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See detailThe impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin Am
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Dethier, Jean Jacques; Ali, Rabia

in Revista de Economıa del Rosario (2011), 14(2), 135-163

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See detailThe impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin America
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Dethier, Jean-Jacques; Rabia, Ali

in Revista de Economía del Rosario (2011), 14(2), 37-65

This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum old age pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviating old age ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum old age pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviating old age poverty requires different approach from other age groups and a minimum pension is likely to be the only alternative available. First we measure old age poverty rates for all countries. Second we discuss the design of minimum pensions schemes, means-tested or not, as well as the disincentive effects that they are expected to have on the economic and social behavior of households including labor supply, saving and family solidarity. Third we use the household surveys to simulate the fiscal cost and the impact on poverty rates of alternative minimum pensionschemes in the 18 countries. We show that a universal minimum pension would substantially reduce poverty among the elderly except in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay where minimum pension systems already exist and poverty rates are low. Such schemes have much to be commended in terms of incentives, spillover effects and administrative simplicity but have a high fiscal cost. The latter is a function of the age at which benefits are awarded, the prevailing longevity, the generosity of benefits, the efficacy ofmeans testing, and naturally the fiscal capacity of the country. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of a mutation in the mitochondrial LSU rRNA gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii on the activity and the assembly of respiratory-chain complexes
Remacle, Claire ULg; Gloire, Geoffrey ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg et al

in Current Genetics (2004), 45(5), 323-330

Two substitutions A1090G and A1098C (together called the m mutation) located in the conserved GTPase domain of the mitochondrial LSU rRNA gene were recently shown to weakly compensate for the phenotypical ... [more ▼]

Two substitutions A1090G and A1098C (together called the m mutation) located in the conserved GTPase domain of the mitochondrial LSU rRNA gene were recently shown to weakly compensate for the phenotypical effect of a -1T frameshift mutation in the mitochondrial cox1 gene of C. reinhardtii. In order to analyze the impact of the m mutation on the mitochondrial translational machinery, a strain carrying the m mutation but wild-type for the cox1 gene was isolated. We found that the growth and the respiratory rate of the m mutant were affected and that the activities of complexes I, III, and IV, all containing mitochondria-encoded subunits, were lowered. In contrast the activities of complex II and of the alternative oxidase, both encoded exclusively by the nuclear genome, were not modified. The steady-state levels of complex I enzyme and of several components of the respiratory complexes I, III, and IV were also reduced in the mutant. We moreover showed that m did not suppress other frameshift or UGA stop mutations which affect mitochondrial genes. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of a natural bluetongue serotype 8 infection on semen quality of Belgian rams in 2007
Kirschvink, N.; Raes, M.; Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Veterinary Journal (2007)

In 2006, bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 8 emerged in northern Europe and numerous ruminants were affected in the following year. Infertility in males is one of the consequences of BT, although its ... [more ▼]

In 2006, bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 8 emerged in northern Europe and numerous ruminants were affected in the following year. Infertility in males is one of the consequences of BT, although its severity and duration after natural infection has not been documented. In this report, the impact of BT-8 on clinical signs and semen quality of naturally infected rams is described through a longitudinal study of two Belgian ram populations (n=12 and n=24) and a cross sectional study in a further ram population (n=43). Macroscopic semen characteristics, semen concentration, motility, percentage of living and dead spermatozoa were assessed in 167 semen samples collected on 1-6 occasions from 79 BT-8 infected rams within 5-138 days after onset of clinical disease. These were compared with healthy control animals. Significant changes in all variables were observed after natural BT-8 infection. Total recovery occurred around 85 days after clinical disease in animals undergoing a close follow-up of semen quality. Good correspondence between the results of the longitudinal and cross sectional studies suggests that semen quality of BT-8 affected rams reached normal references values 63-138 days after clinical diagnosis of BT. In addition, semen concentration seems to be a sound epidemiological indicator of ram semen quality. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of a natural bluetongue serotype 8 infection on semen quality of Belgian rams in 2007.
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Raes, Marianne; Saegerman, Claude ULg

in Veterinary Journal (2009), 182(2), 244-51

In 2006, bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 8 emerged in northern Europe and numerous ruminants were affected in the following year. Infertility in males is one of the consequences of BT, although its ... [more ▼]

