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See detailHave STS Fallen Into a Political Void? Depoliticisation and Engagement in the Case of Nanotechnologies
Thoreau, François ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg

in Política & Sociedade (2012), 11(20), 205-226

In this paper we trace some of the key points in the history of Science and Technology Studies (STS). In particular we outline the inherently political dynamics of the field. Against We underline two ... [more ▼]

In this paper we trace some of the key points in the history of Science and Technology Studies (STS). In particular we outline the inherently political dynamics of the field. Against We underline two emerging patterns in the curse of STS: the one of “depoliticisation” and the one of increasing “engagement”. We address the case study nanotechnologies and discuss their intertwined history with the STS. This allows us to point at the risk that the increasing institutionalisation of STS and the political mandate that frames and stabilizes the field’s relationship to the technological developments would create a political void. We conclude that STS research is at a crossroads. It is facing an important empirical turn, which may deprive it from its political significance, and constantly redefine its institutional constraints. STS has to continuously question its underlying political assumptions (as it occurs more and more regarding public participation) and to make it explicit. [less ▲]

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See detailhave/be no need: the interaction between negation and modality in verbonominal pathways of changes
Brems, Lieselotte ULg; davidse, kristin; van linden, an

Conference (2011, July)

We investigate how modal meanings can emerge in nominal patterns, an under-researched source construction for modal meanings. We specifically look at how the combination of the noun need/needs with ... [more ▼]

We investigate how modal meanings can emerge in nominal patterns, an under-researched source construction for modal meanings. We specifically look at how the combination of the noun need/needs with negation markers of various kinds leads to such modal meanings related to the deontic and epistemic domain. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hazar pull-apart along the East Anatolian Fault: Structure and active deformation
Garcia Moreno, David; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Moernaut, J et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2008, April), 10

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See detailThe Hazar pull-apart along the East Anatolian Fault: Structure and active deformation
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Garcia, D; Moernaut, J et al

Conference (2008, January)

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See detailHazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Dehon, Lydie; Sindic, Marianne ULg

in Calita (2006), (août-septembre), 32-33

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See detailHazard and risk related to earthquake-triggered landslide events
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment (2014, January 01)

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See detailHazard and Risk Related to Earthquake-Triggered Landslides
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Fan, X.; Torgoev, A.

in Engineering Geology for Society and Territory-Volume 2 (2015)

Abstract This paper first analyses how important earthquake-induced landslide hazards are compared to other geohazards at world-wide scale. Further, we will outline where these hazards may have the ... [more ▼]

Abstract This paper first analyses how important earthquake-induced landslide hazards are compared to other geohazards at world-wide scale. Further, we will outline where these hazards may have the strongest impacts—at regional and local scale. In this regard, we consider the short-and long-term effects of geological, tectonic, climatic and morphological conditions. Hazard and risk related to these processes will also be analysed on the basis of a series of case histories: eg, the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake-landslide disaster in China. A ... [less ▲]

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See detailHazard factors of ACL rupture: Neuromuscular factors
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; MASSART, Nicolas ULg et al

in European Journal of Sports Medicine (2013, September), 1(supplement 1), 50-51

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are disabling, often associated with other intra-articular damages and increase the risk of early onset of osteoarthritis. It is very probable ... [more ▼]

Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are disabling, often associated with other intra-articular damages and increase the risk of early onset of osteoarthritis. It is very probable that multiple risk factors act in combination to influence injury risk. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of these ACL risk factors, whose neuromuscular factors, even if investigations on neuromuscular factors reported to date do not provide a complete understanding of ACL injury risk. According to several recent studies, the neuromuscular control of joint biomechanics during a specific activity seems to represent a predicting factor of an ACL injury, by quantifying the intersegmental forces and moments generated about the tibio-femoral joint. Laboratory studies have shown that landing from a jump performs cutting and pivoting maneuvers with less knee and hip flexion, increases knee valgus and internal rotation of the hip coupled, with increased external rotation of the tibia and quadriceps muscle activation (especially in women). It has been hypothesized that these movement patterns increase the strain in the ACL during activity and that the large difference in knee injury incidence rates between males and females (1/4.5) may be attributed to neuromuscular differences and resultant mechanics. Although studies have shown that the position of the knee and the magnitude and sequence of muscle contraction can increase ACL strain values, it is hard to exactly correlate these movements to what occurs during activity and sport and at the time of ACL injury. Recently, a simpler assessment tool has been validated and is able to be administered in a clinic-based testing environment Consequently, the screening for ACL injury risk could be performed on a more widespread population. Athletes who went on to a primary ACL injury also demonstrated significant side to side differences in lower extremity biomechanics as well as reduced relative lower extremity flexor activation relative to an uninjured control population during the vertical drop jump. Similar mechanisms of injury risk have been identified in athletes medically cleared to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. These seminal findings indicate that these abnormal and asymmetrical biomechanical and neuromuscular control profiles are likely both residual to, and exacerbated by, the initial injury. A study revealed that a fatigue-induced protocol altered the latency as well as the magnitude of reflex responses of the hamstring muscles and the tibial translation only in women. The authors of various studies have suggested that the hamstring muscles play an important role in maintaining knee stability and that they protect the ACL during movements of the tibia relative to the femur. Therefore, decreased reflex responses of the hamstring muscles and in turn an increased the tibial translation might contribute to the pathomechanics of the ACL injuries. It is therefore conceivable that the fatigue-induced decrease of the hamstring neuromuscular function may increase the tibial translation and probably contributes to the higher incidence of ACL injuries, especially in women. A preventive approach to decrease ACL injuries could integrate muscle imbalances as a risk factor. If it has been scientifically validated than the muscle strength profile determined by an isokinetic testing offers a predictive value on the hamstring lesion occurrence, similar studies have not permitted such a conclusion about ACL injury. The isokinetic assessments after ACL reconstruction have allowed us to observe, on the healthy contralateral knee, a higher frequency of reduced hamstring/quadriceps ratios. A possible pre-existing weakness in the hamstring and the occurrence of an ACL injury is therefore possible but only a difficult prospective approach due to the multifactorial nature of ligament injuries could clarify that point. In conclusion, a functional analysis of the landing of a jump and an isokinetic muscle strength assessment have been suggested to represent predictive elements of an ACL rupture, but further studies are needed to have a stronger evidence of their predictive qualities of injury. [less ▲]

