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See detailFair Trade and Social Enterprise
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Raynolds, Laura; Bennett, Elizabeth (Eds.) The Handbook of Research on Fair Trade (2015)

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without ... [more ▼]

This chapter suggests that the notion of ‘social enterprise’ is useful to capture the DNA of organizations focused on fair trade and to locate them within a broader organizational taxonomy. Without seeking to impose a new term that may not resonate for certain actors or regions, this chapter aims to bring two contributions to fair trade research and practice. First, it is suggested that the social enterprise approach is particularly useful as an analytical tool enabling researchers and other stakeholders to capture the evolution and diversification of organizational models in fair trade. Second, the use of a broader organizational approach that is not specific to the sole fair trade sector allows for connections with similar organizations in other sectors and brings a shift from considering mainly what the organizations do (fair trade in this case) towards also addressing what they are (innovative social enterprise models combining market dynamics with social purpose). This chapter is structured as follows. First, the concept of social enterprise is introduced and discussed. Then, the evolution of the organizational landscape of fair trade (in the North) is summarized. Finally, fair trade organizations are examined in the light of the social enterprise concept, with illustrations from a study in four European countries (Huybrechts 2010a; 2012). [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade Organisations in Europe: A Significant Field of Social Enterprise?
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2008, June 26)

With the help of examples of FTOs in Belgium, France, Italy and the UK, we have applied some of the features of SE approaches to the context of FT. It appears that FTOs are particularly significant ... [more ▼]

With the help of examples of FTOs in Belgium, France, Italy and the UK, we have applied some of the features of SE approaches to the context of FT. It appears that FTOs are particularly significant examples of SEs, combining in different ways economic, social and sometimes political dimensions. From more NGO-like to more business-like configurations, all FTOs of our sample seem to respect the key features of SEs, under which the primacy of 23 the social mission, the limited (if any) profit distribution, the focus on innovation and at least some degree of self-financing. Nevertheless, there is some heterogeneity in terms of FTOs’ goals and activities. While all FTOs seem to combine, at least, economic and social dimensions – although at varying degrees and forms –, the political dimension is not present in the same way for all FTOs. Pioneer FTOs generally conduct education and advocacy activities in a developed and explicit way. Newcomer FTOs, however, have heterogeneous profiles in terms of political involvement, as the positioning seems to depend much on the entrepreneur’s choices. In terms of governance, practices are also very diverse in terms of leaders’ profiles, legal forms and stakeholders’ involvement in the decision-making structures. Some FTOs are quasi-individual ventures and are thus close to some American approaches of SE. Other FTOs are much more multi-stakeholder and fit better in the EMES conceptualisation of SE. The governance structure also seems to reflect to a certain extent the positioning of the FTO towards the different dimensions of FT. FTOs led by activists and having volunteers or partner NGOs on their Board seem to have a stronger focus on non-economic (social and political) goals. In the other sense, very economic-oriented FTOs are often run by managers with a business background and governed by their manager and/or their shareholders. As a conclusion, this article has tried to provide some theoretical and empirical support to the implicit link that has been established, both in the academic world and in the field practice, between FT and SE. The diversity of the FT sector echoes the rich diversity of SEs’ practices and conceptualisations. In such sense, considering FTOs as SEs is probably made easier because of the wide and flexible theoretical framework of SE – few authors claiming to have a “definition” of SE. If more restricted conceptions of SE were to emerge – e.g., the limitation of SE to formal Third Sector legal forms, or to 100% market financing –, then part of the FTOs would be excluded from the SE area. In such sense, FT appears as an important laboratory the evolutions of which can feed the theoretical construction of SE. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade Organizations and Social Enterprise. Social Innovation through Hybrid Organization Models
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Book published by Routledge (2012)

For several decades, Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) have set up partnerships with producer groups in the South and distributed the latter’s products through different types of channels in the North ... [more ▼]