In 2006, bluetongue (BT) virus serotype 8 emerged in northern Europe and numerous ruminants were affected in the following year. Infertility in males is one of the consequences of BT, although its severity and duration after natural infection has not been documented. In this report, the impact of BT-8 on clinical signs and semen quality of naturally infected rams is described through a longitudinal study of two Belgian ram populations (n=12 and n=24) and a cross sectional study in a further ram population (n=43). Macroscopic semen characteristics, semen concentration, motility, percentage of living and dead spermatozoa were assessed in 167 semen samples collected on 1-6 occasions from 79 BT-8 infected rams within 5-138 days after onset of clinical disease. These were compared with healthy control animals. Significant changes in all variables were observed after natural BT-8 infection. Total recovery occurred around 85 days after clinical disease in animals undergoing a close follow-up of semen quality. Good correspondence between the results of the longitudinal and cross sectional studies suggests that semen quality of BT-8 affected rams reached normal references values 63-138 days after clinical diagnosis of BT. In addition, semen concentration seems to be a sound epidemiological indicator of ram semen quality. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of abiotic stresses on volatile organic compound production of field crops and grasslands
Digrado, Anthony ULg; Mozaffar, Ahsan ULg; Bachy, Aurélie ULg et al

Poster (2014, February 07)

Abiotic and biotic stresses are known to alter biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission from plants. With the climate and global change, BVOC emissions are likely to increase. This increase on ... [more ▼]

Abiotic and biotic stresses are known to alter biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission from plants. With the climate and global change, BVOC emissions are likely to increase. This increase on BVOC emissions could be driven by many environmental parameters like temperature, ozone and light availability for photosynthesis although it is still difficult to predict the impact of some environmental parameters, environmental controls on BVOC emission being species and BVOC-dependent. These BVOC are involved in a wide range of interactions of plants with their environment and these interactions could be affected by the global change. Moreover, BVOC also play a key role in the atmospheric chemistry and may contribute to ozone formation and an increase in methane lifetime, strengthening the global change. Yet, due to technical limitation, there are few studies examining the impact of multiple co-occurring stresses on BVOC emission at the ecosystem level although stress combination is probably more ecologically realistic in field. In the CROSTVOC (for CROp STress VOC) project, the impact of abiotic stresses (e.g. heat, drought, ozone and grazing) on BVOC emission will be investigated for field crops (maize and wheat) and grassland both at the ecosystem and plant scale. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of acid containing montmorillonite on the properties of Nafion® membranes
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Caldarella, Giuseppe ULg et al

in Polymer (2005), 46(25), 11389-11395

The counter-ions of montmorillonite have been exchanged for ammonium cations containing either a sulfonic acid or a carboxylic acid in order to improve the performances of sulfonated membranes in direct ... [more ▼]

The counter-ions of montmorillonite have been exchanged for ammonium cations containing either a sulfonic acid or a carboxylic acid in order to improve the performances of sulfonated membranes in direct methanol fuel cell. These layered silicates have been dispersed within Nafion® by solution mixing. Comparison with conventional organo-modified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) shows that the incorporation of carboxylic acid in the clay galleries improves the filler dispersion and, consequently, the methanol barrier properties. Moreover, the negative impact of Cloisite 30B on the ionic conductivity is restricted. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of acid containing montmorillonite on the properties of sulfonated fuel cell membranes
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Pagnoulle, Christophe; Calderalla, G. et al

Poster (2005, May 11)

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See detailImpact of acute cadmium exposure on the trunk lateral line neuromasts and consequences on the "C-start" response behaviour of the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.; Teleostei, Moronidae).
Faucher, Karine ULg; Fichet, Denis; Miramand, Pierre et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2006), 76(3-4), 278-94

Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental ... [more ▼]