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See detailHazard mitigation for landslide dams in Mailuu-Suu valley (Kyrgyzstan)
Torgoev, Isakbek; Aleshin, YG; Meleshko, AV et al

in Italian J Eng Geol Environ Special Issue 1 (2006)

The area in the midstream of the Mailuu-Suu River is the most landslide-prone and vulnerable of the entire Kyrgyzstan territory. More than 200 landslide sources distinct by genesis, age and development ... [more ▼]

The area in the midstream of the Mailuu-Suu River is the most landslide-prone and vulnerable of the entire Kyrgyzstan territory. More than 200 landslide sources distinct by genesis, age and development stages have been fixed at present in the outskirts of the Mailuu-Suu town within an area of 80 km2 only. The main reasons of mountain slopes instability in this area are the geologic conditions and geodynamic peculiarities of the region. Seismic, climatic and man-caused factors play a role of rather a trigger mechanism ... [less ▲]

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See detailHBA1c: clinical and biological agreement for standardization of assay methode. Report by the expert of ALFEDIAM (Association de Langue française pour l'étude du diabète et des maladies métaboliques) and SFBC (Société française de Biologie clinique)
Gillery, Pierre; Bordas-Fonfrède, M.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Diabète & Métabolisme (1999), 25(3), 283-7

Glycohaemoglobin, and particularly haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), assays have been used for many years to retrospectively evaluate the glycaemic control of diabetic patients. Cut-off values have been established ... [more ▼]

Glycohaemoglobin, and particularly haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), assays have been used for many years to retrospectively evaluate the glycaemic control of diabetic patients. Cut-off values have been established for deciding treatment modifications. The techniques used in the laboratories however exhibit varying quality, and all of them are not yet standardized. The consequence is an under-utilization of this test, especially in non-hospital practice. In this context, working groups of Société Française de Biologie Clinique (SFBC), Association de Langue Française pour l'Etude du Diabète et des Maladies Métaboliques (ALFEDIAM) and Société Française d'Endocrinologie (SFE) have met together, in order to analyze the national status, and to propose practical recommendations for implementing a standardization process on the basis of international experiences. It is recommended to exclusively express results as HbA1c percentage, using methods standardized and certified by comparison to reference methods such as those using Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) values. Simultaneously, contacts have been established with manufacturers, and the realisation of periodic quality control surveys was encouraged. [less ▲]

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See detailHBV infection in Belgium: results of the BASL observatory of 1456 HBsAg carriers.
Deltenre, P.; Laleman, W.; Van Gossum, M. et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2012), 75(1), 35-41

