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See detailInternal Capital Market Efficiency of Belgian Holding Companies
Gautier, Axel ULg; Hamadi, Malika

in Finance (2005), 26(2), 11-34

In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we raise the following two questions. (1) Do Belgian holding companies operate an internal capital market to transfer financial resources amongst their subsidiaries? And if yes, (2) is the internal capital market efficient? To answer the first question, we check if group cash flow is a determinant of the group members investment spending. The answer is positive if the holding company’s subsidiary is affiliated to a coordination center and negative otherwise. To answer the second question, we evaluate if internal transfers are driven by efficiency. From our estimations, we cannot conclude that Belgian Holding companies have an efficient internal capital market. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal control of the magnetospheric processes at Jupiter and Saturn
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Krupp, N.; Woch, J. et al

Conference (2006)

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See detailInternal dynamics from asteroseismology for two sdB pulsators in close binary systems
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

in Communications in Asteroseismology (2008, December), 157

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our astero- seismic diagnostic ... [more ▼]

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our astero- seismic diagnostic tools in order to incorporate the effects of stellar rotation on pulsations, assuming various internal rotation laws. It is possible, with these new tools, to determine the internal rotation profile of two short-period pulsating sdB stars residing in close binary systems, namely Feige 48 and PG 1336 -018. They exhibit orbital periods of 9.024 h and 2.424 h respectively, as measured from spectroscopy. For the two stars, we show that spin-orbit synchronism is reached from the surface down to ˜ 0.22 R∗ and 0.55 RxE2x88x97 , respectively. The rotation of deeper layers cannot be inferred with the type of modes p-modes observed in short-period pulsating sdB stars. These results can potentially provide new elements to test tidal friction theories, particularly the angular momentum transport, in close binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal dynamics from asteroseismology for two sdB pulsators residing in close binary systems
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

Conference (2008, June)

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our asteroseismic diagnostic ... [more ▼]

Since their discovery eleven years ago, short-period pulsating sdB stars have proved their potential for quantitative asteroseismological studies. We have recently updated our asteroseismic diagnostic tools in order to incorporate the effects of stellar rotation on pulsations, assuming various internal rotation laws. It was possible, with these new tools, to determine the internal rotation profile of two short-period pulsating sdB stars residing in close binary systems, namely Feige 48 and PG 1336−018. They exhibit orbital periods of, respectively, 9.024 h and 2.424 h measured from spectroscopy. For the two stars, we show that spin-orbit synchronism is reached from the surface down to ∼ 0.22 R∗ and 0.55 R∗, respectively. The rotation of deeper layers cannot be inferred with the type of modes observed in short-period pulsating sdB stars. These results could also provide new elements to test tidal friction theories, particularly the angular momentum transport, in close binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy and fragmentation of ions produced in electrospray sources
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Mass Spectrometry Reviews (2005), 24(4), 566-587

This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of ... [more ▼]

This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of the analyte internal energy is crucial for several applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, like structural studies, construction of reproducible and exportable spectral libraries, analysis of non-covalent complexes. Sections II and III summarize the Electrospray mechanisms and source design considerations which are relevant to the problem of internal energy, and Section IV gives an overview of the interrelationships between ion internal energy, reaction time scale, and analyte fragmentation. In these three sections we tried to make the most important theoretical elements understandable by all ESI users, and their understanding requires a minimal background in physical chemistry. We then present the different approaches used to experimentally determine the ion internal energy, as well as various attempts in modeling the internal energy uptake in electrospray sources. Finally, a tentative comparison between electrospray and other ionization sources is made. As the reader will see, although many reports appeared on the subject, the knowledge in the field of internal energy of ions produced by soft ionization sources is still scarce, because of the complexity of the system, and this is what makes this area of research so interesting. The last section presents some perspectives for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy build-up in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Schulz, Eric; Karas, Michael

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2004), 39(6), 579-593

This paper reports detailed studies on the internal energy of ions formed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) using delayed extraction MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) and atmospheric ... [more ▼]

