ULg; Almeida, A. M.; Jarmuszkiewicz, W. et al

in FEBS Letters (1998), 433

Two energy-dissipating systems, an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein, are known to exist in plant mitochondria. In tomato fruit mitochondria linoleic acid, a substrate for the uncoupling ... [more ▼]

Two energy-dissipating systems, an alternative oxidase and an uncoupling protein, are known to exist in plant mitochondria. In tomato fruit mitochondria linoleic acid, a substrate for the uncoupling protein, inhibited the alternative oxidase-sustained respiration and decreased the ADP/O ratio to the same value regardless of the level of alternative oxidase activity. Experiments with varying concentrations of linoleic acid have shown that inhibition of the alternative oxidase is more sensitive to the linoleic acid concentration than the uncoupling protein activation. It can be proposed that these dissipating systems work sequentially during the life of the plant cell, since a high level of free fatty acid-induced uncoupling protein activity excludes alternative oxidase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailFree Group and Recognizability
Raskin, Julien ULg

Poster (2013, September 09)

It is well known that recognizability has many algebraic properties. For example, a subset $L$ of the free monoid $\Sigma^*$ is recognizable if and only if there exists a finite monoid $M$, a subset $P ... [more ▼]

It is well known that recognizability has many algebraic properties. For example, a subset $L$ of the free monoid $\Sigma^*$ is recognizable if and only if there exists a finite monoid $M$, a subset $P$ of $M$ and a morphism $f : \Sigma^* \to M$ such that $L = f^{-1}(P)$. These properties allow us to easily define a concept of recognizability in non-free monoids or even in other algebraic structures, such as groups. Our aim is to study the recognizable subsets of the free group $F_X$ generated by $X$. A classical construction of the latter shows that it can be seen as a subset of the free monoid $(X \cup X')^*$, where $X'$ is a set of formal inverses of elements of $X$, endowed with an ad hoc operation. When $X$ is finite, it appears that $F_X$ is a recognizable language of this monoid. It is then natural to wonder if there is a link between recognizability in $F_X$ and recognizability in $(X \cup X')^*$. We show that every recognizable language of $F_X$ is recognizable in $(X \cup X')^*$, and that we can define a class of automata that recognize the recognizable languages of $F_X$. [less ▲]

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See detailFree Movement of Persons in the European Union - D. Martin & E. Guild
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in International Migration Review (1998), 32(4), 1084-1085

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See detailThe free movement of persons living with HIV/AIDS
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

Book published by OPOCE (1999)

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See detailFree public transport: A socio-cognitive analysis
Cools, Mario ULg; Fabbro, Yannick; Bellemans, Tom

in Transportation Research. Part A : Policy & Practice (2016), 86

In this study, the modal shift potential of introducing a free alternative (free public transportation) and of changing the relative prices of transportation is examined. The influence of a cognitive ... [more ▼]

In this study, the modal shift potential of introducing a free alternative (free public transportation) and of changing the relative prices of transportation is examined. The influence of a cognitive analysis on the zero-price effect is also analyzed. The data used for the analysis stem from a stated preference survey with a sample of approximately 670 respondents that was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. The data are analyzed using a mixed logit model. The modeling results yield findings that confirm the existence of a zero-price effect in transport, which is in line with the literature. This zero-price effect is increased by the forced cognitive analysis for shopping trips, although not for work/school or recreational trips. The results also demonstrate the importance of the current mode choice in hypothetical mode choices and the importance of car availability. The influence of changing relative prices on the modal shift is found to be insignificant. This might be partially because the price differences were too small to matter. Hence, an increase in public transport use can be facilitated by the introduction of free public transport, particularly when individuals evaluate the different alternatives in a more cognitive manner. These findings should be useful to policy makers evaluating free public transport and considering how best to target and promote relevant policy. [less ▲]

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See detailFree radicals in astrophysics.
Swings, Polydore ULg

in Mémoires de la Societe Royale des Sciences de Liège (1969), XVIII(3), 7-26

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See detailFree sialic acid storage disease mimicking cerebral palsy and revealed by blood smear examination.
Debray, François-Guillaume ULg; Lefebvre, Caroline ULg; Colinet, Stephanie et al

in Journal of Pediatrics (2011), 158(1), 1651651

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See detailFree tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above central Europe: Recent measurements from the Jungfraujoch station including the detection of elevated columns during 1998
Rinsland, C. P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2000), 105(D19), 24235-24249