Introduction : Nationwide studies are mandatory to assess changes in the epidemiology of HBV infection in Europe. Aim : To describe epidemiological characteristics of HBsAgpositive patients, especially ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Nationwide studies are mandatory to assess changes in the epidemiology of HBV infection in Europe. Aim : To describe epidemiological characteristics of HBsAgpositive patients, especially inactive carriers, and to evaluate how practitioners manage HBV patients in real life. Methods : Belgian physicians were asked to report all chronically infected HBV patients during a one-year period. Results : Among 1,456 patients included, 1,035 (71%) were classified into one of four phases of chronic infection : immune tolerance (n = 10), HBeAg-positive hepatitis (n = 248), HBeAgnegative hepatitis (n = 420) and inactive carrier state (n = 357 HBeAg-negative patients with ALT < upper limit of normal (ULN) and HBV DNA < 2,000 IU/mL). Using less restrictive criteria for ALT (1-2 ULN) or HBV DNA (2,000-20,000 IU/mL), 93 unclassified patients were added to the group of inactive carriers. These 93 additional inactive carriers were younger, more frequently males, with similar risk factors for HBV infection and histological features compared to inactive carriers according to recent guidelines. Recent guidelines on management of HBV patients were generally followed, but systematic HBV DNA measurements and HDV coinfection screening should be reinforced. Conclusion : In Belgium, an inactive carrier state was a common form of chronic HBV infection. Using less restrictive criteria for classification of inactive carriers did not modify their main characteristics and seemed better adapted to clinical practice. Recent guidelines on management of HBV patients should be reinforced. [less ▲]

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See detailThe HBZ factor of human T-cell leukemia virus type I dimerizes with transcription factors JunB and c-Jun and modulates their transcriptional activity.
Basbous, Jihane; Arpin, Charlotte; Gaudray, Gilles ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2003), 278(44), 43620-7

The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-encoded Tax protein activates transcription from the viral promoter via association with the cellular basic leucine zipper factor cAMP-response element ... [more ▼]

The human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-encoded Tax protein activates transcription from the viral promoter via association with the cellular basic leucine zipper factor cAMP-response element-binding protein-2. Tax is also able to induce cellular transformation of T lymphocytes probably by modulating transcriptional activity of cellular factors, including nuclear factor-kappaB, E2F, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and p53. Recently, we characterized in HTLV-I-infected cells the presence of a novel viral protein, HBZ, encoded by the complementary strand of the HTLV-I RNA genome (Gaudray, G., Gachon, F., Basbous, J., Biard-Piechaczyk, M., Devaux, C., and Mesnard, J.-M. (2002) J. Virol. 76, 12813-12822). HBZ is a nuclear basic leucine zipper protein that down-regulates Tax-dependent viral transcription by inhibiting the binding of cAMP-response element-binding protein-2 to the HTLV-I promoter. In searching for other cellular targets of HBZ, we identified two members of the Jun family, JunB and c-Jun. Co-immunoprecipitation and cellular colocalization confirmed that HBZ interacts in vivo with JunB and c-Jun. When transiently introduced into CEM cells with a reporter gene containing the AP-1 site from the collagenase promoter, HBZ suppressed transactivation by c-Jun. On the other hand, the combination of HBZ with Jun-B had higher transcriptional activity than JunB alone. Consistent with the structure of its basic domain, we demonstrate that HBZ decreases the DNA-binding activity of c-Jun and JunB. Last, we show that c-Jun is no longer capable of activating the basal expression of the HTLV-I promoter in the presence of HBZ in vivo. Our results support the hypothesis that HBZ could be a negative modulator of the Tax effect by controlling Tax expression at the transcriptional level and by attenuating activation of AP-1 by Tax. [less ▲]

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See detailHCCI engine modeling and experimental investigations - Part 1: The reduction, composition and validation of a n-heptane/iso-octane mechanism
Machrafi, Hatim ULg; Guibert, P.; Cavadias, S. et al

in Combustion Science And Technology (2007), 179(12), 2561-2580

A certain possible approach for the control of HCCI chemistry is to use kinetic chemistry mechanisms. This opens a field of interest that lead to the composition of a validated reduced PRF chemistry ... [more ▼]

A certain possible approach for the control of HCCI chemistry is to use kinetic chemistry mechanisms. This opens a field of interest that lead to the composition of a validated reduced PRF chemistry mechanism. For this purpose a skeletal chemical reaction mechanism for n-heptane and for iso-octane are constructed from a detailed n-heptane and iso-octane mechanism of the Chalmers University of Technology. Subsequently these two mechanisms are forged into one reduced chemical reaction mechanism for mixtures of n-heptane and isooctane (39 species and 47 reactions). This mechanism is numerically validated against the Chalmers mechanisms, respecting the HCCI application range. The reduced mechanism is also successfully numerically validated against another more detailed mechanism provided by LLNL. Engine experiments are performed validating this mixture mechanism with respect to the fuel composition containing n-heptane and iso-octane. The influence of the compression ratio and the equivalence ratio is also studied and used to validate the reduced PRF mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailHCCI engine modeling and experimental investigations - Part 2: The composition of a NO-PRF interaction mechanism and the influence of NO in EGR on auto-ignition
Machrafi, Hatim ULg; Guibert, Philippe; Cavadias, Simeon

in Combustion Science And Technology (2008), 180(7), 1245-1262

This article presents an investigation of the effect of NO in EGR on HCCI auto-ignition, by means of experiments and a NO-PRF interaction mechanism. The influence is investigated both numerically and ... [more ▼]

