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See detailIl y a urgence!
Boularbah, Hakim ULg; Closset-Marchal, Gilberte; de Leval, Georges ULg et al

in Journal des Tribunaux (2009)

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See detailThe IL-10 homologue encoded by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in vivo
Ouyang, Ping ULg; Rakus, Krzysztof ULg; Boutier, Maxime ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2013)

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The ... [more ▼]

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae, is the causative agent of a lethal disease in common and koi carp. CyHV-3 ORF134 encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homologue. The present study was devoted to this ORF. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that ORF134 is expressed as a spliced gene belonging to the early-late class. Proteomic analyses of CyHV-3 infected cell supernatant demonstrated that the ORF134 expression product is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome. To investigate the role of ORF134 in viral replication in vitro and in virulence in vivo, a deleted strain and a derived revertant strain were produced using BAC cloning technologies. The recombinant ORF134 deleted strain replicated in vitro comparably to the parental and the revertant strains. Infection of fish by immersion in water containing the virus induced comparable CyHV-3 disease for the three virus genotypes tested (wild type, deleted and revertant). Quantification of viral DNA by real time TaqMan PCR (in the gills and the kidney) and analysis of carp cytokine expression (in the spleen) by RT-qPCR at different times post-infection did not revealed any significant difference between the groups of fish infected with the three virus genotypes. Similarly, histological examination of the gills and the kidney of infected fish revealed no significant differences between fish infected with ORF134 deleted virus versus fish infected with the control parental or revertant strains. All together, the results of the present study demonstrate that the IL-10 homologue encoded by CyHV-3 is essential neither for viral replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4/IL-13 independent goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental helminth infections.
Marillier, Reece G; Michels, Chesney; Smith, Elizabeth M et al

in BMC Immunology (2008), 9

BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Intestinal mucus production by hyperplasic goblet cells is a striking pathological feature of many parasitic helminth infections and is related to intestinal protection and worm expulsion. Induction of goblet cell hyperplasia is associated with TH2 immune responses, which in helminth infections are controlled primarily by IL-13, and also IL-4. In the study presented here we examine the goblet cell hyperplasic response to three experimental parasitic helminth infections; namely Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia obvelata and Schistosoma mansoni. RESULTS: As expected N. brasiliensis infection induced a strong goblet cell hyperplasia dependent on IL-4/IL-13/IL-4Ralpha expression. In contrast, and despite previously published transiently elevated IL-4/IL-13 levels, S. obvelata infections did not increase goblet cell hyperplasia in the colon. Furthermore, induction of goblet cell hyperplasia in response to S. mansoni eggs traversing the intestine was equivalent between BALB/c, IL-4/IL-13-/- and IL-4Ralpha-/- mice. CONCLUSION: Together these data demonstrate that intestinal goblet cell hyperplasia can be independent of TH2 immune responses associated with parasitic helminth infections. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4Ralpha responsive CD4+CD25−CD103+FoxP3− cells control Schistosoma mansoni egg-induced inflammation by secreted IL-10
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Hoving, Jennifer C.; Leeto, Mosiuoa et al

Poster (2009, September)

IL-4Ralpha signalling drives Th2-type responses that mediate resistance to parasitic helminth infections. We generated a novel mouse model lacking IL-4Ralpha expression specifically on all T cells ... [more ▼]

IL-4Ralpha signalling drives Th2-type responses that mediate resistance to parasitic helminth infections. We generated a novel mouse model lacking IL-4Ralpha expression specifically on all T cells (iLckcreIl4ra−/lox) to investigate IL-4Ralpha-dependent T cell responses during Schistosoma mansoni egg-driven inflammation. These mice showed higher mortality during acute schistosomiasis compared with Il4ra−/lox controls and previously established CD4+ T cell specific IL-4Ralpha deficient mice (LckcreIl4ra−/lox). iLckcreIl4ra−/lox mice developed a liver restricted pathology associated with drastic reductions of both Th2/type 2 responses and alternative macrophage activation within the granulomas. Additionally, iLckcreIl4ra−/lox mice had (i) increased FoxP3+ Treg cell responses in the granulomas, which was explained by IL-4 mediated inhibition of FoxP3 induction, and (ii) reduction of antigen-specific production of IL-10 by CD4+CD103+FoxP3− cells. In a footpad model of S. mansoni egg-induced inflammation with subsequent IL-10 neutralisation and adoptive cell transfer experiments we found evidence that the increased inflammation in iLckcreIl4ra−/lox mice was due to the impaired development of IL-10-secreting CD4+CD25−CD103+FoxP3− cells. Together, these data demonstrate that IL-4Ralpha responsiveness by T cells promote IL-10-secreting CD4+CD25−CD103+FoxP3− cells and alternatively activated macrophages, which act in concert to control egg-induced inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4Ralpha responsiveness by T cells prevents peripheral induction of FoxP3-expressing regulatory T cells during TH2-polarized immune response
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Brombacher, Frank