Time series of free tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) column abundances have been derived from observations at the International Scientific Station of the ... [more ▼]

Time series of free tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) column abundances have been derived from observations at the International Scientific Station of the Jungfraujoch (ISSJ) at 3.58-km altitude in the Swiss Alps (latitude 46.55 degreesN, 7.98 degreesE longitude). The free troposphere was assumed to extend from 3.58 to 11 km altitude, and the related columns were derived for all three molecules from high spectral resolution infrared solar spectra recorded between January 1995 and October 1999. The three molecules show distinct seasonal cycles with maxima during winter for CO and C2H6, and during spring for HCN. These seasonal changes are superimposed on interannual variations. The tropospheric columns of all three molecules were elevated during 1998. Increases were most pronounced for HCN with enhanced values throughout the year, up to a factor of 2 in January 1998 when compared to averages of the other years. The increased tropospheric columns coincide with the period of widespread wildfires during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997-1998. The emission enhancements above ISSJ are less pronounced, and they peaked after the increases measured above Mauna Loa (19.55 degreesN, 155.6 degreesW). Tropospheric trends for CO, C2H6, and HCN of (2.40 +/- 0.49), (0.47 +/- 0.64), and (7.00 +/- 1.61)% yr(-1)(1 sigma) were derived for January 1995 to October 1999. However, if 1998 measurements are excluded from the fit, CO and HCN trends that are not statistically significant, and a statistically significant decrease in the C2H6 tropospheric column, are inferred. Comparisons of the infrared CO columns with CO in situ surface measurements suggest that the CO free tropospheric vertical Volume mixing ratio profile generally decreases with altitude throughout the year. [less ▲]

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See detailFree tropospheric measurements of formic acid (HCOOH) from infrared ground-based solar absorption spectra: Retrieval approach, evidence for a seasonal cycle, and comparison with model calculations
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2004), 109(D18),

The seasonal variation of the free tropospheric volume mixing ratio of formic acid (HCOOH) has been derived from high-spectral-resolution solar absorption spectra recorded with the Fourier transform ... [more ▼]

The seasonal variation of the free tropospheric volume mixing ratio of formic acid (HCOOH) has been derived from high-spectral-resolution solar absorption spectra recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer in the U. S. National Solar Observatory facility on Kitt Peak (31.9degreesN, 111.6degreesE, 2.09 km altitude) at a typical spectral resolution of 0.005 cm(-1). The spectra have been analyzed with the SFIT2 algorithm, which is based on a semiempirical application of the optimal estimation method. Absorption by HCOOH is weak in these solar spectra, but successful retrievals have been obtained with a new procedure that fits the HCOOH nu(6) band Q branch at 1105 cm(-1) simultaneously with a window to account for a temperature-sensitive HDO line, which overlaps the HCOOH Q branch. After retaining only the best measurements from a database extending from June 1980 to October 2002 the retrievals show a seasonal variation, with a summer maximum and a winter minimum. Average 2.09-10 km volume mixing ratios binned in 3 month intervals range from a maximum of 792+/-323 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), or 10(-12), in July-September to a minimum of 313+/-175 pptv in October-December, with the uncertainties corresponding to statistical means from daily averages. The results are compared with previously reported measurements and model calculations. [less ▲]

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See detailFree-breathing accelerated gadolinium-enhanced MR Angiography in the Diagnosis of Renovascular Disease.
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; Brisbois, Denis; Materne, Roland et al

