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See detailAn Improved Protocol for Efficient Engraftment in NOD/ LTSZ-SCIDIL-2RcNULL Mice Allows HIV Replication and Development of Anti-HIV Immune Responses
Singh, Maneesh; Singh; Gaudray et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(6), 38491

Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rcnull (NSG) and NOD/SCID/IL2Rcnull (NOG) mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 ... [more ▼]

Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rcnull (NSG) and NOD/SCID/IL2Rcnull (NOG) mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 replication studies. Total body irradiation (TBI) is a classical myeloablation regimen used to improve engraftment levels of human cells in these humanized mice. Some recent reports suggest the use of busulfan as a myeloablation regimen to transplant HPCs in neonatal and adult NSG mice. In the present study, we further ameliorated the busulfan myeloablation regimen with fresh CB-CD34+cell transplantation in 3–4 week old NSG mice. In this CB-CD34+transplanted NSG mice engraftment efficiency of human CD45+cell is over 90% in peripheral blood. Optimal engraftment promoted early and increased CD3+T cell levels, with better lymphoid tissue development and prolonged human cell chimerism over 300 days. These humanized NSG mice have shown long-lasting viremia after HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1Bal inoculation through intravenous and rectal routes. We also saw a gradual decline of the CD4+T cell count, widespread immune activation, up-regulation of inflammation marker and microbial translocation after HIV-1 infection. Humanized NSG mice reconstituted according to our new protocol produced, moderate cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 postinfection. We believe that NSG mice reconstituted according to our easy to use protocol will provide a better in vivo model for HIV-1 replication and anti-HIV-1 therapy trials. [less ▲]

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See detailAn improved protocol for efficient engraftment in NOD/LTSZ-SCIDIL-2Rgammanull mice allows HIV replication and development of anti-HIV immune responses.
Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Gaudray, Gilles et al

in PloS one (2012), 7(6), 38491

Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) and NOD/SCID/IL2Rgamma(null) (NOG) mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long ... [more ▼]

Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) and NOD/SCID/IL2Rgamma(null) (NOG) mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 replication studies. Total body irradiation (TBI) is a classical myeloablation regimen used to improve engraftment levels of human cells in these humanized mice. Some recent reports suggest the use of busulfan as a myeloablation regimen to transplant HPCs in neonatal and adult NSG mice. In the present study, we further ameliorated the busulfan myeloablation regimen with fresh CB-CD34+cell transplantation in 3-4 week old NSG mice. In this CB-CD34+transplanted NSG mice engraftment efficiency of human CD45+cell is over 90% in peripheral blood. Optimal engraftment promoted early and increased CD3+T cell levels, with better lymphoid tissue development and prolonged human cell chimerism over 300 days. These humanized NSG mice have shown long-lasting viremia after HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1Bal inoculation through intravenous and rectal routes. We also saw a gradual decline of the CD4+T cell count, widespread immune activation, up-regulation of inflammation marker and microbial translocation after HIV-1 infection. Humanized NSG mice reconstituted according to our new protocol produced, moderate cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 postinfection. We believe that NSG mice reconstituted according to our easy to use protocol will provide a better in vivo model for HIV-1 replication and anti-HIV-1 therapy trials. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved pulmonary adaptation in newborn calves with postnatal acidosis
Varga, J.; Mester, L.; Borzsonyi, L. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2001), 162

The adaptation of newborn calves to extra-uterine life was evaluated by measuring arterial blood gases, acidÐbase values, blood ions and lung mechanical function parameters in normal and acidotic calves ... [more ▼]