Conference (2008, March 12)

Survival from Schistosoma mansoni infection requires the development of a finely regulated TH2-polarized immune response driven by the parasite egg antigens. A number of studies have proposed that S ... [more ▼]

Survival from Schistosoma mansoni infection requires the development of a finely regulated TH2-polarized immune response driven by the parasite egg antigens. A number of studies have proposed that S. mansoni egg antigens induce peripheral FoxP3-expressing regulatory T cells involved in the modulation of pro-inflammatory T helper immune responses (1-3). However, the tight regulation between antagonistic TH1, TH2 and Treg developmental programs in response to S. mansoni egg-antigens remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated in vitro that IL-4 strongly inhibits TGF1-induced FoxP3 expression by naive T cells and this inhibition is dependent on IL-4R expression on T cells. Surprisingly, wild-type mice that developed a strong TH2 immune response to S. mansoni egg antigens were able to modulate the magnitude of egg-induced inflammation in contrast to mice disrupted of IL-4R globally or specifically on T cells. The TH2 response developed by wild-type mice also prevented the induction of FoxP3-expressing CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node. This was not apparent in LckcreIL-4R-/lox or IL-4R-/- mice. In addition, IL-4 neutralization in vivo promoted the induction of FoxP3+CD4+ cells in the draining lymph node. Finally, IL-4 responsiveness by T cells induced a CD103-expressing CD4+ T cell population which produced IL-10 in response to egg antigens. Consequently, our study shows that the modulation of egg-induced inflammation is independent of FoxP3-expressing regulatory T cells but highlights a potential role of CD103-expressing CD4+ T cells as IL-10 producing regulatory T cells. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4Ralpha responsiveness of non-CD4 T cells contributes to resistance in schistosoma mansoni infection in pan-T cell-specific IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice.
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Hoving, Jennifer C; Leeto, Mosiuoa et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2009), 175(2), 706-16

Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are T helper 2 cytokines whose biological functions are induced through a common IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha). CD4(+) T cell-specific IL-4Ralpha-mediated signaling ... [more ▼]

Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are T helper 2 cytokines whose biological functions are induced through a common IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha). CD4(+) T cell-specific IL-4Ralpha-mediated signaling drives susceptibility to Leishmania major infection, but is not essential to host survival following Schistosoma mansoni infection. Here we generated a novel mouse model lacking IL-4Ralpha expression specifically on all T cells (iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox)), which was compared with CD4(+) T cell-specific IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice (Lck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox)), to investigate the possible roles of IL-4Ralpha responsive non-CD4(+) T cells during either L. major or S. mansoni infection. Our results demonstrate a successful generation of transgene-bearing hemizygous iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) BALB/c mice that have effective deletion of IL-4Ralpha on all T-cell populations. We show that iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice infected with L. major developed a healing disease phenotype as previously observed in Lck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice, demonstrating that absence of IL-4Ralpha-responsive non-CD4(+) in addition to CD4(+) T cells does not further affect transformation of BALB/c to a healer phenotype. In acute schistosomiasis, however, iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice showed enhanced mortality compared with Il4ra(-/lox) and Lck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice. iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice died with similar kinetics to highly susceptible Il4ra(-/-) mice, despite controlling gut inflammation. In addition, iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice presented increased liver granuloma sizes, as compared with Lck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice, with similar eosinophils, fibrosis, and liver damage. In conclusion, IL-4Ralpha-responsive non-CD4(+) T cells prolong survival to acute schistosomiasis and contribute to the better control of hepatic granulomatous inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4Ralpha-associated antigen processing by B cells promotes immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.
Horsnell, William G. C.; Darby, Matthew G.; Hoving, Jennifer C. et al

in PLoS pathogens (2013), 9(10), 1003662

In this study, B cell function in protective T(H)2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Ralpha and IL-13; but not IL-4 ... [more ▼]

