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See detailGrading aortic stenosis severity when the flow modifies the gradientvalve area correlation.
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg

in Cardiovascular diagnosis and therapy (2012), 2(1), 6-9

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See detailEl grado cero de la escritura y Nuevos ensayos críticos
Barthes, Roland; Rosa, Nicolás; Willson, Patricia ULg

Book published by Siglo XXI Editores - Nueva edición ampliada y revisada (2011)

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See detailGradual changes in the sensitivity to the stimulant and sedative effects of ethanol during adolescence in Swiss mice
Quoilin, Caroline ULg; Didone, Vincent ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (2010), 34(8), 97-97

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See detailGradual loss of myelin and formation of an astrocytic scar during Wallerian degeneration in the human spinal cord
Buss, A.; Brook, G. A.; Kakulas, B. et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2004), 127(Part 1), 34-44

Axons undergo Wallerian degeneration distal to a point of injury. Experimental investigations have documented many of the cellular and molecular events that underlie this behaviour. Since relatively ... [more ▼]

Axons undergo Wallerian degeneration distal to a point of injury. Experimental investigations have documented many of the cellular and molecular events that underlie this behaviour. Since relatively little is known about such events in human CNS pathologies and current experimental intervention strategies indicate the possibility of significant axon regeneration along the original degenerated fibre tract, we performed an immunohistochemical investigation of the dynamics of Wallerian degeneration in post mortem spinal cords of patients who died 2 days to 30 years after either cerebral infarction or traumatic spinal cord injury. Neurofilament (NF) staining demonstrated a spatio-temporal pattern of axonal loss within degenerating descending nerve fibre tracts that could be detected close to the lesion as early as 12 days after injury and progressed to an almost complete loss of NF immunoreactivity at survival times of 1 year and longer. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed a late astrocytic reaction starting at 4 months after injury in the degenerating tracts, leading to the long-term deposition of a dense astrocytic scar. These events were accompanied by the gradual reduction of myelin basic protein in affected nerve fibre tracts, leading to almost complete loss by 3 years after injury. Since the extracellular matrix molecule chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) is known to be strongly inhibitory for axonal regeneration and to be a major component of gliotic scar tissues, we investigated the possible deposition of CSPG within the degenerating nerve fibre tracts. Apart from a local up-regulation close to the lesion site, our results show no enhanced CSPG expression within degenerated tracts at any survival time. This suggests that despite the apparent lack of CSPG in Wallerian degeneration, the slow reduction of CNS myelin and the long-term deposition of a dense astrocytic scar may present an environment that is non-supportive for axon regrowth. [less ▲]

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See detailGradual Network Expansion and Universal Service Obligations
Gautier, Axel ULg; Mizuno, Keizo

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2011), 82(2), 97-113

Universal service obligations are usually not competitively neutral as they modify the way firms compete in the market. In this paper, we consider a continuum of local markets in a dynamic setting with a ... [more ▼]

Universal service obligations are usually not competitively neutral as they modify the way firms compete in the market. In this paper, we consider a continuum of local markets in a dynamic setting with a stochastically growing demand. The incumbent must serve all markets (ubiquity) possibly at a uniform price and an entrant decides on its market coverage before firms compete in prices. Connecting a market involves a sunk cost. We show that the imposition of a uniform price constraint modifies the timing of entry: for low connection cost markets, entry occurs earlier while for high connection cost markets, entry occurs later. [less ▲]

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See detailGraeco-Egyptian Alchemy in Byzantium
Mertens, Michèle ULg

in Magdalino, Paul; Mavroudi, Maria (Eds.) The Occult Sciences in Byzantium (2006)

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See detailGraft of autologous fibroblasts in gingival tissue in vivo after culture in vitro. Preliminary study on rats.
Simain-Sato, Franklin ULg; Lahmouzi, Jamila ULg; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

in Journal of Periodontal Research (1999), 34(6), 323-8

Several grafting techniques and guided tissue regeneration techniques (GTR) have been well-developed in periodontal surgery. However, these techniques could induce pain and side effects, such as a ... [more ▼]

