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See detailHow Much Discretion do, and should, Competition Authorities enjoy in the Course of their Enforcement Activities? A Multi-Jurisdictional Assessment
Petit, Nicolas ULg

in Concurrences : Revue des Droits de la Concurrence (2010), (1), 44-62

The purpose of this study is to assess whether competition agencies (“CAs”) do, and in turn should, enjoy an unfettered discretionary power in the context of the investigation of competition law ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is to assess whether competition agencies (“CAs”) do, and in turn should, enjoy an unfettered discretionary power in the context of the investigation of competition law infringements or whether their margin of discretion should be subject to certain limits. To this end, it focuses on four successive areas where CAs may be entitled to make choices, i.e. detection of infringements, selection of enforcement targets, initiation of infringement proceedings and outcome of the case. Thanks to reports received from 21 national experts in response to a questionnaire covering 18 jurisdictions, the present study formulates a number of public policy proposals. [less ▲]

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See detailHow much is enough?
Coucke, Philippe ULg

in Onco : Revue Multidisciplinaire d'Oncologie (2008), 2(6), 221-222

Le traitement conservateur est une constante dans l’approche oncologique. Des efforts ont été développés afin de conserver au maximum l’intégrité de la fonction et/ou de l’image corporelle. Ce souci de ... [more ▼]

Le traitement conservateur est une constante dans l’approche oncologique. Des efforts ont été développés afin de conserver au maximum l’intégrité de la fonction et/ou de l’image corporelle. Ce souci de sauvegarde se traduit par des approches thérapeutiques non mutilantes: un exemple typique est le changement de paradigme thérapeutique au moment de l’introduction de la chirurgie conservatrice de la glande mammaire en lieu et place de la mastectomie. Ce concept de chirurgie non radicale a été possible grâce à l’association avec la radiothérapie externe postopératoire. Des essais randomisés ont permis de valider le concept et de démontrer que le risque de rechute loco-régionale et ultérieurement la survie ne sont pas modifiés comparés à une approche chirurgicale potentiellement délabrante. Ces essais randomisés ne se sont fort heureusement pas limités aux aspects purement oncologiques. De façon prospective on a pu déterminer l’excellence des résultats cosmétiques à moyen et à long terme. Il est vrai que cette approche par essais randomisés était un passage indispensable et a permis de valider ce concept thérapeutique. Il aurait été pour le moins étonnant de prôner d’emblée une approche chirurgicale non mutilante mais oncologiquement complète, si à terme le résultat esthétique aurait été inférieur à celui que l’on aurait pu escompter après mastectomie radicale suivie de reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailHow much is residents' distress detection performance during a clinical round related to their characteristics?
Meunier, J.; Libert, Y.; Merckaert, I. et al

in Patient Education & Counseling (2011)

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See detailHow much more Economics is the New Approach ?
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

Conference (2009, May 11)

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See detailHow much time does it take for "experience design" to unfold?
Elsen, Catherine ULg; Leclercq, Pierre ULg

in Benz, Peter (Ed.) Designing Experiences: Positions and Approaches. (2014)

This paper specifically focuses on one aspect of the experience design process, sometimes even stressed as one if its shortcomings: the time it takes to properly gain insights about possible real-life ... [more ▼]

This paper specifically focuses on one aspect of the experience design process, sometimes even stressed as one if its shortcomings: the time it takes to properly gain insights about possible real-life experiences of proximal or distal end-users. In the process of making sense of sometimes conflicting viewpoints found in the literature about timing and its possible impact on design processes and outcomes, this paper compares four distinct settings and addresses the following research questions: • How “time-framing” the design process possibly filters (positively or negatively) the awareness designers have about end-users; • How the experimental protocols, their inherent limitations and artificialities, do shape the designers’ involvement in the process of designing for an end-user’s experience. Results put techniques for «disciplined creativity», such as brainstorming or analogies, front-to-front with more reflective approaches that unfold over more time, and discuss respective but complementary added values of both. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Not to Die in Venice : The Art of Arakawa and Madeline Gins
Delville, Michel ULg

in dworkin, Craig (Ed.) Architectures of Poetry (2004)

