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See detailImplication de la clusterine dans la survie des cellules prostatiques lors de l'apoptose
Ammar, Hayet ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although androgen ablation remains the most effective management option, most patients with advanced disease progress to castration ... [more ▼]

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although androgen ablation remains the most effective management option, most patients with advanced disease progress to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), within two years of treatment. This results, in part, from the increase in the anti-apoptotic molecules expression following androgen withdrawal. Among the proteins involved in this phenomenon, clusterin, also known as testosterone repressed message-2 (TRPM- 2), which exists in two forms: a pro-apoptotic nuclear form (nClU) and a secreted survival factor (sClU). In our study we investigated the role of the secreted form of clusterin in preventing cells from TNFα-induced apoptosis. For this, we first generated a sCLU inducible stable prostatic cancer MLL rat cell line by using the Tet-On gene expression system. With this model we revealed a new mechanism by which sCLU promotes survival in androgenindependent prostate cancer cells, implicating its receptor megalin and the Akt survival pathway. By applying a comparative proteomic analysis in the androgen-independent epithelial cell line MLLTet-sClu induced to overexpress sClu or non induced control-cells, we identified five proteins known to play a role in cancer. These proteins candidates are heat shock proteins Hsp90 and Hsp70, osteopontin (bone sialoprotein, OPN), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1). Altogether, our data provide new mechanistic insight in sCLU dependent activation of the major survival pathway upregulated in refractory prostate cancer. The identification of the new sCLU protein targets open new avenues for more research to elucidate the significance of clusterin in prostate cancer progression and resistance to therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication de la compétition pour les acides aminés dans le contrôle biologique de la pourriture bleue des pommes en post-récolte
Krimi Bencheqroun, S.; Bajji, M.; Labhilili, M. et al

Conference (2008, April)

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See detailImplication de la neurohypophyse dans le stress psychique
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Encéphale (L') (2001), 27(3, May-Jun), 245-59

Effects of different psychological stimuli on oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion are reviewed in animals and in humans. The secretion of neuropituitary hormones is also discussed in various ... [more ▼]

Effects of different psychological stimuli on oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion are reviewed in animals and in humans. The secretion of neuropituitary hormones is also discussed in various psychiatric diseases such an anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. AVP and OT are secreted into the hypophyseal portal circulation by neurons which project from the paraventricular nucleus to the external zone of the median eminence. AVP and OT-containing neurons in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei project to limbic areas, including the hippocampus, the subiculum, the ventral nucleus of the amygdala and the nucleus of the diagonal band. Specific AVP receptors which are pharmacologically different from the pressor and antidiuretic AVP receptors have been found in the anterior pituitary. OT receptors have been identified in a variety of forebrain sites. The neurohypophyseal secretion is regulated by the cholinergic muscarinic, histaminergic and beta-adrenergic systems. Stress alters the secretion of one or more of the hypothalamic factors which interact at the pituitary to increase the secretion of ACTH. AVP and OT have been shown to modulate the effect of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) on ACTH secretion and appear to play a key role in mediating the ACTH response to stress. Although AVP is a relatively weak secretagogue for ACTH, it markedly potentiates the activity of CRF both in vitro and in vivo. The role of OT is more complex. In vitro, OT stimulates ACTH release at high doses whereas in human it inhibits ACTH secretion at low doses. The type of stressor appear to determine the relative importance of these secretatogues in ACTH response. Several recent studies indicate that psychological stressors display a similar degree of variety of secretagogue release patterns as was found earlier for physical stressors. A bewildering array of technique produces a bewildering array of conclusions. In rats, OT may be an important secretagogue during a novel stimulus, whereas the role for AVP is less clear. Indeed two studies out of ten suggest a stimulating role for AVP. In response to frustration and submission, OT and AVP are secreted. Regarding social isolation, results are difficult to interpret and the role of AVP could be species-dependent. In contrast plasma OT levels do not change. After restraint, ACTH release is primarily mediated by the active increase of OT and AVP does not appear to play a role. When restraint is associated with moderate levels of physical components and during immobilisation, all two secretagogs are involved in the ACTH response. With fear, ACTH response appears to be driven by OT. In humans, one study indicates that high emotionality women increase plasma OT in response to uncontrollable noise. Various neuroendocrine dysregulations have been observed in psychiatric disease. Either an increase or a decrease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have been described in several illnesses. Effects of OT appear to be reciprocal to the effects of AVP. OT has been called the "amnestic" neuropeptide due to its capacity to attenuate memory consolidation and retrieval. AVP exhibits a central activating action on mood, memory and selective attention. Underweight patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormally high levels of centrally directed AVP and reduced OT levels. These modifications could enhance the retention of cognitive distortions of aversive consequences of eating. Patients with bipolar disorder show a biphasic secretion of AVP. Depressive episodes are associated with decreased vasopressinergic activity whereas manic episodes involve an increased release. AVP might be responsible for an increased catecholamine activity. In addition, lithium could act as an antagonist to AVP. In schizophrenic patients, studies using the apomorphine stimulation suggest increased oxytoninergic and decreased vasopressinergic functions. These findings are consistent with the beneficial role of AVP on schizophrenic symptoms noted in several trials. The increased OT could be responsible for "positive" symptomatology such as delusions and hallucinations. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) includes a range of cognitive and behavioral disturbances that could be influenced by OT. In animals, several studies have emphasized the role of AVP in promoting repetitive grooming behaviors and maintaining conditioned response to aversive stimuli. In OCD patients, one study have reported that AVP/OT ratio was negatively correlated with symptom severity. However, an independent report found similar AVP concentrations in OC patients without a personal or family history of tic disorder and in normal subjects. Whether these modifications are only a consequence of the central disturbances or whether those peptides could participate in the pathogenesis of these affections remains to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication de la protéine transmembranaire d’enveloppe du virus de la leucémie bovine dans la fusion cellulaire et l’infectivité virale.
Gatot, Jean-Stéphane; Callebaut, Isabelle; Mornon, Jean-Paul et al

in Séminaire de la Recherche Télévie (1999, March 16)