Several grafting techniques and guided tissue regeneration techniques (GTR) have been well-developed in periodontal surgery. However, these techniques could induce pain and side effects, such as a gingival recession during the healing period following the therapy. The graft of a small autologous connective tissue, using non-invasive surgical techniques could yield several benefits for the patients. Our preliminary study explores the feasibility of collecting healthy gingival tissues, culturing them in vitro to amplify rat gingival fibroblasts (RGF) and inoculating the obtained cells into autologous rat gingival tissues in vivo. Gingival tissues samples were cultured as explants as described by Freshney et al. and Adolphe. Confluent cells surrounding explants were detached after 7 d of culture from Petri dishes using 0.05% trypsin and designated "first transferred cells" (T1). At the third passage (T3), cells cultured as monolayer were either examined under microscopy--phase contrast, scanning, or transmission electron--or numerated after trypan blue exclusion test. Autologous RGF labelled with fluorochrome were inoculated at the vestibular and palatine site of gingival tissue close to the superior incisors. In this preliminary study, 12 Wistar rats were used; for each, 2 biopsies were dissected and fixed for phase contrast or fluorescence microscopy. On d 1, 3 and 7 after injection in rat gingival tissues, fluorochrome-labelled cells could be detected in all these. [less ▲]

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See detailGraft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Maris, M. B.; Sandmaier, B. M. et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2005), 23(9), 1993-2003

Purpose We have used a nonmyelorablative conditioning regimen consisting of total-body irradiation (2 Gy) with or without fludarabine (30 mg/m(2)/d for 3 days) for related and unrelated hematopoietic cell ... [more ▼]

Purpose We have used a nonmyelorablative conditioning regimen consisting of total-body irradiation (2 Gy) with or without fludarabine (30 mg/m(2)/d for 3 days) for related and unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with hematologic malignancies who were not candidates for conventional HCT because of age, medical comorbidities, or preceding high-dose HCT. This approach relied on graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects for control of malignancy. Patients and Methods We analyzed GVT effects in 322 patients given grafts from HILA-matched related (n = 192) or unrelated donors (n = 130). Results Of the 221 patients with measurable disease at HCT, 126 (57%) achieved complete (n = 98) or partial (n = 28) remissions. In multivariate analysis, there was a higher probability trend of achieving complete remissions in patients with chronic extensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, P = .07). One hundred eight patients (34%) relapsed or progressed. In multivariate analysis, achievement of full donor chimerism was associated with a decreased risk of relapse or progression (P = .002). Grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD had no significant impact on the risk of relapse or progression but was associated with increased risk of nonrelapse mortality and decreased probability of progression-free survival (PFS). Conversely, extensive chronic GVHD was associated with decreased risk of relapse or progression (P = .006) and increased probability of PFS (P = .003). Conclusion New approaches aimed at reducing the incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD might improve survival after allogeneic HCT after nonmyeloablative conditioning. (c) 2005 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. [less ▲]

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See detailGraft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Maris, Michael; Sandmaier, Brenda et al

in Blood (2004), 104

We have used a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen consisting of 2 Gy total body irradiation +/– fludarabine, 30 mg/m²/day x 3 days, to condition elderly or ill patients (pts) with hematological ... [more ▼]

We have used a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen consisting of 2 Gy total body irradiation +/– fludarabine, 30 mg/m²/day x 3 days, to condition elderly or ill patients (pts) with hematological malignancies for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This approach relies almost exclusively on graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects for control of malignancy. Here, we analyzed GVT effects in 322 pts with hematological malignancies given grafts from HLA-matched related (n=192) or unrelated (n=130) donors. Grades I, II, III and IV acute GVHD were seen in 26 (8.1%), 141 (43.8%), 34 (10.6%) and 11 (3.4%) pts, respectively. Extensive chronic GVHD was seen in 181 (56.2%) pts and of these, 64 (19.9%) cases had de novo chronic GVHD. Putative GVT effects were evaluated using time-dependent Cox regression models. Of the 221 pts with measurable disease at HCT, 126 (57%) achieved complete (n=98) or partial (n=28) remissions. Multivariate analysis identified chemosensitivity for B-cell malignancies (p=.02), and tandem autologous/allogeneic HCT (p=.04) as pre-transplant factors associated with higher probabilities of achieving complete remissions (CR) after HCT. After adjusting for these factors, acute GVHD of any grade was not found to be associated with an increased probability of achieving CR. There was a trend for a higher probability of achieving CR in pts with chronic GVHD (p=.07). Progression/relapse was observed in 108 pts. Multivariate analysis identified that lower disease-risk (p=.0004), tandem autologous/allogeneic HCT (p=.02) and adapted Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score at transplant < 3 (p=.002) resulted in significantly decreased risk of progression/relapse. After correcting for these factors, extensive chronic GVHD was associated with a decreased risk of progression/relapse (p=.006). Pts with grade 1 acute GVHD tended to have less progression/relapse (p=.07). Conversely, grade II–IV acute GVHD did not significantly affect the risk of progression/relapse. Nonrelapse mortality was observed in 70 pts. Multivariate analysis showed that lower disease-risk (p=. 001), tandem autologous/allogeneic HCT (p=.002) and CCI score at transplant < 3 (p<.0001) significantly decreased nonrelapse mortality. After adjusting for these variables, grade II (p=.04) and grade III–IV (p<.0001) acute GVHD increased nonrelapse mortality while extensive chronic GVHD did not. The 3-year probability of progression-free survival (PFS) was 38.5%. In multivariate analysis, lower disease-risk (p<.0001), tandem autologous/allogeneic HCT (p=.0008) and CCI score at transplant < 3 (p<.0001) resulted in significantly better PFS. After adjusting for theses variables, grade 1 acute GVHD (p=.02) and chronic extensive GVHD (p=.003) were both associated with significantly better PFS, while grade III–IV acute GVHD (p<.0001) was associated with decreased PFS. In summary, chronic GVHD in pts given nonmyeloablative conditioning was associated with substantial GVT effects which led to improved PFS. Conversely, any potential GVT benefits from grade II–IV acute GVHD were offset by higher nonrelapse mortality resulting in worse PFS. Efforts should be directed at reducing the risk of grade II–IV acute GVHD while allowing de novo chronic GVHD for best PFS after allogeneic HCT with nonmyeloablative conditioning. [less ▲]