In this study, B cell function in protective T(H)2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Ralpha and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Ralpha(-)/(-) mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Ralpha expressing B cells into naive BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Ralpha or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4(+) T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88(-)/(-) B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Ralpha-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4(+) T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4Ralpha-independent expression of mannose receptor and Ym1 by macrophages depends on their IL-10 responsiveness.
Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Marillier, Reece G; Hoving, Jennifer C et al

in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2010), 4(5), 689

IL-4Ralpha-dependent responses are essential for granuloma formation and host survival during acute schistosomiasis. Previously, we demonstrated that mice deficient for macrophage-specific IL-4Ralpha ... [more ▼]

IL-4Ralpha-dependent responses are essential for granuloma formation and host survival during acute schistosomiasis. Previously, we demonstrated that mice deficient for macrophage-specific IL-4Ralpha (LysM(cre)Il4ra(-/lox)) developed increased hepatotoxicity and gut inflammation; whereas inflammation was restricted to the liver of mice lacking T cell-specific IL-4Ralpha expression (iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox)). In the study presented here we further investigated their role in liver granulomatous inflammation. Frequencies and numbers of macrophage, lymphocyte or granulocyte populations, as well as Th1/Th2 cytokine responses were similar in Schistosoma mansoni-infected LysM(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) liver granulomas, when compared to Il4ra(-/lox) control mice. In contrast, a shift to Th1 responses with high IFN-gamma and low IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 was observed in the severely disrupted granulomas of iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) and Il4ra(-/-) mice. As expected, alternative macrophage activation was reduced in both LysM(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) and iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) granulomas with low arginase 1 and heightened nitric oxide synthase RNA expression in granuloma macrophages of both mouse strains. Interestingly, a discrete subpopulation of SSC(high)CD11b+I-A/I-E(high)CD204+ macrophages retained expression of mannose receptor (MMR) and Ym1 in LysM(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) but not in iLck(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) granulomas. While aaMphi were in close proximity to the parasite eggs in Il4ra(-/lox) control mice, MMR+Ym1+ macrophages in LysM(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice were restricted to the periphery of the granuloma, indicating that they might have different functions. In vivo IL-10 neutralisation resulted in the disappearance of MMR+Ym1+ macrophages in LysM(cre)Il4ra(-/lox) mice. Together, these results show that IL-4Ralpha-responsive T cells are essential to drive alternative macrophage activation and to control granulomatous inflammation in the liver. The data further suggest that in the absence of macrophage-specific IL-4Ralpha signalling, IL-10 is able to drive mannose receptor- and Ym1-positive macrophages, associated with control of hepatic granulomatous inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4Ralpha-responsive smooth muscle cells contribute to initiation of T(H)2 immunity and pulmonary pathology in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections.
Horsnell, W. G.; Vira, A.; Kirstein, F. et al

in Mucosal immunology (2010), 4(1), 83-92

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections generate pulmonary pathologies that can be associated with strong T(H)2 polarization of the host's immune response. We present data demonstrating N. brasiliensis ... [more ▼]

Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infections generate pulmonary pathologies that can be associated with strong T(H)2 polarization of the host's immune response. We present data demonstrating N. brasiliensis-driven airway mucus production to be dependent on smooth muscle cell interleukin 4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Ralpha) responsiveness. At days 7 and 10 post infection (PI), significant airway mucus production was found in IL-4Ralpha(-/lox) control mice, whereas global knockout (IL-4Ralpha(-/-)) and smooth muscle-specific IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice (SM-MHC(Cre) IL-4Ralpha(-/lox)) showed reduced airway mucus responses. Furthermore, interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-5 cytokine production in SM-MHC(Cre) IL-4Ralpha(-/lox) mice was impaired along with a transient reduction in T-cell numbers in the lung. In vitro treatment of smooth muscle cells with secreted N. brasiliensis excretory-secretory antigen (NES) induced IL-6 production. Decreased protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent smooth muscle cell proliferation associated with cell cycle arrest was found in cells stimulated with NES. Together, these data demonstrate that both IL-4Ralpha and NES-driven responses by smooth muscle cells make important contributions in initiating T(H)2 responses against N. brasiliensis infections.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication 25 August 2010. doi:10.1038/mi.2010.46. [less ▲]

