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See detailGenomic structure, promoter analysis and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa) TLR4 gene.
Thomas, Anne; Broers, Aurore ULg; Vandegaart, Hélène ULg et al

in Molecular Immunology (2006), 43(6), 653-659

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for initiating the innate response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria by acting as a signal-transducing receptor. As the pig industry faces a ... [more ▼]

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for initiating the innate response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria by acting as a signal-transducing receptor. As the pig industry faces a unique array of related pathogens, it is anticipated that the genotype of swine TLR4 could be of crucial importance in future strategies aimed at improving genetic resistance to infectious diseases. In order to help in investigating TLR4 as a candidate disease-resistance gene in pigs, we established its genomic structure and produced sufficient flanking intronic sequences to enable simple PCR amplification of the coding portions of the gene. Expression in different porcine tissues was studied and showed splicing variations in mRNA sequences. The cDNA sequence for poTLR4 contains an open reading frame of 2526bp that codes for 841 aa, 98 and 568bp in the 5'- and 3'-UTRs, respectively. Overall, the general organization of porcine, human, murine, and avian TLR4 genes is quite similar: three exons with the third one very long. A high level of conservation of the size and the sequence, especially for the two last exons and particularly in the sequence corresponding to the LRRs and TIR domain, is observed between species. The important antimicrobial properties of these proteins may account for a conservative selection pressure on these TLR4 coding sequences. Several putative binding sites described in the human and murine promoter of TLR4 genes have been identified in the 5'-flanking region of poTLR4. Conversely, this region lacks a TATA box, consensus initiator sequences, or GC-rich regions. The basic sequence data gathered will allow the establishment of an inventory of naturally occurring variation in porcine TLR4, so that alleles can be tested for disease association studies. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomic structure, promoter analysis, and expression of the porcine (Sus scrofa) Mx1 gene
Thomas, Anne; Palm, Mélanie; Broers, Aurore ULg et al

in Immunogenetics (2006), 58

Allelic polymorphisms at the mouse Mx1 locus affect the probability of survival after experimental influenzal disease, raising the possibility that marker-assisted selection using the homologous locus ... [more ▼]

Allelic polymorphisms at the mouse Mx1 locus affect the probability of survival after experimental influenzal disease, raising the possibility that marker-assisted selection using the homologous locus could improve the innate resistance of pigs to natural influenza infections. Several issues need to be resolved before efficient large scale screening of the allelic polymorphism at the porcine (Sus scrofa) Mx1 locus can be implemented. First, the Mx1 genomic structure has to be established and sufficient flanking intronic sequences have to be gathered to enable simple PCR amplification of the coding portions of the gene. Then, a basic knowledge of the promoter region needs to be obtained as an allelic variation there can significantly alter absolute levels and/or tissue-specificity of MX protein expression. The results gathered here show that the porcine Mx1 gene and promoter share the major structural and functional characteristics displayed by their homologs described in cattle, mouse, chicken, and man. The crucial function of the proximal interferon-sensitive response elements motif for gene expression is also demonstrated. The sequence data compiled here will allow an extensive analysis of the polymorphisms present among the widest spectrum possible of porcine breeds with the aim to identify an Mx1 allele providing antiviral resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailGénomique des maladies inflammatoires intestinales
Louis, Edouard ULg; Libioulle, Cécile ULg; Reenaers, Catherine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2009), 64

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See detailGenomische Selektion: ein Meilenstein auch in der Schweinezucht?
Buske, Bernd ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Article for general public (2009)

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See detailGenophotodermatoses.
Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60 Suppl 1

Genophotodermatoses can result from a defect in melanin synthesis, a defect in DNA repair or a congenital photosensibility.

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See detailGenotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of Artemisia verlotorum on the cell cycle of Allium cepa
Souza, LFB; Laughinghouse IV, Haywood ULg; Pastori, T et al

in International Journal of Environmental Studies (2010), 67(6), 871-877

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See detailGénotrichoses alopéciantes de l'enfance.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatologie Actualité (2007), 104

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See detailLe genotypage RHD foetal sur sang maternel dans le suivi prenatal des patientes Rh D negatif
Dricot, J. F.; Minon, J. M.; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(12), 820-6