For several decades, Fair Trade Social Enterprises (FTSEs) have set up partnerships with producer groups in the South and distributed the latter’s products through different types of channels in the North. However, while pioneers in the early years were relatively homogeneous (nonprofit organizations relying on voluntary work and selling through “worldshops”), organizational diversity has tremendously increased in recent times, including other types of legal forms, architectures, and governance models (volunteer-based, manager-based, multi-stakeholder, etc.). As a result, different categories of FTSEs now coexist in the sector with diverse missions and strategies. Since Fair Trade (FT) is a hybrid concept, entailing economic, social and political dimensions, the diversity of organizational models might reflect or enable different ways of articulating these dimensions. In other words, different organizational models might be suited for different ways of conceiving and practicing FT. Such an articulation through specific forms has been suggested by previous concepts that can be related to FT, such as cooperatives, the social economy, the solidarity economy, and, more recently, social enterprise. The latter is particularly useful as an umbrella concept that embraces the diverse types of FTSEs and accounts for their use of market mechanisms to pursue social innovation. This research first aims to explore and to structure FTSEs’ organizational diversity. For that purpose, the managers of 57 FTSEs were interviewed in four European regions: Belgium, France (Rhône-Alpes), the United Kingdom (England) and Italy (Rome). Based on the combinations of different elements of the organizational form, five categories emerge: individual FTSEs; entrepreneurial, business-form FTSEs; volunteer-based FTSEs; multi-stakeholder cooperative FTSEs; and group structures. Although certain FTSEs share features corresponding to several models, these categories seem adequate in the sense are relatively homogeneous and distinct from each other. The second question examines the factors or forces that lead FTSEs to adopt particular and diverse organizational forms. Using sociological and economic “new institutional” approaches, this book explores the influence of a number of factors on the organizational form: age, size, region, goals, activities, resources, and leaders’ profiles. From an economic standpoint, organizational diversity may be explained by the fact that FTSEs do not all produce the same types of goods when practicing FT. Thus, FTSEs will adopt the organizational form that minimizes their transaction costs in the production of particular goods. From a sociological standpoint, the analysis suggests that weak and sometimes conflicting institutional pressures explain organizational diversity. Indeed, uniformity is limited (within certain generations of FTSEs or in particular regions), although there is a dominant trend toward a stronger business orientation in the models. The third question examines how organizational actors within FTSEs experience and foster hybridity at the field level, thereby contributing to organizational diversification. Looking at six cases of FTSEs covering the different types of models, the strategic role of FTSEs is examined, as “institutional entrepreneurs” capable of influencing the environment in a way that legitimizes their own organizational model and secures their access to crucial resources. This strategic analysis allows for a more dynamic view of organizational models as “institutional bricolage”. Finally, the book ends with a number of recommendations for FT entrepreneurs on the strengths and the weaknesses of each organizational model. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade organizations as examples of social enterprises? Evidence from four European regions
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2008, July 09)

Given their multidimensional missions, combining economic, social and sometimes political dimensions, FTOs have been proposed quite early as examples of “social enterprise” (SE). Such link has been made ... [more ▼]

Given their multidimensional missions, combining economic, social and sometimes political dimensions, FTOs have been proposed quite early as examples of “social enterprise” (SE). Such link has been made in a particularly explicit way in the United Kingdom, by both academics (e.g. Martin and Osberg, 2007; Nicholls, 2006) and practitioners. Following Dart (2004), the trend for FTOs to depict themselves (and to be depicted) as SEs probably stems from a research of legitimacy towards an environment that promotes values of entrepreneurship and innovation. However, if FTOs are considered as obvious examples of SE, there still needs to be explained carefully why this is the case, and to what extent. Is it the involvement in FT that makes the enterprises “social”, or is it a set of particular organisational characteristics shared by most FTOs, or is it a combination of both? If the fact of “doing Fair Trade” is not a sufficient criterion to generate a SE dynamics – as we believe it –, then what is it in FTOs that makes these organisations eligible as SEs? The answers to these questions are closely linked to the framework used to define SE. While we try to consider different conceptualisations of SE in our analysis (part 1), we pay a special attention to the “multiple goal” and “multiple stakeholders” features put forward by the authors of the “EMES network”. In part 2, we recall the basics of the FT concept and the historical evolution of the movement. We then present our empirical data on FTOs in four European regions. Finally, we confront these data to some of the SE features identified in the literature (part 3). In this analysis, we particularly try to examine to what extent FTOs pursue multiple goals and involve multiple stakeholders, and how such organisational characteristics could be linked to each other and to other features such as resources, age and size. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade Organizations in Belgium: Unity in Diversity?
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Journal of Business Ethics (2010), 92(2), 217-240