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See detailIL-4R{alpha}-responsive smooth muscle cells increase intestinal hypercontractility and contribute to resistance during acute Schistosomiasis.
Marillier, Reece G; Brombacher, Tiroyaone M; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg et al

in American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (2010), 298(6), 943-51

Interleukin-(IL)-4 and IL-13 signal through heterodimeric receptors containing a common IL-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Ralpha) subunit, which is important for protection against helminth infections, including ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-(IL)-4 and IL-13 signal through heterodimeric receptors containing a common IL-4 receptor-alpha (IL-4Ralpha) subunit, which is important for protection against helminth infections, including schistosomiasis. Previous studies demonstrated important roles for IL-4Ralpha-responsive hematopoietic cells, including T cells and macrophages in schistosomiasis. In this study, we examined the role of IL-4Ralpha responsiveness by nonhematopoietic smooth muscle cells during experimental acute murine schistosomiasis. Comparative Schistosoma mansoni infection studies with smooth muscle cell-specific IL-4Ralpha-deficient (SM-MHC(cre)IL-4Ralpha(-/flox)) mice, heterozygous control (IL-4Ralpha(-/flox)) mice, and global IL-4Ralpha-deficient (IL-4Ralpha(-/-)) mice were conducted. S. mansoni-infected SM-MHC(cre)IL-4Ralpha(-/flox) mice showed increased weight loss and earlier mortalities compared with IL-4Ralpha(-/flox) mice, despite comparable T(H)2/type 2 immune responses. In contrast to highly susceptible IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice, increased susceptibility in SM-MHC(cre)IL-4Ralpha(-/flox) mice was not accompanied by intestinal tissue damage and subsequent sepsis. However, both susceptible mutant mouse strains failed to efficiently expel eggs, demonstrated by egg reduction in the feces compared with control mice. Reduced egg expulsion was accompanied by impaired IL-4/IL-13-mediated hypercontractile intestinal responses, which was present in the more resistant control mice. Together, we conclude that IL-4Ralpha responsiveness by smooth muscle cells and subsequent IL-4- and IL-13-mediated hypercontractility are required for host protection during acute schistosomiasis to efficiently expel S. mansoni eggs and to prevent premature mortality. [less ▲]

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See detailIL10 production in cultures of lymphocytes derived from biopsies of normal exocervix, transformation zone and squamous intraepithelial lesion
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Renard, Isabelle; Pisvin, Sonia ULg et al

in Monsonego, J. (Ed.) 4th International Multidisciplinary Congress - Eurogin 2000 (2000)

The immune system appears to play a role in the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and their progression to cancer. We have developed a technique to isolate and cultivate lymphocytes ... [more ▼]

The immune system appears to play a role in the development of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and their progression to cancer. We have developed a technique to isolate and cultivate lymphocytes either from the epithelium or from the underlying stroma of small biopsies from the normal exocervix, the transformation zone (TZ) and SIL. The majority of cells derived from the epithelium of all biopsies were CD8+ T cells. No major difference was observed for the lymphocyte phenotype. Among all cytokines tested by ELISA (IL10, IL4 and IFNγ), only IL10 was significantly higher in the TZ in comparison with the exocervix. In cultures derived from the stroma, a decreased percentage in T cells was observed in the TZ and SIL in comparison with the exocervix. This decrease in T cells concerned CD8+ (SIL) and TCRγδ+ T cells (TZ and SIL). We did not observe any difference in IL10 or IL4 production, although patients with SIL produced more IFNγ. The higher levels of IL10 production by lymphocytes derived from the epithelium of the TZ might contribute to the predisposition of this region to cervical carcinogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailIL28B polymorphism and the control of hepatitis C virus infection: ready for clinical use?
Orlent, Hans; Reynaert, Hendrik; Bourgeois, Stefan et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2011), 74(2), 317-322

Polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene have recently been associated with spontaneous and treatment induced clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. The specific mechanisms of ... [more ▼]

Polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene have recently been associated with spontaneous and treatment induced clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. The specific mechanisms of how IL28B polymorphisms affect HCV suppression remain unknown. It is a matter of ongoing debate how to incorporate the IL28B data into the current treatment algorithms with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin. The eventual role of the IL28B genotype in new therapeutic regimes with direct antiviral agents needs to be explored in the ongoing and future clinical studies with these agents. [less ▲]

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See detailIL6 and IL4: localization and production in human tonsils
Bosseloir, A.; Hooghe-Peters, E.; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

in Lymphatic tissues and in vivo immune responses (1991)

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See detailL'Île aux Corsaires et ses trésors naturels
Delcourt, Johann ULg; Destinay, Philippe; Dirick, Alain et al

Book published by Natagora (Liège et Basse-Meuse) - éditeur responsable: Pierre Tomasovic - natagora Liège et basse meuse (2010)

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See detailIleo-caecal actinomycosis: Report of a case simulating complicated inflammatory bowel disease
Postal, Alain; Detry, Olivier ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(4, Oct-Dec), 318-320

Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive anaerobic saprophyte germ that is a normal inhabitant of the upper intestinal tract in humans ... [more ▼]

Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive anaerobic saprophyte germ that is a normal inhabitant of the upper intestinal tract in humans. Actinomyces israelii rarely cause abdominal infections or actinomycosis. Abdominal actinomysosis is characterised by fistulae and abscesses and may mimic cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. Abdominal actinomycosis is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and often require surgical removal of the diseased tissue, allowing pathologists for giving the definitive diagnosis, revealed by characteristic "sulfur granules". The authors report herein the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography evoked complicated inflammatory bowel disease and surgical procedure was decided. Laparoscopic exploration did not provide further significant information, and laparotomy with diseased bowel resection was performed. Pathology demonstrated "sulfur granules" and allowed the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. This case demonstrated that abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when computed tomography shows an infiltrative and inflammatory mass. [less ▲]

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See detailIlithyie au travail : de la mère à l'enfant
Pironti, Gabriella; Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Mètis : Revue d’Anthropologie des Mondes Grecs Anciens (2013), 11

Among the Greek deities related to motherhood, Eileithyia seems to be specifically concerned with parturition. If we carefully take into account her association with Artemis and with Hera, it becomes ... [more ▼]

Among the Greek deities related to motherhood, Eileithyia seems to be specifically concerned with parturition. If we carefully take into account her association with Artemis and with Hera, it becomes evident that Eileithyia is involved both at the same time during labour and in the tokos, the critical moment of childbirth itself. Moreover, she is thought to safeguard the child too. Accordingly, Eileithyia’s task, which is to assist in bringing a child to the light, persists throughout the process of filiation and the later development of children. [less ▲]

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See detail"Illegalisation, visibilisation and appropriation: a few thoughts on the politics of migrant labor in South China"
Florence, Eric ULg

Conference (2012, October 26)

Practices of legal and bureaucratic categorisation, as well normative practices of naming are key within the endless construction and reinvention of nation-states. Such practices are part of larger and ... [more ▼]

Practices of legal and bureaucratic categorisation, as well normative practices of naming are key within the endless construction and reinvention of nation-states. Such practices are part of larger and complex configurations of power along with institutions, more or less formal-informal practices of social control and governing. Today’s production and circulation of categories such “illegal migrant”, “refugee”, “young delinquent”, etc. need to be thought of in relation to categories such as “the national citizen” and the core values and principles attached to such categories. In this paper, I will explore how the dialectics of legality-illegality ─ and practices of visibilisation and invisibilisation ─ can be problematized in relation to a dual process: the ritual affirmation of the Party-state authority and the identity formation of rural migrant workers in South-China. I will argue that such politics ought to be read within the political economy of South-China or what Lee Ching-Kwan has called “decentralized legal authoritarianism” (Lee 2007). By looking at the production and circulation of the category of “the three no’s” (sanwu), I will show that the ambiguity and the flexibility of how this category is used is central in order to account for its symbolic and performative power. [less ▲]

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See detailAn illumination device formed by cutting and laminating coated plates
Vandormael, Denis; Habraken, Serge ULg

Patent (2004)

An illumination device based on multi facet plastic optics is proposed.The fabrication principle is novative and based on specific cutting geometry and coating lamination

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)