The adaptation of newborn calves to extra-uterine life was evaluated by measuring arterial blood gases, acidÐbase values, blood ions and lung mechanical function parameters in normal and acidotic calves during the first 24 h. Twenty-seven Holstein Friesian newborn calves were divided into two groups according to their immediate post partum arterial blood pH values (Group A blood pH ≥ 7.2: normal group; Group B blood pH between 7.2 and 7.0: acidotic group). Pulmonary function parameters were measured and arterial blood samples were analysed for blood gases, acidÐbase variables and ion content immediately post partum (within 2 min) and then 6 and 24 h after calving. Lung resistance and maximal difference between pressure maximum and pressure minimum (maxδPpl) decreased, while dynamic lung compliance increased significantly in both groups. Immediately post partum the lung resistance and maxδPpl were significantly higher in the acidotic group than in the normal group. The arterial blood pH progressively compensated with time in both groups during the first 24 h and there was no difference in arterial blood pH values between the two groups 6 h after birth. These results showed that the compensation of acidosis was associated with the improvement in lung mechanics and these changes occurred mainly during the first 6 h of life. Moderate to pronounced acidosis did not affect the pulmonary adaptation negatively, although some respiratory mechanics parameters (maxδPpl), blood pH and Ca2+ion concentrations remained significantly different between the normal and acidotic groups at 24 h. This might be the result of overcompensation of acidosis and the interdependence between blood pH and Ca2+concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved Quantification of Angiogenesis in the Rat Aortic Ring Assay
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Devy, L.; Burbridge, M. F. et al

in Angiogenesis (2001), 4(2), 133-42

In vitro angiogenesis assays are essential for the identification of potential angiogenic agents and screening for pharmacological inhibitors. Among these assays, the rat aortic ring model developed by ... [more ▼]

In vitro angiogenesis assays are essential for the identification of potential angiogenic agents and screening for pharmacological inhibitors. Among these assays, the rat aortic ring model developed by Nicosia bridges the gap between in vivo and in vitro models. The quantification of angiogenesis on this system must be applicable to characterise vascular networks of various states of complexity. We present here an improved computer-assisted image analysis which allows: (1) the determination of the aortic ring area and its factor shape; (2) the number of microvessels, the total number of branchings, the maximal microvessel length and the microvessel distribution; (3) the total number of isolated fibroblast-like cells and their distribution. We show that this method is suitable to quantify spontaneous angiogenesis as well as to analyse a complex microvascular network induced by various concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In addition, by evaluating a new parameter, the fibroblast-like cell distribution, our results show that: (1) during spontaneous angiogenic response, maximal fibroblast-like cell migration delimits microvascular outgrowth; and (2) the known angiogenic inhibitor Batimastat prevents endothelial cell sprouting without completely blocking fibroblast-like cell migration. Finally, this new method of quantification is of great interest to better understand angiogenesis and to test pro- or anti-angiogenic agents. [less ▲]

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See detailAn improved radioimmunoassay for measurement of pepsinogen in porcine blood samples
Banga-Mboko, Henri; Sulon, Joseph ULg; Lange, J. M. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2003), 165(3), 288-295

The study was conducted to develop a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of pepsinogen in porcine serum, and to use this test for the determination of pepsinogen ... [more ▼]

The study was conducted to develop a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of pepsinogen in porcine serum, and to use this test for the determination of pepsinogen concentrations in serum samples from fetuses and pigs of different ages. Compared to a previously described RIA, major improvements were made concerning the use of specific polyclonal antibodies and the use of an appropriate buffer. The assay was able to detect pepsinogen concentrations of >/=0.2 ng/mL. The recovery of pepsinogen was close to 95%. The intra-assay coefficients of variations ranged between 3.9 and 7.5% whereas the interassay ranged between 8.8 and 11.9%. These percentages correspond to a satisfactory accuracy and reproducibility of the assay. No cross-reactions were observed with the main commercially available products of the aspartic proteases family except porcine pepsin cross-reacted over 62.5 microg/mL. Pepsinogen concentrations increased steadily with increasing age of the fetuses and the pigs (P<0.05). Pepsinogen concentrations (+/-SE) in fetuses of 90-100 (n=24) and 100-110 days of pregnancy (n=36) were 0.5+/-0.1 and 5.3+/-1.3 ng/mL, respectively. In pigs of 21, 98, and 213 days of age, the pepsinogen concentrations were 290.6+/-10.8, 343.1+/-17.9 and 383.5+/-15.3 ng/mL, respectively. The results demonstrate that RIA is accurate and can be used easily to assess pepsinogen concentrations in pig sera. The test may constitute a valuable tool in epidemiological surveys and in studies related to gastric diseases in pigs. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved rank-based dependence measures for categorical data
Vandenhende, François; Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Statistics & Probability Letters (2003), 63