This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over ... [more ▼]

This article analyzes the dual process occurring in the field of Fair Trade organizations (FTOs) in Belgium. On the one hand, there has been a gradual diversification of the organizational landscape over time from pioneering volunteer-based non-profit organizations to a broader array including cooperatives, group structures, businesses and individual entrepreneurs exclusively devoted to FT. On the other hand, a process of networking is currently taking place among the various types of FTOs in the context of the creation of a Belgian Fair Trade Federation (BFTF). Drawing on neo-institutional theory, including institutional entrepreneurship, this article examines how and why these two processes have taken place. A qualitative field study in the Belgian FT sector, including interviews with 15 FTOs, offers rich empirical material which illustrates the diverse patterns of these organizations. Based on the observed combinations of different variables among Belgian FTOs, a taxonomy reflecting diverse means of conceiving and organizing FT activity is suggested. The different categories of FTOs and the evolution of these categories over time seem linked to the broader institutional evolutions of FT at the international as well as at the Belgian level. Finally, several factors are reviewed to explain why the diversity among Belgian FTOs has not been an obstacle to their collaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailFair Trade Public Procurement, a tool for sustainable develoment
Durviaux, Ann-Lawrence ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2010)

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See detailFaire apprendre des compétences en classe d’histoire : tenants et aboutissants d’une réforme au long cours en Communauté française de Belgique
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in ETHIER, Marc-André; LEFRANCOIS, David; CARDIN, Jean-François (Eds.) Enseigner et apprendre l’histoire : manuels, enseignants et élèves (2011)

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See detailFaire apprendre et évaluer des compétences en classe d’histoire
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in Cahiers Pédagogiques (2009), n°471

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See detailFaire apprendre l'histoire. Pratiques et fondements d'une "didactique de l'enquête" en classe du secondaire
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

Book published by Erasme (2015)

Pourquoi enseigne-t-on l’histoire ? Qu’est-il possible d’apprendre en classe d’histoire et comment y amener les élèves ? De quels outils l’enseignant disposent-ils ? Comment peut-il concevoir une séquence ... [more ▼]

Pourquoi enseigne-t-on l’histoire ? Qu’est-il possible d’apprendre en classe d’histoire et comment y amener les élèves ? De quels outils l’enseignant disposent-ils ? Comment peut-il concevoir une séquence d’enseignement en histoire ? Comment évaluer les apprentissages des élèves ? Comment planifier les objets à enseigner ? Comment mettre en œuvre l’« approche par compétences » en classe d’histoire ?... La manière de concevoir l’enseignement de l’histoire a connu de profonds bouleversements depuis les années 2000. Faire apprendre l’histoire propose une mise au point théorique sur ces nouvelles conceptions et des pistes d’action pratiques et opérationnelles conformes à l’état de la didactique de l’histoire et des prescrits qui sont de mise dans les principaux systèmes éducatifs en francophonie : Belgique, Québec, France et Suisse romande. Historien, Jean-Louis JADOULLE est formateur d’enseignants et professeur de didactique de l’histoire à l’Université de Liège. Fort de sa pratique de la classe du secondaire, il entend offrir aux enseignants une proposition cohérente susceptible de les amener à revisiter l’enseignement-apprentissage de la discipline scolaire qu’est l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire chuter notre empreinte écologique
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Article for general public (2014)

Parce qu’un bon exemple vaut 1.000 discours, le Pr Pierre Ozer (ULg) a analysé les différents composants d’un menu gourmand teinté d’exotisme et en a calculé l’empreinte carbone.