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See detailGrafted block complex coacervate core micelles and their effect on protein adsorption on silica and polystyrene
Brzozowska, Agata M.; de Keizer, Arie; Norde, Willem et al

in Colloid and Polymer Science (2010), 288(10/11), 1081-1095

We have studied the formation and the stability of grafted block complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) in solution and the influence of grafted block C3M coatings on the adsorption of the proteins beta ... [more ▼]

We have studied the formation and the stability of grafted block complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) in solution and the influence of grafted block C3M coatings on the adsorption of the proteins beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme. The C3Ms consist of a grafted block copolymer PAA(21)-b-PAPEO(14) (poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(acrylate methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)), with a negatively charged PAA block and a neutral PAPEO block and a positively charged homopolymer P2MVPI (poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide). In solution, these C3Ms partly disintegrate at salt concentrations between 50 and 100 mM NaCl. Adsorption of C3Ms and proteins has been studied with fixed-angle optical reflectometry, at salt concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 mM NaCl. In comparison with the adsorption of PAA(21)-b-PAPEO(14) alone adsorption of C3Ms significantly increases the amount of PAA(21)-b-PAPEO(14) on the surface. This results in a higher surface density of PEO chains. The stability of the C3M coatings and their influence on protein adsorption are determined by the composition and the stability of the C3Ms in solution. A C3M-PAPEO(14)/P2MVPI(43) coating strongly suppresses the adsorption of all proteins on silica and polystyrene. The reduction of protein adsorption is the highest at 100 mM NaCl (> 90%). The adsorbed C3M-PAPEO(14)/P2MVPI(43) layer is partly removed from the surface upon exposure to an excess of beta-lactoglobulin solution, due to formation of soluble aggregates consisting of beta-lactoglobulin and P2MVPI(43). In contrast, C3M-PAPEO(14)/P2MVPI(228) which has a fivefold longer cationic block enhances adsorption of the negatively charged proteins on both surfaces at salt concentrations above 1 mM NaCl. A single PAA(21)-b-PAPEO(14) layer causes only a moderate reduction of protein adsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailGrafted ionomer complexes and their effect on protein adsorption on silica and polysulfone surfaces
Brzozowska, Agata M.; de Keizer, Arie; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Colloid and Polymer Science (2010), 288(16/17), 1621-1632

We have studied the formation and the stability of ionomer complexes from grafted copolymers (GICs) in solution and the influence of GIC coatings on the adsorption of the proteins beta-lactoglobulin (beta ... [more ▼]