This paper reports detailed studies on the internal energy of ions formed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) using delayed extraction MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) and atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI mass spectrometric (MS) methods. We use benzylpyridinium cations as internal energy probes. Our study reveals three distinct contributions to internal energy build-up in vacuum-MALDI (classical MALDI-TOF), each having different effects on ion fragmentation. Some fragments are formed before ion extraction (i.e. no more than 100 ns after the laser impact), and they are therefore well resolved and recorded as sharp signals in the MALDI-TOFMS scan. This prompt fragmentation can have two origins: (i) in-plume thermal activation, presumably always present, and (ii) in-plume chemical activation, in the course of reactions with hydrogen radicals. In addition to early internal energy build-up associated with these well-resolved promptly formed fragments, a broad peak slightly offset to higher masses could be detected corresponding to fragments formed after the extraction has started. This second signal corresponds to a third source of internal energy in MALDI ions, (iii) the extraction-induced collisional activation of the ions with the neutral components of the plume. These three contributions are difficult to quantify in vacuum-MALDI, because of the combined influence of several parameters (nature of the matrix, spot-to-spot variability, total laser exposure, delay time, acceleration voltage) on extraction-induced fragmentation. AP-MALDI, on the other hand, has two advantages for comparative studies of analyte fragmentation. First, extraction-induced fragmentation is absent, and only the contributions of early plume activation remain. Second, the reproducibility is far better than in vacuum-MALDI. AP-MALDI is therefore expected to shed new light on the early steps of the MALDI process. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy content of ions in a travelling wave ion guide
Morsa, Denis ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2010)

Travelling wave ion guides (TWIGs) separate of ions according to their mobility and, at constant charge, according to their shape. The ion mobility separation itself should not modify the shape of the ... [more ▼]

Travelling wave ion guides (TWIGs) separate of ions according to their mobility and, at constant charge, according to their shape. The ion mobility separation itself should not modify the shape of the systems investigated. It was recently suggested by Shvartsburg et al. that the higher fields used in TWIGs than in traditional drift tubes would cause significant heating of the ions. We present a quantitative analysis of the amount of internal energy imparted to ions as they are separated in TWIGs. Benzylpyridinium ions were chosen as “thermometer” ions. Based on arrival time distributions, the fragment ion population is separated as a function of the place of formation: before, in, or after the TWIG. Fragmentation all along the TWIG was observed. The roles of the travelling wave’s voltage, speed, and of the gas nature and pressure will be discussed in detail as well of the consequences on instruments performances. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal functionalization in hyperbranched polyesters
Trollsas, Michaël; Hedrick, James L.; Mecerreyes, David et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1998), 35(17), 3187-3192

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See detailInternal mammary artery bypass graft for impaired coronary perfusion after neonatal arterial switch operation
Grabitz, R. G.; Messmer, B. J.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (1992), 6(7), 388-90

Myocardial ischaemia caused by perfusion impairment of translocated coronary arteries is the major cause of perioperative mortality after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great ... [more ▼]

Myocardial ischaemia caused by perfusion impairment of translocated coronary arteries is the major cause of perioperative mortality after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. We report the successful use of the right internal mammary artery as a bypass graft to a dominant right coronary artery to treat insufficient perfusion of this artery in a newborn. Eight months later, coronary angiography showed a full blood supply of the right coronary artery across the internal mammary anastomosis. After a follow-up period of more than 30 months, somatic development, electrocardiogram and echocardiographically determined contractility of both ventricles are practically normal indicating regular function of the bypass graft. [less ▲]

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See detailThe internal market and social rights: friends or foes?
Defossez, Alexandre ULg; Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Defossez, Alexandre; Munoz, Rodolphe; El Khadraoui, Said (Eds.) European Union and the Economic Crisis (2011)

Analyzing the relationships between the development of the internal market and European social rights faces a major challenge: avoiding caricature. The following example illustrates this point: if, on the ... [more ▼]