Behavioural responses of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax were investigated after exposure to cadmium ions in laboratory-controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to discover whether environmental exposure to cadmium ions inactivates fish lateral line system neuromasts, and to determine the behavioural consequences of such a sensory blockage. For this, fish escape behaviour in response to an artificial water jet was recorded using a 25-frames s(-1) analog video camera before and after cadmium exposure. Experimental set up was tested with fish whose lateral line system was artificially inactivated by antibiotics (gentamicin and streptomycin). Histological analyses with scanning electron microscopy showed antibiotic treatment destroyed lateral line system neuromasts. In addition, these fish did not respond to stimulations provoked by the water jet after antibiotic treatment. Fish escape behaviour was then recorded before and after cadmium exposure at two different concentrations. When fish were exposed to the first concentration of cadmium tested (0.5 microg l(-1), which represents the maximal cadmium concentration encountered in contaminated estuaries), no alteration in neuromast tissue was observed. In addition, before cadmium exposure, fish responded positively in 98.41 +/- 4.95% of lateral line system stimulations (escape behaviour in response to the water jet). After cadmium exposure, no behavioural modification could be detected: the fish responded positively in 95.16 +/- 9.79% of stimulations (chi(2) = 2.464, p = 0.116). In contrast, the high cadmium concentration used (5 microg l(-1), which represents 10 times the concentration occurring in highly polluted estuarine areas) involved severe neuromast tissue damage. Just after such cadmium exposure, fish showed only 41.67 +/- 35.36% of positive responses to their lateral line system stimulations, while they responded positively in 95.93 +/- 9.10% of stimulations under control conditions (chi(2) = 24.562, p < 0.0001). Their lateral line system neuromasts seemed to regenerate about 1 month after cadmium exposure. Associated with this regeneration, from the 21st day after cadmium exposure, their escape behaviour had recovered and was not significantly different from that recorded under control conditions (86.74 +/- 20.82%, chi(2) = 2.876, p = 0.090). This study shows that although 5 microg l(-1) cadmium is able to damage lateral line system neuromasts and causes fish behavioural alterations, fish exposed to 0.5 microg l(-1) cadmium displayed neither tissue neuromast nor behavioural modification. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of AGB stars on the chemical evolution of globular clusters
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg; Neuforge, Corinne et al

in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (1998)

We have analyzed high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of about 20 metal-poor stars. The correlations between the relative abundances of 16 elements have been studied, with a special emphasis ... [more ▼]

We have analyzed high resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of about 20 metal-poor stars. The correlations between the relative abundances of 16 elements have been studied, with a special emphasis on the neutron-capture ones. This analysis reveals the existence of two sub-populations of field halo stars, namely Pop IIa and Pop IIb. They differ by the behaviour of the s-process elements versus the alpha and r-process elements. We present a scenario for the formation of these stars, which closely relates the origin of field halo stars to the evolution of globular clusters. According to this scenario, the two sub-populations originate from two different stages in the globular cluster's chemical evolution. In the first stage, the massive stars of the globular cluster's first stellar generation evolve, ending their lives as supernovae and ejecting alpha-elements and r-process elements into the interstellar medium. A second generation of stars forms out of this enriched ISM. In the second stage, the intermediate mass stars reach the end of the main sequence and the AGB stage, ejecting s-elements into the ISM through stellar winds or superwinds events. The matter released in the ISM by the AGB stars will be accreted by the lower-mass stars, enriching those stars in s-elements and accounting for PopIIb stars. We calculate the rates of interstellar gas production by stellar winds and the rates of gas accretion to estimate the changes in the globular cluster stars abundances. We compare those results to our observations. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of age and breed on incidence of clinical signs after natural infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8 in sheep
Kirschvink, N.; Leemans, J.; Bolkerts, B. et al

Conference (2010, June)

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See detailImpact of ageing and food additives on the physico-chemical properties of partially hydrolyzed and pregelatinized rice flour
Mertens, Cécile ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg

Poster (2010, August 25)

Conservation of the quality of a food product is an essential preoccupation for industrials. Indeed, food acceptability by consummers depends of this quality. However, the latter decreases with time of ... [more ▼]

Conservation of the quality of a food product is an essential preoccupation for industrials. Indeed, food acceptability by consummers depends of this quality. However, the latter decreases with time of storage, due to complex alteration reactions. This study presents a first approach of alteration reactions in a particular range of products: drum-dried pregelatinized cereal products. While this type of product is widely used as thickeners or in infant foods, no study has ever been made on the subject. The cereal studied here is one of the most consumed by mankind: rice. We also investigated the impact of food additives (E170 & E340ii) on the ageing of such a product, because they are often used empirically in industry. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory
Verhaegen, Clémence ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2013)