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See detailImplication de la sous-famille Erg des facteurs de transcription Ets dans la régulation de l'épissage chez l'Homme
Vincent, Côme ULg

Master's dissertation (2013)

The human family of Ets proteins and the Erg subfamily composed of 3 members (ERG, FLI1 and FEV) are known as transcription factors, involved in many cellular processes. On the other hand, most protein ... [more ▼]

The human family of Ets proteins and the Erg subfamily composed of 3 members (ERG, FLI1 and FEV) are known as transcription factors, involved in many cellular processes. On the other hand, most protein-coding genes contain intervening sequences (introns) that must be precisely removed from pre-mRNA through the process of pre-mRNA splicing. The first aim of this project was to molecularly characterise the link between these two actors. To achieve this goal, three different approaches were used. Firth, the link between the Erg subfamily and nuclear speckles, subnuclear structures that are enriched in pre-mRNA splicing factors, was studied using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, then an MS2-tethering assay was performed and finally, endogenous targets whose splicing would be dependent on this subfamily were identified. The results of these approaches highlighted interconnectivity between gene expression machineries. Moreover, such understanding of molecular basis of cancer-involved proteins provide new possibilities for earlier detection as well as better diagnosis, prevention and novel treatment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication de la transition épithélio-mésenchymateuse dans la progression métastatique
Gilles, Christine ULg

Thèse d’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur (2007)

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See detailImplication des cellules Natural Killer (NK) dans le développement des lésions associées à l'infection par les papillomavirus humains (HPV)
Renoux, Virginie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Persistent infections with high-risk papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with more than 25% of cancers induced by infectious agents. Nevertheless, the two vaccines preventing HPV infection have no ... [more ▼]

Persistent infections with high-risk papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with more than 25% of cancers induced by infectious agents. Nevertheless, the two vaccines preventing HPV infection have no therapeutic efficacy and it has been estimated that there will be no measurable decline of HPV-associated tumours before 2040. The immune system is able to control, at least partially, HPV infection and subsequent tumour development. Around 90% of HPV-infected women will clear the virus within two years, but the immune effectors responsible for this viral clearance are unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine if Natural Killer (NK) cells could play a role in the immune response against HPV infection and related cancers. The first part of this work was focused on the in vitro interaction of NK cells with L1 and L1L2 Virus Like Particles (VLP) of HPV16. We observed that, in the presence of HPV-VLP, NK cells displayed a higher cytotoxic activity against HPV+ cells by increasing the exocytosis of their cytotoxic granules and by secreting TNF-α and IFN-γ. NK cell activation was correlated with a fast entry of HPV-VLP by macropinocytosis and we determined that cell surface CD16 expression was necessary for HPV internalization, but also for degranulation and cytokine production. In the second part, to understand the molecular mechanisms of HPV-VLP stimulation, we investigated the signalling pathways operating in NK cells to trigger their cytotoxic activity in the presence of viral particles. We observed that the MAP kinases ERK and p38 were phosphorylated in the presence of both L1 and L1L2 HPV-VLP. Using specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of these MAPK was required for degranulation and cytokine secretion by NK cells in the presence of VLP. In conclusion, NK cell activity could be an important player in the immune response contributing to viral clearance and to regression of HPV-induced cervical lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication des intolérances et allergies alimentaires dans le syndrome du côlon irritable: quelles sont les evidences?
Ausloos, Floriane ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(9), 744-9

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a complex and heterogeneous entity that concerns about 1/4 of adults and would be responsible for 50% of gastro-enterology medical consultations. IBS etiopathogenesis and ... [more ▼]

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a complex and heterogeneous entity that concerns about 1/4 of adults and would be responsible for 50% of gastro-enterology medical consultations. IBS etiopathogenesis and physiopathology are not yet fully known. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication des mécanismes d’apprentissage de régularités dans l’acquisition du langage chez l’enfant sain et dysphasique
Gabriel, Audrey ULg; Urbain, Charline

in C. Maillart, M.-A. Schelstraete (Ed.) Les dysphasies : de l’évaluation à la rééducation (2012)

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See detailImplication des modifications épigénétiques dans les cancers : développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques
Vandermeers, Fabian ULg; Kettmann, Richard ULg; Willems, Luc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(2),

Involvement of epigenetic modifications in cancers: development of new therapeutic approaches. Since cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in industrialized countries, it is ... [more ▼]

Involvement of epigenetic modifications in cancers: development of new therapeutic approaches. Since cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in industrialized countries, it is urgent to elaborate new therapeutic approaches. Besides DNA mutations of essential genes, expansion of a cancer cell is frequently associated with epigenetic modifications i.e. not directly coded by the DNA sequence. Amongst epigenetic modifications, histones acetylation and DNA methylation are known to play important roles. In this context, a very promising anticancer therapy would be to correct epigenetic errors using compounds modulating histone acetylation and DNA methylation alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication des papillomavirus humains dans les cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures
Neufcoeur, P. E.; Arafa, Mohammad Mahmoud Mohammad ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Bulletin du Cancer (2009), 96(9), 1-10

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULg)
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See detailImplication des propriétés biomécaniques des muscles transformés dans le mécanisme de la cardiomyoplastie
Radermacker, M. A.; Sluse, Francis ULg; Focant, B. et al

in Journal of Cardiology (1999), 9

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)