Since the beginning of RHD genotyping in maternal plasma, no Rh D positive baby was diagnosed RHD negative in our institution. Genotyping from circulating DNA in maternal plasma is as efficient as ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of RHD genotyping in maternal plasma, no Rh D positive baby was diagnosed RHD negative in our institution. Genotyping from circulating DNA in maternal plasma is as efficient as genotyping on amniocyts but without the associated risks. We propose a prophylactic injection based on fetal genotyping RHD in maternal blood with 300 microg anti-D immunoglobulin at 28 weeks of amenhorrea in all of Rh D negative pregnant women whitch fetuses positive RHD. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype by Environment Interaction for Production Traits of Holsteins Using Two Countries as Model: Luxembourg and Tunisia
Hammami, Hedi ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Under globalization, breeding organizations are selecting animals and exchanging germplasm across various environments. Ignoring genotype by environment interaction (G x E) may affect the efficiency of ... [more ▼]

Under globalization, breeding organizations are selecting animals and exchanging germplasm across various environments. Ignoring genotype by environment interaction (G x E) may affect the efficiency of breeding strategies and limit outcomes from cooperation between breeding programs. Quantifying the effectiveness of indirect selection and effects of G x E for different breeds is therefore necessary. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the magnitude of G x E for milk yield using Luxembourg and Tunisian Holstein populations. In fact, these two countries rely considerably on importation of superior genes from diverse origins for their breeding programs. This study needed records on both the genotype and the environment. In the first part of this thesis, genetic ties between the two populations were studied. Additive relationships and genetic similarity were important and genetic links have been strengthened with time which allowed the analysis of the phenotypic expression of daughters of common sires under each of these tow production environments. In the second part, genetic parameters for production traits of Tunisian Holsteins were estimated by a test-day random regression model (RRTD). Heritability estimates for 305-d milk, fat and protein yields were low to moderate (0.12 to 0.18) suspecting difficulties of high-producing cows to express their potential under limiting production conditions. In the third part, G x E for milk yield and persistency were investigated using character state models, where milk yield in each country was considered as a separate trait, and where the country border delimitation was designed as an environmental character state. A RRTD sire model was applied and was extended to a RRTD animal model. Significant G x E was detected for milk yield and persistency by both models. Large differences in genetic and permanent environmental variances between the two countries were observed. Genetic correlations for 305-d milk yield and persistency between Luxembourg and Tunisian Holsteins were 0.50 and 0.43 (sire model) and 0.60 and 0.36 (animal model). Moreover, low rank correlations obtained between estimated breeding values of common sires translate a significant re-ranking between the two environments. At the end of this thesis, a herd management (HM) parameter reflecting feeding and management intensity was defined. Three HM levels were identified in each country and G x E was investigated within- and across-environments. Significant G x E was detected between the Tunisian HM levels, whereas, only heterogeneous genetic variance for milk yield with limited re-ranking of sires across the three Luxembourg environments was observed. Overall, this thesis shows that under constraining environmental effects, selection for adaptive traits among economically valuable traits under their specific conditions is needed for low-input systems. When satisfactory feeding resources, management and husbandry practices are available, high degree environmental sensitivity is desired and the use of a high yielding breed may be encouraged. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype by environment interaction in dairy cattle
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Rekik, Boulbaba; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2009), 13(1), 155-164

The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G x E) from reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems, Methods ... [more ▼]

The aim of this literature review was to identify the existence and scope of genotype by environment interaction (G x E) from reports on dairy cattle populations in different management systems, Methods applied to deal with G x E (controlled experiments and large data modeling) were discussed. A G x E was confirmed essentially when high differences between production environments and/or genotypes (genetically distant genotypes) were observed. Environmental effects were aggregated in most studies and identification of the components of the environment was largely unresolved, with only a few studies based on more definite-descriptors of environment. The implications of G x E on breeding decisions are discussed. Breeders should select genotypes on production traits within environmental conditions comparable to where candidate animals are intended to perform. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype contribution to the chemical composition of banana rachis and implications for thermo/biochemical conversion
Tiappi Deumaga, Mathias Florian; Happi Emaga, Thomas; Tchokouassom, Raphael et al

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (in press)

Chemical composition of banana rachis from three varieties (Grande naine, Pelipita, and CRBP969) was ana- lyzed, and the genotype contribution to composition variabil- ity was investigated. Wet chemistry ... [more ▼]