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory
Verhaegen, Clémence ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

Conference (2012, May)

We determined the impact of hearing status on age-related effects on verbal short-term memory (STM). Rabbit (1991) observed that elderly participants with hearing loss show impaired STM; he suggested that ... [more ▼]

We determined the impact of hearing status on age-related effects on verbal short-term memory (STM). Rabbit (1991) observed that elderly participants with hearing loss show impaired STM; he suggested that in the case of hearing loss, attentional resources had to be recruited to a larger extent to stimulus perception, reducing the available pool of attentional resources for STM processing. We tested this hypothesis by distinguishing the impact of aging from the impact of hearing status on STM. This was done by administering different verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing threshold, as well as normal-hearing control participants. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall more poorly than the normal-hearing young control participants. These results suggest that mild hearing impairment is a major explanatory factor of reduced STM performance, and importantly, is age-independent. The results are discussed within an interactive framework of STM and attentional processing (Majerus et al., 2009). [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of aging and hearing status on verbal working memory
Verhaegen, Clémence ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg

in Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition (2014), 21(4), 464-482

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See detailImpact of agricultural practices on soil microbial communities in Belgium
Degrune, Florine ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2013, December 11)

The use of fertilizers in agricultural soils is becoming a real environmental issue (an obvious example is eutrophication caused by leaching of phosphorus and nitrates). Much research has focused on ... [more ▼]

The use of fertilizers in agricultural soils is becoming a real environmental issue (an obvious example is eutrophication caused by leaching of phosphorus and nitrates). Much research has focused on finding ways to reduce the use of chemicals, and investigating microbial life may lead to solutions. We know that bacteria and fungi are deeply involved in nutrient cycles. Recently the emergence of massive parallel sequencing has enabled us to realize that microbial diversity is huger than we expected. With such a tool it should be possible to study how soil management practices affect the microbial diversity of agricultural soils. A few such studies have been conducted, most of them focusing on bacteria. For Belgium in particular, there is a lack of data on this topic. Here the aim was to see how residue management and tillage practices affect communities of both bacteria and fungi in Belgian agricultural soils. For this we used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S bacterial and 28S fungal rRNA genes. Soil samples came from an experiment in which faba beans were grown with four soil management practices (tillage and no tillage, with and without crop residues), each repeated four times in a Latin square. Several chemical and physical characteristics were measured on each sample. The results show that fungi and bacteria are both impacted by Tillage practices. The main soil drivers are Magnesium and Phosphorus for Fungi communities, and Phosphorus and Potassium for bacteria communities. Finally, the fungi variance observed between plots is explained at 38% by Tillage, Magnesium and phosphorus. And the bacteria variance is explained at 28% by Tillage, Phosphorus and Potassium. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of alemtuzumab versus anti-thymocyte globulin after unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning as treatment for AML in CR1: a survey from the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Labopin, M.; Mufti, G. et al

Conference (2012)

In vivo T cell depletion of the graft with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or with alemtuzumab has been frequently used in the setting of RIC allo-SCT from unrelated donors. This survey compared allo-SCT ... [more ▼]