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See detailHow nurses support students' reflective learning in clinical placements?
Dury, Cécile ULg

Conference (2013, September 06)

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See detailHow Old Is Old Enough to Vote. Youth Participation in Society
Hudon, Raymond; Fournier, Bernard ULg

in Perspectives électorales/Electoral Insight (2003), 5(2), 38-43

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See detailHow powerful is demography? The Serendipity Theorem revisited
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; de la Croix, David; Ponthiere, Gregory

in Journal of Population Economics (2012), 25

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See detailHow precisely will the total cross section be measured at the LHC?
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Selyugin, O. V.

in Physical Review Letters (2009), 102

It is very likely that hadronic scattering will enter a new regime at the LHC, as the black-disk limit is reached. This will lead to a severe change in the t dependence of the real part and of the slope ... [more ▼]

It is very likely that hadronic scattering will enter a new regime at the LHC, as the black-disk limit is reached. This will lead to a severe change in the t dependence of the real part and of the slope of the elastic scattering amplitude, and in turn this may bias the measurement of the total cross section. We examine this issue, and suggest new strategies to test the reliability of the total cross section measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailHow pristine is the Congo Basin forest ? Some answers from Erythrophleum spp. (Caesalpiniaceae) and Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) natural stands in southeastern Cameroon
Bourland, Nils ULg; Livingstone Smith, Alexandre; Guion, Hélène ULg et al

Poster (2012, March 01)

Erythrophleum spp. and Pericopsis elata are two important African timber taxa suffering from regeneration problems. Those light demanding trees could have established in openings made by past human ... [more ▼]

Erythrophleum spp. and Pericopsis elata are two important African timber taxa suffering from regeneration problems. Those light demanding trees could have established in openings made by past human activities (mainly slash-and-burn cultivation). Our study aimed at verifying this assumption in a 340,000 ha forest concession in southeastern Cameroon. Anthracological excavations were made alongside transects opened in patches where those taxa occur as well as the surrounding environment. Numerous charcoal elements and some pottery fragments were found in excavated soils in all studied sites. Charcoals and pieces of pottery were found within the first 100 and 50 cm of soil, respectively. According to radiocarbon dating conducted on charcoals and burnt seeds, fires occurred between 2,150 to 195 years BP. This finding was consistent with the analysis of archaeological materials decoration techniques. Our results revealed intense past anthropological activities in this area, seriously questioning the assumption of a pristine Congo Basin [less ▲]

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See detailHow relative humidity affects random packing experiments
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Lumay, Geoffroy ULg; Ludewig, François ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2012), 85

The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has been experimentally investigated. Millimeter-sized glass beads are considered. Compaction ... [more ▼]

The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has been experimentally investigated. Millimeter-sized glass beads are considered. Compaction curves are fitted by stretched exponentials with characteristic time τ and exponent δ, which are seen to be deeply affected by the moisture content. A kinetic model, taking into account both triboelectric and capillary effects, is in excellent agreement with our results. It confirms the existence of an optimal condition at a relative humidity ≈45% for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads. The exponent δ is seen to depend strongly on the diffusive character of grains and voids inside the packing: diffusion for cohesiveless particles and subdiffusion when cohesion plays a role. As a consequence, the RH represents a relevant parameter that should be reported for every experimental work on a slowly driven dense random packing. [less ▲]

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See detailHow relevant is the wall shear stress to describe the cleanability of a solid surface ?
Detry, Jean; Jensen, B.; Deroanne, Claude et al

Poster (2007, November)

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See detailHow relevant is the wall shear stress to describe the cleanability of a solid surface ?
Detry, Jean; Jensen, B.; Deroanne, Claude et al

in Abstracts du "EHEDG - EFFoST joint conference" (2007, November)