Chemical composition of banana rachis from three varieties (Grande naine, Pelipita, and CRBP969) was ana- lyzed, and the genotype contribution to composition variabil- ity was investigated. Wet chemistry and instrumental analysis procedures (X-ray diffraction, 31P NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry) were used. Some significant differences were found among the three genotypes: GN-AAA genotype was found to be significantly the highest in ash fraction (30.16 %) and the lowest in acid insoluble lignin (6.58 %) at 95 % confidence level. It showed also the highest content in potassium (43.5 % in ash). Implication of compositional dif- ferences on valorization efficiency by biochemical or thermo- chemical pathways was investigated. For this purpose, corre- lation coefficients between compositional characteristics and yields in volatile compounds from pyrolysis and glucose yields from enzymatic saccharification were analyzed. Ash content was revealed to be the main drawback parameter for volatile yields from pyrolysis (r = −0.93), while for glucose yields during saccharification were limited mainly by the con- tent in guaiacyl units of the lignin fraction (r = −0.98). How- ever, a strong and positive correlation was established be- tween the volatiles yield and the acid insoluble lignin content (r = 0.98) Thus, according to these observations and based on their compositional significant differences, GN-AAA was the better candidate for bioconversion pathway while PPT-ABB and CRBP969-AAAB samples were shown to be better can- didates for thermochemical conversion pathway. This work gives important preliminary information for considering ba- nana rachis as an interesting feedstock candidate for biorefinery. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype x Climate interactions for protein yield using four European Holstein Populations
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Carabaño, Maria-Jesus; Logar, Betka et al

in Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (2014)

Reaction norm models were applied to investigate genetic variation in heat tolerance of Holsteins across environments using long term protein milk yield test-day records and weather variables as proxy of ... [more ▼]

Reaction norm models were applied to investigate genetic variation in heat tolerance of Holsteins across environments using long term protein milk yield test-day records and weather variables as proxy of climate change. Data represented four European regions characterized by different management systems and environments. Daily protein yield changed across the trajectory of temperature humidity index (THI) for all studied populations, pointing out negative associations between warm conditions and cow performance. For most regions, additive genetic variances for daily protein yield decrease when THI increases. Antagonistic relationships between level and intercept were relatively limited for Slovenia compared to the three other regions. Rank correlations of estimated breeding values for three proposed heat tolerance measures ranged from 0.56 (Spain and Slovenia) to 0.81 (Walloon Region of Belgium and Luxembourg), indicating a possibility of genotype by environment (G x E) for some pairs of regions. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotype x Climate interactions for protein yield using four European Holstein Populations
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Carabaño, Maria-Jesus; Logar, Betka et al

Conference (2014)

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See detailGenotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins using Luxembourg and Tunisian populations.
Hammami, Hedi ULg; Rekik, Boulbaba; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2008), 91(9), 3661-71

Test-day (TD) milk yield records of first-lactation Holstein cows in Luxembourg and Tunisia were analyzed using within-and between-country random regression TD models. Edited data used for within-country ... [more ▼]

Test-day (TD) milk yield records of first-lactation Holstein cows in Luxembourg and Tunisia were analyzed using within-and between-country random regression TD models. Edited data used for within-country analysis included 661,453 and 281,913 TD records in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. The joint data included 730,810 TD records of 87,734 cows and 231 common sires. Both data sets covered calving years 1995 to 2006. Fourth-order Legendre polynomials for random effects and a Gibbs sampling method were used to estimate variance components of lactation curve parameters in separate and joint analyses. Genetic variances of the first 3 coefficients from Luxembourg data were 46 to 69% larger than corresponding estimates from the Tunisian data. Inversely, the Tunisian permanent environment variances for the same coefficients were 52 to 65% larger than the Luxembourg ones. Posterior mean heritabilities of 305-d milk yield and persistency, defined as estimated breeding values (EBV) at 280 days in milk-EBV at 80 days in milk, from between-country analysis were 0.42 and 0.12 and 0.19 and 0.08 in Luxembourg and Tunisia, respectively. Heritability estimates for the same traits from within-country analyses, mainly from the Tunisian data, were lower than those from the joint analysis. Genetic correlations for 305-d milk yield and persistency between countries were 0.60 and 0.36. Product moment and rank correlations between EBV of common sires for 305-d milk yield and persistency from within-country analyses were 0.38 and 0.41 and 0.27 and 0.26, respectively. Differences between genetic variances found in both countries reflect different milk production levels. Moreover, low genetic and rank correlations suggest different ranking of sires in the 2 environments, which implies the existence of a genotype x environment interaction for milk yield in Holsteins. [less ▲]

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See detailGenotypic and phenotypic charactérisation of methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from milk of bovine mastitis
Bardiau, M; Yamazaki, K; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in Letters in Applied Microbiology (2013)

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See detailGenotypic and phenotypic characterisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from milk of bovine mastitis
Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Yamazaki, Kazuko; Duprez, Jean-Noel et al

in Letters in Applied Microbiology (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)