In vivo T cell depletion of the graft with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or with alemtuzumab has been frequently used in the setting of RIC allo-SCT from unrelated donors. This survey compared allo-SCT outcomes between 364 AML patients in first CR given unrelated PBSC after chemotherapy-based RIC and given either ATG (n=213) or alemtuzumab (n=151) in the conditioning regimen. Alemtuzumab patients were more frequently given grafts from HLA-mismatched donors (30% versus 16% having at least 1/10 HLA-mismatch with their donor, P=0.005), and were conditioned more often with melphalan-based RIC (62%), while ATG recipients were more frequently conditioned with busulfan-based RIC (84%). Median time to neutrophil engraftment (>500 ANC) was 16 days in ATG recipients, versus 12 days in alemtuzumab recipients (P<0.001). The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 28% in ATG recipients (9 patients with grade IV) and 24% (NS) in alemtuzumab recipients (2 patients with grade IV). Two-year incidences of chronic GVHD, relapse and NRM were 45%, 23% and 14%, respectively, in ATG recipients, and 47% (NS), 25% (NS) and 25% (P=0.008), respectively, in alemtuzumab recipients. Two-year OS and LFS were 69% and 63%, respectively, in ATG recipients, versus 55% (P=0.003) and 51% (P=0.02), respectively, in alemtuzumab recipients. Death from infection occurred in 7% of ATG recipients, versus 12% of alemtuzumab recipients. When the analysis was restricted to the 210 patients given grafts from 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors, the use of alemtuzumab (n=64) remained signifi cantly associated with higher NRM (22% vs 9%, P=0.007), lower LFS (58% vs 69%, P=0.07), and lower OS (62% vs 74%, P=0.04). In multivariate analyses (performed in patients given grafts from 10/10 HLA-matched donors), in comparison to the use of ATG, the use of alemtuzumab was associated with higher NRM (HR=2.5, P=0.025), a statistically non-signifi cant but higher relapse rate (HR=1.7, P=0.18), and signifi cantly worse LFS (HR=0.5, P=0.013) and OS (HR=0.4, P=0.002). In summary, this homogeneous cohort of AML patients transplanted in fi rst CR and given PBSC grafts from unrelated donors, the use of alemtuzumab in comparison with ATG was associated with worse LFS and OS. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of an anxious social situation on emotional facial expressions (EFE) recognition in children
Dethier, Marie ULg; Taskin, Asliane; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2010, June 04)

Socially anxious children have difficulties to interact adequately with others. The core characteristic of social anxiety, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others, may among others, be based on ... [more ▼]

Socially anxious children have difficulties to interact adequately with others. The core characteristic of social anxiety, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others, may among others, be based on problems with the decoding of other persons’ emotional facial expression (EFE). Up to now, the research on EFE recognition in socially anxious children has produced mixed results. Whereas some studies reported differences between anxious and healthy children in EFE recognition (e.g., Simonian, Beidel, Turner, Berkes, & Long, 2001), others didn’t find such differences (Melfsen & Florin, 2002). In this study, we addressed two new issues in the investigation of EFE recognition in socially anxious children. Firstly, we investigated self-esteem. Socially anxious children show low confidence in one’s cognitive and social abilities. Furthermore, high self-esteem is related to high capacities of EFE recognition (Garfield, Rogoff, & Steinberg, 1987), and more generally to high level of social functioning (Serretti et al., 1999 ; Shapira et al., 1999). Indeed, the perception of ourselves depends on the way we think others people perceive us. Secondly, past researches have investigated this issue in low anxious situations and thus, not in situations in which social anxious individuals feel threatened. The originality of the present study is that it addresses the relationship between EFE recognition performance and self-esteem in children placed in an anxious social situation. We predicted a low capacity to decode EFE in socially anxious children. Moreover, we hypothesised a relationship between a low self-esteem and difficulties to decode accurately EFE in an anxious social situation. Seventy children (8 – 12 years) were placed in an anxious social situation of performance in which they were instructed to count aloud backwards, beginning at 200 in increments of 13. Children assessed their emotional feeling state, including their degree of anxiety, before and after the anxious social situation. Furthermore, children were assessed on an EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs depicting EFE of happiness, anger, disgust, and sadness. For each photograph, they evaluated the presence of nine types of emotions on a 7-point Likert scale. They also completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985). No correlations emerged between the accuracy of EFE recognition and an increase of anxious feelings after the anxious social situation. However, self-esteem was correlated with performance on the EFE recognition test, r (70) = -.33, p < .01. Moreover, the lower the child’s level of self-esteem was, the more he/she perceived negative emotions (fear, anger, disgust, and shame) in EFE of anger. In conclusion, social anxiety doesn’t seem to interfere with EFE recognition performance in an anxious social situation. However, low level of self-esteem in children appears to be associated with deficits and interpretative bias in EFE recognition in an anxious social situation. The recognition of the expression of anger, an emotion socially threatening, seems particularly biased in children with low level of self-esteem. [less ▲]

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