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See detailFaire cohabiter les objets sans domicile fixe. Chisholm et les logiques meinongiennes
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2012)

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See detailFaire cohabiter les objets sans domicile fixe. Chisholm et les logiques meinongiennes
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2014), 10(6), 85-111

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See detailFaire de James un lecteur anachronique de Von Uexküll : esquisse d’un perspectivisme radical
Despret, Vinciane ULg; Galetic, Stéphan ULg

in Debaise, Didier (Ed.) Vie et expérimentations. Peirce, James, Dewey. (2007)

Faire de James un lecteur anachronique de Von Uexküll, prolonger les ressources de sa pratique en contournant l’alternative subjectivisme-objectivisme : c'est ce que nous avons désigné comme le possible d ... [more ▼]

Faire de James un lecteur anachronique de Von Uexküll, prolonger les ressources de sa pratique en contournant l’alternative subjectivisme-objectivisme : c'est ce que nous avons désigné comme le possible d'un perspectivisme radical. Le perspectivisme radical, au départ, se définit comme un pari : il doit traduire la possibilité d’un monde commun sans qu’il soit nécessaire de recourir ni à un monde objectif, ni à un principe transcendant. Il doit en même temps résister au choix comminatoire entre un monde qui existe « par nous » et un monde qui existe « malgré nous ». Le perspectivisme radical nous propose un monde « avec nous ».Le monde commun se constitue à la fois dans le partage et dans la multiplication des intérêts, pas à pas, ou plutôt, devrions-nous dire, action par action. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire de l'économie alternative et solidaire : une vieille histoire
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Frère, Bruno; Jacquemain, Marc (Eds.) Résister au quotidien ? (2013)

pour la question qui nous occupe, et parce qu'il faut précisément s'inscrire dans un courant, nous voudrions poser le problème dans les termes de la sociologie pragmatique : Y a-t-il réellement une « ... [more ▼]

pour la question qui nous occupe, et parce qu'il faut précisément s'inscrire dans un courant, nous voudrions poser le problème dans les termes de la sociologie pragmatique : Y a-t-il réellement une « nouvelle » grammaire de l'engagement ? Nous commencerons pas définir succinctement dans un premier temps ce que cette sociologie entend par grammaire et ce, afin de poser des bases sociologiques – c'est à dire les plus objectives possibles - à l'appréhension du phénomène d'une part et à nous doter d'un modèle d'analyse précis d'autre part. Ce modèle permet principalement d'approcher le monde social en terme de justification et d'argumentation. Il s'agit d'un modèle très explicitement inscrit dans une perspective plus constructiviste que structuraliste puisqu'il vise à saisir les logiques empruntées par les personnes pour rendre l'expérience qu'elles font de leurs réalités. Il ne permet pas de décréter que ces personnes, prises au sérieux dans les représentations qu'elles donnent de leur action et de leur vécu, ont nécessairement raison à leur sujet. Mais bien plutôt d'indiquer que ces représentations ne peuvent être ignorées quant aux effets qu'elles ont sur le monde social tel qu'il est. Dans un second temps, nous choisirons un témoignage issu d'un secteur qui, dit-on, jouit pleinement de l'avènement de cette nouvelle façon de militer : l'économie solidaire. Nous tâcherons d'en définir la grammaire, grammaire que nous confronterons ensuite et en quatre temps à des représentations passées d'engagements militants passés. Enfin, avec ce recul, nous tâcherons de répondre à la question initiale [less ▲]

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See detailFaire de la musique : rythmes et rapports chez Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Bonnet, Antoine; Frangne, Pierre-Henry (Eds.) Mallarmé et la Musique, la Musique et Mallarmé (2016)

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle ... [more ▼]

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle musical prend, dans l'esthétique de Mallarmé, l'aspect d'un système de rapports généralisés à tous les paramètres de l'écrit. L'inhérence réciproque que le poète établit entre la "Musique" et les "Lettres", représentation imaginaire dont Un Coup de dés constitue la contrepartie réalisée, répond d'un côté à un matérialisme de la forme et de l'autre à un idéalisme fictif, voulant que les structures verbales et prosodiques s'offrent en miroir du système de rapports avec quoi se confond, en sa finitude sans extériorité, l’univers même. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire de sa vie une œuvre d'art paralittéraire. Quelques réflexions autour de la littérature-Mesrine
Denis, Benoît ULg

in Etudes Françaises (2011), 47(1), 141-155

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