Analyzing the relationships between the development of the internal market and European social rights faces a major challenge: avoiding caricature. The following example illustrates this point: if, on the one hand, the Laval and Viking cases have rekindled the fear of “social dumping” throughout the Union, on the other hand, the recent developments of European citizenship case law foster the rights of all European citizens. This illustrates that the relationships between the internal market and social rights may rightly be described as “conflicting” or “friendly”, depending the issue at stake and/or the legal basis involved (freedom to provide services versus European citizenship). We’ve therefore decided to focus on what we think are “defining moments” of the relationship between the internal market and the development of social Europe. These choices may appear artificial or incomplete but we think that they encapsulate the basic tension that is going throughout the history of the European Union (EU), since the foundation of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the recent Single Market Act [less ▲]

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See detailInternal particle size distribution of biofuel pellets
Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Temmerman, Michaël ULg; Westborg, Suzanne

in Fuel (2006)

Several methods for disintegration of biofuel pellets were tested and compared for their ability to break up the pellets into the original particles of the raw material. Analyses performed on softwood ... [more ▼]

Several methods for disintegration of biofuel pellets were tested and compared for their ability to break up the pellets into the original particles of the raw material. Analyses performed on softwood pellets and straw pellets concluded that wet disintegration in water at ambient temperature is insufficient for a determination of the internal particle size distribution of wood- and straw pellets. When the wet disintegration was performed with water heated to the boiling point and coupled with mechanical disintegration in terms of stirring a more complete disintegration of the pellets was obtained. Based on the results obtained in the initial study a round robin was set up including six European laboratories where the selected method was tested. In the round robin test the method combining heated water and stirring of the slurry was tested on solid biofuel pellets produced of comminute straw, deciduous wood and coniferous wood respectively. With the method a satisfactory disintegration was obtained of all three types of pellets. Further wet disintegration of coniferous pellets was compared to a dry disintegration using a hammer mill. The dry disintegration of the coniferous pellets resulted in smaller particle sizes compared to the wet disintegration using heated water and stirring of the slurry indicating a further disintegration of the original particles in the hammer mill process. Overall the wet disintegration combined with mechanical impact was found to be the most suitable method for disintegration of solid biofuel pellets. Combined with sieving analysis the method gives realistic image of the internal particle size distribution of solid biofuel pellets. [less ▲]

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See detailInternally Stayed Trusses : The Search for Minimum Weight
Samyn, Philippe; Latteur, Pierre ULg

(1999, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
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See detailInternationaal privaatrecht geannoteerd
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Kruger, Thalia; Verhellen, Jinske et al

Book published by La Charte (2012)

This collection presents the most important statutory materials useful for the practice in Belgium of private international law. Each instrument (Belgian Acts, European Regulations and International ... [more ▼]

This collection presents the most important statutory materials useful for the practice in Belgium of private international law. Each instrument (Belgian Acts, European Regulations and International Conventions in force in Belgium) is reproduced together with comments highlighting the most important case law in relation to the provisions studied. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationaalprivaatrechtelijke aspecten van leasing
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Beselaere, Patrick (Ed.) Handboek leasing (2007)

This paper gives a general overview of the legal difficulties raised by the cross-border nature of commercial leasing agreements. The specific focus is on issues of applicable law and jurisdiction and ... [more ▼]

This paper gives a general overview of the legal difficulties raised by the cross-border nature of commercial leasing agreements. The specific focus is on issues of applicable law and jurisdiction and also on the particular problems raised by the fact that three parties or more may be involved in the operation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (2 ULg)
See detailThe International 4-m Liquid Mirror Telescope Project
Surdej, Jean ULg

in European Astronomical Society Newsletter (1999), 17

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (7 ULg)
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See detailInternational acquisitions and shareholder wealth: evidence from the Netherlands
Corhay, Albert ULg; Tourani-Rad, Alireza

in International Review of Financial Analysis (2000), 9(2), 163-174

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
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See detailInternational Arbitration 2009 : Belgium
Kohl, Benoît ULg; Van Houtte, Vera

in The International Comparative Legal Guide to : International Arbitration 2009 (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (12 ULg)