in AJR. American journal of roentgenology (2009), 192(6), 1531-7

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of accelerated free-breathing and breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the main renal arteries compared with ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and accuracy of accelerated free-breathing and breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the main renal arteries compared with digital subtraction angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal MR angiograms and catheter angiograms of 47 patients (19 men, 28 women; mean age, 68.1 +/- 15.1 years; range, 28-86 years) were reviewed. Thirty-one of the patients underwent free-breathing and 16 underwent breath-hold MR angiography with the same accelerated multiphase imaging protocol. Images were analyzed for examination quality, percentage narrowing of the main renal artery, and visibility of the branches. Diagnostic values of MR angiography were calculated with catheter angiography as the standard of reference. RESULTS: Sixty-five arteries, 24 of which (37%) had > 49% narrowing, were evaluated in the free-breathing group, and 37 arteries, six of which (16%) had > 49% narrowing, were evaluated in the breath-hold group. Comparison with digital subtraction angiography showed 100% (24/24) sensitivity and 95% (39/41) specificity for > 49% renal artery stenosis and 88% sensitivity (15/17) and 100% (48/48) specificity for > 74% renal artery stenosis in the free-breathing group. In the breath-hold group, sensitivity was 100% (6/6) and specificity 97% (30/31) for > 49% renal artery stenosis, and sensitivity was 100% (5/5) and specificity 100% (32/32) for > 74% renal artery stenosis. None of the examinations was nondiagnostic for the main renal arteries, but a smaller number of visible arterial tree subdivisions were found in the free-breathing group (average, 3.64 per patient) than in the breath-hold group (average, 5.87 per patient) (p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Like breath-hold examinations, accelerated free-breathing MR angiographic examinations are feasible and accurate in evaluation of the main renal arteries. [less ▲]

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See detailFreedom of religion in the workplace in Belgium
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

Scientific conference (2015, November 06)

This conference explores the way in which Belgian law deals with situations where labour law engages with the right to freedom of religion and belief and the right not to be discriminated on grounds of ... [more ▼]

This conference explores the way in which Belgian law deals with situations where labour law engages with the right to freedom of religion and belief and the right not to be discriminated on grounds of religion. It starts with the Belgian regime of religious freedom, protection against discrimination and valid reasons for termination of employment. It then considers specific areas of those regimes in Belgian labour relations, such as the work schedule accommodation, the refusal to perform work, clothing and religious symbols in the workplace, and the work in an ethos organization. It relates mainly to Belgian case law but also to the case law of the European courts [less ▲]

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See detailFreedom, Memory, and Identity: The Paradoxical Individual/Collective Dialectic in Steve Darnall and Alex Ross’s Graphic Novel 'Uncle Sam'
Dony, Christophe ULg

Conference (2012, March)

As his star-spangled costume and his usually firm posturing suggest, Uncle Sam impersonates the United States and symbolically reflects the nation’s most cherished values and ideals such as freedom ... [more ▼]

As his star-spangled costume and his usually firm posturing suggest, Uncle Sam impersonates the United States and symbolically reflects the nation’s most cherished values and ideals such as freedom, exceptionalism, and (masculine) strength. As such, he connects the projects of nationalism and patriotism with the scale of the individual. In other words, he embodies the American motto ‘out of many, one.’ Steve Darnall and Alex Ross’s rewriting of the character, however, strongly contrast with this dominant perception of Uncle Sam in their eponymous 1997 graphic novel. Their narrative shows a distressed and lunatic homeless man wandering the streets of an unknown American city. As he roams the streets, he undergoes an identity crisis that coincides with a crisis of memory, both of which complicate the relation between the symbolic individual body and the collective American unconscious. On the one hand, the character represents the values of freedom and democracy that the US government has strived to implement. On the other, he realizes that the paradigm of the nation cannot be understood as a monolithic entity, and that the plurality of voices that inhabit his persona – and, quite paradoxically, the country – cannot uphold this meta-narrative of American unity. In asking whether or not Uncle Sam is one of U.S., Darnall and Ross comment on the paradoxes of freedom and the myth of the melting pot. [less ▲]

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See detailFreefield vibrations due to dynamic loading on a tunnel embedded in a stratified medium
Clouteau, Didier; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Al-Hussaini, Tahmeed et al

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (2005), 283(1-2), 173-199

An efficient and modular numerical prediction model is developed to predict vibration and re-radiated noise in adjacent buildings fromexcitati on due to metro trains in tunnels for both newly built and ... [more ▼]

An efficient and modular numerical prediction model is developed to predict vibration and re-radiated noise in adjacent buildings fromexcitati on due to metro trains in tunnels for both newly built and existing situations. The three-dimensional dynamic tunnel–soil interaction problem is solved with a subdomain formulation, using a finite element formulation for the tunnel and a boundary element method for the soil. The periodicity of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transform, limiting the discretization effort to a single bounded reference cell. It is demonstrated in the paper how the boundary element method can efficiently be extended to deal with periodic media, reusing the available three-dimensional Green’s tensors for layered media. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with a numerical example, where the case of harmonic and transient point loading on the invert of a shallow cut-and-cover masonry tunnel in Paris is considered. The work described here was carried out under the auspices of the CONVURT project sponsored by the European Community. [less ▲]

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