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See detailHow robust are district health systems? Coping with crisis and disasters in Rutshuru, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Porignon, Denis ULg; Soron'Gane, E. M.; Lokombe, T. E. et al

in Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH (1998), 3(7), 559-65

BACKGROUND: Since the eighties, the North Kivu Province socio-economic environment has been deteriorating. This province also faced an influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994. The objective of the paper ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Since the eighties, the North Kivu Province socio-economic environment has been deteriorating. This province also faced an influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994. The objective of the paper is to show how a rural health district has been able to adjust and maintain its medical activities under unfavourable conditions. METHOD: Performances of the local health system were assessed through the analysis of routine medical data collected in the Rutshuru Health District (RHD) between 1985 and 1995. Specific data collected during the Rwandan refugee crisis measured the workload of RHD due to the refugees. RESULTS: For 11 years, health infrastructures have remained accessible and functional in RHD. The curative utilization and preventive coverage rates increased. Obstetrical activities were intensified from a quantitative as well as from a qualitative point of view. Between July and October 1994, the RHD treated 65000 cases of various pathological conditions in Rwandan refugees settled outside the camps. This corresponds to 9.3% of consultations for Rwandan refugees settled on RHD's territory and represents a 400% increase in the curative workload for the RHD health services. Human and financial resources remained at a very low level, especially when compared with those available in the camps through relief agencies. CONCLUSION: The RHD was severely affected by various stresses but its services managed to provide significant and efficient response to these crises. Health district systems may constitute an effective tool to provide health care under adverse conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailHow should functional imaging of patients with disorders of consciousness contribute to their clinical rehabilitation needs?
Laureys, Steven ULg; Giacino, J. T.; Schiff, N. D. et al

in Current Opinion in Neurology (2006), 19(6), 520-527

Purpose of review We discuss the problems of evidence-based neurorehabilitation in disorders of consciousness, and recent functional neuroimaging data obtained in the vegetative state and minimally ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review We discuss the problems of evidence-based neurorehabilitation in disorders of consciousness, and recent functional neuroimaging data obtained in the vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Recent findings Published data are insufficient to make recommendations for or against any of the neurorehabilitative treatments in vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients. Electrophysiological and functional imaging studies have been shown to be useful in measuring residual brain function in noncommunicative brain-damaged patients. Despite the fact that such studies could in principle allow an objective quantification of the putative cerebral effect of rehabilitative treatment in the vegetative state and minimally conscious state, they have so far not been used in this context. Summary Without controlled studies and careful patient selection criteria it will not be possible to evaluate the potential of therapeutic interventions in disorders of consciousness. There also is a need to elucidate the neurophysiological effects of such treatments. Integration of multimodal neuroimaging techniques should eventually improve our ability to disentangle differences in outcome on the basis of underlying mechanisms and better guide our therapeutic options in the challenging patient populations encountered following severe acute brain damage. [less ▲]

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See detailHow should we proceed when a myocardial infarction is suspected
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1984), 39(6), 393-5

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See detailHow should zoster trials be conducted?
Wood, M. J.; Balfour, Hank; Beutner, Karl et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (1995), 36(6), 1089-1101

In 1994, an international group of interested clinicians and biostatisticians met to discuss the design of clinical trials in herpes tester. They agreed that trials in herpes tester should have ... [more ▼]

In 1994, an international group of interested clinicians and biostatisticians met to discuss the design of clinical trials in herpes tester. They agreed that trials in herpes tester should have prospectively agreed definitions of all outcome measures and plans for data analysis. In immunocompetent individuals, in whom pain is the major outcome measure, trials should only include patients over the age of 50 years, and for those recruited within 72 fi of rash onset, should be designed to demonstrate superiority of any new therapy over existing antivirals. The primary endpoint should be time to cessation of pain for at least 4 weeks and, for the purposes of statistical analysis of its duration, the pain associated with herpes tester ought to be considered as a continuum. All other variables, including the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia and effects upon quality of life should be considered as secondary end-points. Evaluation of treatment effects on primary endpoints should be based upon an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis and subgroup analysis should be used only to support the findings of the ITT analysis. These elements of good study design should be borne in mind in the evaluation of current and future trails of antiviral drugs in herpes zoster. [less ▲]

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