This article presents an investigation of the effect of NO in EGR on HCCI auto-ignition, by means of experiments and a NO-PRF interaction mechanism. The influence is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The numerical part is effected by a composition of a NO submechanism and the subsequent addition of this sub mechanism to a reduced validated n-heptane/iso-octane PRF mechanism, the latter of which is presented in a previous article, named article 1 (Machrafi et al., submitted 2006). The experimental part is effected on a CFR engine, operating at HCCI conditions, with an inlet temperature of 70 degrees C and a compression ratio of 10.2. Hereby n-heptane and PRF40 are used as the fuels, using different equivalence ratios in order to extend the interpretation domain. The NO adding concentration is experimentally varied between 0 and 160 ppm. The results showed that adding NO at low concentrations advances the ignition delays, the promoting reactions being more reactive than the inhibitory ones. The promoting effect seems to be at its maximum at an addition of 45 ppm concerning the fuel PRF40. At higher adding concentrations of NO the promoting effect becomes less and the inhibitory reactions become more reactive. The effect of NO on the auto-ignition of n-heptane seemed, however, to be unsignificant. The effect of NO was qualitatively well represented by the mechanism, while quantitatively the mechanism predicted a lower effect of NO at an addition of 45 ppm. [less ▲]

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See detailhCG: a pregnancy-related hormone stimulating angiogenesis and pericyte recruitment
Berndt, S; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Perrier d’Hauterive, S et al

Poster (2010)

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See detailHCMV seroprevalence and associated risk factors in pregnat women, Havana City, 2007 to 2008
Correa, C. B.; Kouri, V.; Verdasquera, D. et al

in Prenatal Diagnosis (2010), 30(9), 888-92

Objective To prenatally identify pregnant women at risk of developing congenital infection due to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods One thousand one hundred and thirty-one pregnant women from three ... [more ▼]

Objective To prenatally identify pregnant women at risk of developing congenital infection due to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Methods One thousand one hundred and thirty-one pregnant women from three municipalities from Havana City were serologically screened for HCMV infection (IgM/IgG, IgG avidity) from January 2007 to January 2008. Demographical, epidemiological, and clinical variables were correlated to serologic status to identify predictors of seroconversion in pregnancy. Results The majority of women were seropositive to HCMV (92.6%); 27 women (2.4%) developed HCMV active infection during pregnancy, defined by the detection of IgG+ and IgM+ (7 women), IgM+ and IgG− (2 women), and IgG seroconversion (18 women). Susceptibility of active HCMV infection during pregnancy was associated with maternal age <20 years and nulligravidity. Primary infection was detected in 20 pregnant women (1.8%), whereas 7 patients (0.6%) had active non-primary infection. Conclusion Although pregnant women in Cuba have high seroprevalence rates for HCMV, those younger than 20 years and nulligravidae are at risk of acquiring infection during pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailHCV genotype 4 in Belgium: epidemiological characteristics
REENAERS, Catherine ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; GERARD, Christiane ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2004), (67), 03

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See detailHCV genotype 4 in Belgium: three distinct patterns among patients from European and African origin
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Reenaers, Catherine ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg et al

in European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2006), 18(7), 707-712

Background Considered uncommon in western countries some years ago, hepatitis C virus of genotype 4 is now spreading in some areas of Europe. This is assumed to be due to immigration from a region of high ... [more ▼]

Background Considered uncommon in western countries some years ago, hepatitis C virus of genotype 4 is now spreading in some areas of Europe. This is assumed to be due to immigration from a region of high prevalence for this genotype and to propagation among drug users. In the south of Belgium, genotype 4 currently accounts for 10% of hepatitis C virus patients and its prevalence is increasing with time. Objective To better define the genotype 4 carriers' characteristics. Methods In a database comprising 1726 viraemic hepatitis C virus patients, the files of 85 genotype 4 carriers were reviewed. Results Beside the African (58%) and European drug user (15%) subgroups classically described, a third subgroup consisting of European nondrug users (26%) was identified as peculiar: these patients were older, had been mostly contaminated sporadically, presented a great diversity of subtypes, and were mainly of Italian origin. In this subgroup, contamination was supposed to be ancient, having occurred probably in Italy before immigration into Belgium. By contrast, European drug users were infected with only two subtypes (4c/4d and 4), an observation in favour of recent spread. Africans had a great diversity of subtypes, were young, and were mostly contaminated sporadically in their home countries. Despite their epidemiological differences, the clinical management, and in particular the rates of eligibility for treatment, were similar for these three groups. Conclusions Three different patterns of genotype 4 carriers were observed, corresponding to three different spreading profiles. They did not induce, however, different clinical management. [less ▲]

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See detailHCV genotype 5: an easy to treat population
REENAERS, Catherine ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; GERARD, Christiane ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2004), 67

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