We extend rank-based dependence measures like Spearman's rho to categorical data so that the same ±1 limits are always reached under complete dependence. A goodness-of-fit procedure is derived for ... [more ▼]

We extend rank-based dependence measures like Spearman's rho to categorical data so that the same ±1 limits are always reached under complete dependence. A goodness-of-fit procedure is derived for dependence models using copulas. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved RAPD amplification of recalcitrant plant DNA by the use of activated charcoal during DNA extraction.
Vroh Bi, I.; Harvengt, L.; Chandelier, A. et al

in Plant Breeding (1996), 115(3),

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See detailAn Improved Reachability Analysis Method for Strongly Linear Hybrid Systems
Boigelot, Bernard ULg; Bronne, Louis; Rassart, Stéphane

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (1997), 1254

This paper addresses the exact computation of the set of reachable states of a linear hybrid system. It proposes an approach that is an extension of classical state-space exploration. This approach uses a ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the exact computation of the set of reachable states of a linear hybrid system. It proposes an approach that is an extension of classical state-space exploration. This approach uses a new operation, based on a cycle analysis in the control graph of the system, for generating sets of reachable states, as well as a powerful representation system for sets of values. The method broadens the range of hybrid systems for which a finite and exact representation of the set of reachable states can be computed. In particular, the state-space exploration may be performed even if the set of variable values reachable at a given control location cannot be expressed as a finite union of convex regions. The technique is illustrated on a very simple example. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved separation and quantification of dioxin and furan congeners using Novel low-bleed capillary gas chromatography columns and mass spectrometry
Dorman, Frank; Reese, Shawn; Reiner, Eric et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2004), 66

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See detailImproved separation of the 209 PCBs using GCxGC-TOFMS
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Sjödin, Andreas; Patterson, Donald G.

in Organohalogen Compounds (2004), 66

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See detailImproved separation of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Sjödin, Andreas; Patterson, Donald G.

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2004), 1040(2), 227-238

The separation of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners has been studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS). Four ... [more ▼]

The separation of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners has been studied using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS). Four column combinations based on thermally stable phases, DB-1/HT-8, DB-XLB/HT-8, DB-XLB/BPX-50, and HT-8/BPX-50, have been investigated. The HT-8/BPX-50 set produced the best separation. The distribution of the 100 to 150 ms wide peaks was highly structured in the chromatographic space and based on the degree of ortho-substitution within each separated homologue series. A total of 192 congeners were resolved in 146 min (1.3 analyte per min) using this column set. Eight coelutions involved 17 congeners. Among them, seven congeners were present in Aroclors at levels >1.0 wt.% (CBs 33, 47, 48, 95, 97, 163, 187). Except for CBs 47 and 48, none of the major constituents of commercial mixtures were coeluting. CB 138 was well separated from CBs 163 and 164 in the second dimension. For all column sets, CBs 20, 33, and 109 always coeluted with other PCBs. The 12 toxic dioxin-like congeners (CBs 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169, 189), and the seven European Union marker PCBs (CBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were separated from any interfering congeners. This was not the case for the other investigated column sets. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved shimming for fMRI specifically optimizing the local BOLD sensitivity
Balteau, Evelyne ULg; Hutton, Chloe; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

in NeuroImage (2010), 49

In functional MRI, magnetic field inhomogeneities due to air-tissue susceptibility differences may lead to severe signal dropouts and geometric distortions in echo-planar images. Therefore, the ... [more ▼]

In functional MRI, magnetic field inhomogeneities due to air-tissue susceptibility differences may lead to severe signal dropouts and geometric distortions in echo-planar images. Therefore, the inhomogeneities in the field are routinely minimized by shimming prior to imaging. However in fMRI, the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) effect is the measure of interest, so the BOLD sensitivity (BS) should be optimized rather than the magnetic field homogeneity. The analytical expression for an estimate of the BOLD sensitivity has been recently developed, allowing for the computation of BOLD sensitivity maps from echo-planar images and field maps. This report describes a novel shimming procedure that optimizes the local BOLD sensitivity over a region of interest. The method is applied in vivo and compared to a standard global shimming procedure. A breath-holding experiment was carried out and demonstrated that the BS-based shimming significantly improved the detection of activation in a target region of interest, the medial orbitofrontal cortex. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved stability and transient behaviour of generalized-alpha time integrators for constrained flexible systems
Arnold, Martin; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Cardona, Alberto