We have studied the formation and the stability of ionomer complexes from grafted copolymers (GICs) in solution and the influence of GIC coatings on the adsorption of the proteins beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lac), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme (Lsz) on silica and polysulfone. The GICs consist of the grafted copolymer PAA(28)-co-PAPEO(22) {poly(acrylic acid)-co-poly[acrylate methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)]} with negatively charged AA and neutral APEO groups, and the positively charged homopolymers: P2MVPI(43) [poly(N-methyl 2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)] and PAH center dot HCl(160) [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)]. In solution, these aggregates are characterized by means of dynamic and static light scattering. They appear to be assemblies with hydrodynamic radii of 8 nm (GIC-PAPEO(22)/P2MVPI(43)) and 22 nm (GIC-PAPEO(22)/PAH center dot HCl(160)), respectively. The GICs partly disintegrate in solution at salt concentrations above 10 mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs and proteins has been studied with fixed angle optical reflectometry at salt concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 mM NaCl. Adsorption of GICs results in high density PEO side chains on the surface. Higher densities were obtained for GICs consisting of PAH center dot HCl(160) (1.6 divided by 1.9 chains/nm(2)) than of P2MVPI(43) (0.6 divided by 1.5 chains/nm(2)). Both GIC coatings strongly suppress adsorption of all proteins on silica (>90%); however, reduction of protein adsorption on polysulfone depends on the composition of the coating and the type of protein. We observed a moderate reduction of beta-lac and Lsz adsorption (>60%). Adsorption of BSA on the GIC-PAPEO(22)/ P2MVPI(43) coating is moderately reduced, but on the GIC-PAPEO(22)/ PAH center dot HCl(160) coating it is enhanced. [less ▲]

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See detailGrafting Information in Scenario Trees: Application to Option Prices
Schyns, Michael ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

E-print/Working paper (2005)

The high level of sophistication in portfolio management modeling techniques often goes along with very large output sensitivity to parameter choices. As a potential solution to this problem, this paper ... [more ▼]

The high level of sophistication in portfolio management modeling techniques often goes along with very large output sensitivity to parameter choices. As a potential solution to this problem, this paper proposes a consistent and flexible methodology to represent the distribution of future values of a portfolio through scenario trees. This methodology relies on the information contained in current option prices in order to generate the probability density function of future returns. This density function can be used, in turn, to generate scenario trees . As an illustration, a tree of scenarios based on S&P500 options is built and then used to compute arbitrage-free option prices. The approach preserves information embedded in options prices and is able to provide very accurate values for out-of-sample options. The high level of numerical accuracy of the framework is reproduced on different samples. The scenario tree approach also provides stable pricing results when confronted with the passage of time. The results derived from our model are comparable to those obtained from Rubinstein’s [1994] methodology, although both models fulfill different objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailGrafting of alkoxyamine end-capped (co)polymers onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes
Lou, Xudong; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Sciannamea, Valérie et al

in Polymer (2004), 45(18), 6097-6102

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been successfully modified by polystyrene, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and their block copolymers by addition reaction of the alkoxyamine-terminated precursors ... [more ▼]

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been successfully modified by polystyrene, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and their block copolymers by addition reaction of the alkoxyamine-terminated precursors. Polymer-modified MWNTs are easily dispersed in good solvents for the grafted polymer, such as toluene and THF. This observation has been confirmed by TEM analysis. The grafting ratio of polystyrene chains at the surface of MWNTs depends on the polymer molecular weight. [less ▲]

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See detailGrafting of poly[2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate] onto polypropylene by reactive blending and antibacterial activity of the copolymer
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Lenoir, Sandrine ULg; Riga, Johan ULg et al

in Biomacromolecules (2007), 8(4), 1171-1177

To combine low cost, good mechanical properties, and antibacterial activity in one material, a nonquaternized polymeric biocide, i.e., poly[2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PTBAEMA), was dispersed ... [more ▼]

To combine low cost, good mechanical properties, and antibacterial activity in one material, a nonquaternized polymeric biocide, i.e., poly[2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PTBAEMA), was dispersed within a commodity plastic, i.e., polypropylene (PP). The high immiscibility of the two polymers was tackled by reactive compatibilization and thus by reaction of commercially available maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene with primary amine-end-capped PTBAEMA. This reactive polymethacrylate was synthesized by atom-transfer radical polymerization with an azide-containing initiator. The azide end group was converted into a primary amine by the Huisgen [3 + 2] cycloaddition of propargylamine. The accordingly formed PP-g-PTBAEMA copolymer was melt dispersed within neat PP and processed as fibers, whose antimicrobial properties were assessed by the viable cell counting method against Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity was long-lasting as a result of the anchoring of the PTBAEMA chains onto PP, which prevented them from being released from the surface of the fibers. [less ▲]

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See detailGrafting of polystyryl anions onto carbon nanotubes
Lou, Xudong; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christian et al

Poster (2003, May 16)

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See detailGraftonite-triphylite-sarcopside intergrowths from the Palermo No. 1 pegmatite (New Hampshire, USA): textures and chemistry
Roda-Robles, Encarnacion ULg; Nizamoff, Jim; Simmons, W. B. et al

in Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract series (2010), 6

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (6 ULg)