Conference (2011, November)

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See detailAn improved synthesis of 9-[(3)-[F-18]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([F-18]FHPG).
SHIUE, CY.; SHIUE, GG.; HUSTINX, Roland ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (1999), 40

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See detailAn Improved Test to Study the Changes in Membrane Permeability During Rehydration of Freeze-Dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11
Soro, Amenan Anastasie; Djè, K. M.; Thonart, Philippe ULg

in The Open Biotechnology Journal (2010), 4

The objective of this study was to assess changes in membrane permeability during rehydration of freeze-dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11. Viability was assessed using the electrical conductivity ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess changes in membrane permeability during rehydration of freeze-dried Weissella paramesenteroides LC11. Viability was assessed using the electrical conductivity measurement (ms cm-1 g-1 dry weight) and the plate count method (cfu g-1 dry weight). The symptoms of injury included an increase in the electrolyte leakage during the first 4 h of rehydration in Milli Q water and a decrease in the survival rate (about 64%), suggesting an increase in membrane permeability during dehydration. During rehydration of the freeze-dried strain, an increase in the temperature, NaCl or monosodium glutamate concentration and a decrease in H+ concentration resulted in an increase in the electrolyte leakage and a decrease in the survival rate (from about 5% to 97%, with respect to the treatment made). However, a decrease in the electrolyte leakage was observed with increasing glycerol, sucrose or maltodextrin and resulted in the maintenance of cell viability. Change in membrane permeability might lead to electrolyte leakage during rehydration and, ultimately, cell death. The electrolyte leakage assay associated with the plate count method, a quick and inexpensive method, could be used to evaluate dried bacteria resistance to dehydration. [less ▲]

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See detailImproved use of serial laboratory data in acute myocardial infarction
Albert, Adelin ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Heusghem, C. et al

Poster (1982, August)

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See detailImproved use of serial laboratory data in acute myocardial infarction
Albert, Adelin ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Heusghem, C. et al

in Clinical Chemistry (1983), 28

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See detailImproved vitrification method allowing direct transfer of goat embryos
Guignot, F.; Bouttier, A.; Baril, G. et al

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(4), 1004-1011

The aim of this study was to design a vitrification method suited to field embryo transfer experiments in goat. In a first experiment, a standard vitrification protocol, previously designed for sheep ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to design a vitrification method suited to field embryo transfer experiments in goat. In a first experiment, a standard vitrification protocol, previously designed for sheep embryos was compared to slow freezing of goat embryos. No significant difference was observed on kidding rate (48% versus 69%, respectively), nor on embryo survival rate (35% versus 45%). Second experiment: all embryos were vitrified. After warming, embryos were either transferred directly (direct transfer), or after in vitro dilution of the cryoprotectants (conventional transfer). The kidding rate was not affected by the transfer method (38% versus 23%, respectively). However, embryo survival rate tended to be higher after direct transfer (26% versus 14%). Third experiment: OPS vitrification was compared to standard vitrification. The kidding rate was not affected (22% versus 39%, respectively), but the embryo survival rate was lower after OPS (14% versus 28%). Fourth experiment: 0.4 M sucrose was added with cryoprotectants in vitrification. The kidding rate after direct transfer was significantly enhanced after addition of sucrose (56% versus 27%, respectively), whereas embryo survival rate was not significantly affected (32% versus 18%). Fifth experiment: vitrification with sucrose supplementation was compared to slow freezing. No significant difference was observed after direct transfer on kidding rate (52% versus 31%, respectively), but embryo survival rate tended to be higher after vitrification (34% versus 2 1 %). In conclusion, our results indicate that addition of 0.4 M sucrose in association with direct transfer improves significantly the viability of goat vitrified embryos. [less ▲]

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