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See detailGlutamine, a life-saving nutrient, but why?
Preiser, Jean-Charles ULg; Wernerman, J.

in Critical Care Medicine (2003), 31(10), 2555-2556

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See detailGlutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Dierickx, Paul

in Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology (2002), 49(3), 158-66

Isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in adult Adalia bipunctata, an aphidophagous predator, were studied. Cytosolic GST activity was studied in each beetle developmental stage. The highest ... [more ▼]

Isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in adult Adalia bipunctata, an aphidophagous predator, were studied. Cytosolic GST activity was studied in each beetle developmental stage. The highest activities towards both 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 2,4-dinitro-1-iodobenzene (DNIB) occurred in adults. The enzyme distribution was investigated in adults. While most of the enzymatic activity was found in the abdomen (40-50 and 34-63% respectively) using several concentrations of both CDNB and DNIB, significant differences were observed for the head and the thorax depending on the substrate. Activities were more abundant in the thorax with DNIB (37-47%) compared to the 13-19% obtained with CDNB. Some GST activity was also detected in the elytra. GSTs were purified by epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography and applied to an HPLC column to determine the native molecular weight (69 kDa). Three isoenzymes were separated by chromatofocusing at pH ranges 7-4. Three bands with molecular mass from 23 to 26 kDa were visualised on SDS-PAGE. Their isoelectric points were 6.66, 6.36, and 6.21. The substrate specificities and the kinetic parameters (Vm and Km) of the isoenzymes showed large differences depending on the isoenzyme. Arch. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione S-transferases in the adaptation to plant secondary metabolites in the Myzus persicae aphid.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology (2005), 58(3), 166-74

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in insects play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Induction of GST activity in Myzus persicae in response ... [more ▼]

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in insects play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Induction of GST activity in Myzus persicae in response to secondary metabolites from Brassica plants was determined using different host plant species and confirmed using artificial diet with pure allelochemicals added. The 2,4-dinitro-1-iodobenzene (DNIB) was found to be a useful substrate for identifying particular GSTs in insects. GSTs from M. persicae were purified using different affinity chromatography columns and related kinetic parameters were calculated. GST isoenzymes were characterised using electrophoretic methods. Although SDS-PAGE results indicated similarity among the purified enzymes from each affinity column, biochemical studies indicated significant differences in kinetic parameters. Finally, the GST pattern of M. persicae was discussed in terms of insect adaptation to the presence of plant secondary substances such as the glucosinolates and the isothiocyanates, from Brassicaceae host plants. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione S-transferases of Aulacorthum solani and Acyrthosiphon pisum: partial purification and characterization.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B (2001), 129(1), 165-71

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile ... [more ▼]

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile isothiocyanates which affect the GST system. A comparison of the GST of two aphid species, the generalist Aulacorthum solani found on Brassicaceae and the Fabaceae specialist Acyrthosiphon pisum, was made to try to explain their respective feeding behaviour. Differences of GST were determined among the two aphid species based on purification by affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE and on kinetic studies. Purification yields using an epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B column were highly different for the two aphid species (18% and 34% for A. solani and A. pisum, respectively). These variations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. While only a 27-kDa band was observed for A. pisum, two bands of approximately 25-kDa were visualized for the generalist aphid, A. solani. Considering the kinetic results, differences of Km and Vmax were observed following the aphid species when a range of substrates (CDNB and DCNB) and GSH concentrations were tested. Studies on the detoxification enzymes of generalist and specialist herbivores would be undertaken to determine accurately the effect of the host plant on the organisms eating them, particularly in terms of biochemical and ecological advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione system deficiency in racehorses
De Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, N.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Handbook of the 43rd Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association (2004)

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See detailGlutathione-S-transferase pi expression in toxic epidermal necrolysis: a marker of putative oxidative stress in keratinocytes.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Skin Pharmacology & Physiology (2007), 20(2), 66-70

BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a dramatic drug-induced emergency related to extensive destruction of the epidermis. There is evidence that its pathomechanism involves impaired ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a dramatic drug-induced emergency related to extensive destruction of the epidermis. There is evidence that its pathomechanism involves impaired detoxication of xenobiotics. Glutathione-S-transferase pi (GST-pi) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme involved in drug metabolization by human keratinocytes. METHOD: Immunohistochemistry was performed in order to assess the expression of GST-pi in keratinocytes of TEN, other cutaneous adverse drug reactions and bullous pemphigoid. RESULTS: GST-pi was disclosed in the involved epidermis of 16/16 TEN patients. It was present in the cytoplasm of suprabasal keratinocytes. GST-pi was also expressed in the clinically uninvolved skin in a majority (8/12) of TEN patients. By contrast, it was rarely and poorly expressed in the other tested dermatoses. CONCLUSION: The pathomechanism of TEN is not related to an impaired quantitative expression of GST-pi. GST-pi expression is an early event in TEN. As oxidative stress is a major inducer of GST-pi, this mechanism might be involved in TEN. Its GST-pi expression mainly restricted to the suprabasal keratinocytes suggests that the pathomechanisms leading to keratinocyte death in TEN are distinct at different levels of the epidermis. [less ▲]

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See detailGluttony in Emblem books
Von Hoffmann, Viktoria ULg

in Sensory Studies, Picture Gallery (2012)

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See detailGlycemic Variability, Hypoglycemia and Organ Failure in the Glucontrol Study
Penning, Sophie ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Preiser, Jean-Charles et al

in 10th Belgian Day on Biomedical Engineering (2011)

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See detailGlycemic Variability, Hypoglycemia and Organ Failure in the Glucontrol Study
Penning, Sophie ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Preiser, Jean-Charles et al

Poster (2011, December)

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See detailGlycémie délocalisée: Entretien avec le Dr Etienne CAVALIER
Cavalier, Etienne ULg

in Biotribune Magazine (2006), 19(1), 33

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See detailGlycerol Production by fermentation of sucrose
Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Renauld, M.; Rikir, R. et al

Poster (1992, October)

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See detailGlycine receptor activation controls interneuron migration by affecting nuclear translocation and myosin phosphorylation
Avila Macaya, Ariel Salvatore ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

Poster (2012)

Previous studies have described the presence of glycine receptor mRNA during early stages of embryonic cortex development. Here, we have tested the functionality of those receptors in migratory ... [more ▼]

Previous studies have described the presence of glycine receptor mRNA during early stages of embryonic cortex development. Here, we have tested the functionality of those receptors in migratory interneurons and demonstrated their involvement in the control of cell migration. We suggest a mechanism whereby activation of glycine receptors during tangential migration activates voltage gated calcium channels and favors influx of calcium that ultimately affect myosin II activity, a mechanism that fine tune nuclear translocation and thus migration speed. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycine receptor activation influences early cortical development
Avila Macaya, Ariel Salvatore ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

Poster (2011, July 14)

The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the adult, the GlyR is known to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord ... [more ▼]

The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the adult, the GlyR is known to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and in the brainstem. The GlyR has also been described in the embryonic cortex after embryonic day 19 (E19) (Flint et al., 1998) where it could participate in developmental processes, but its presence at earlier stages has not been documented. Since other neurotransmitter systems, i.e. GABA and its receptors, are known to be potent signals that control corticogenesis (Nguyen et al., 2001; Ik-Tsen et al., 2007), we wondered if glycine and its GlyR could also fulfill such a function. In this study, we analyze GlyR expression and its physiological function in the early development of the cortex using in vitro cultures of embryonic day 13 slices, patch-clamp and immunocytochemistry. [less ▲]

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See detailThe glycine receptor is functionally expressed in migratory interneurons and influences early cortical development
Avila Macaya, Ariel Salvatore ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

Poster (2011)

The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the adult, the GlyR is known to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord ... [more ▼]

The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the adult, the GlyR is known to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and in the brainstem. The GlyR has also been described in the embryonic cortex after embryonic day 19 (E19) (Flint et al., 1998) where it could participate in developmental processes, but its presence at earlier stages has not been documented. Since other neurotransmitter systems, i.e. GABA and its receptors, are known to be potent signals that control corticogenesis (Nguyen et al., 2001; Ik-Tsen et al., 2007), we wondered if glycine and its GlyR could also fulfill such a function. In this study, we analyze GlyR expression and its physiological function in the early development of the cortex using in vitro cultures of embryonic day 13 slices, patch-clamp, two photon microscopy and immunocytochemistry. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration
Avila Macaya, Ariel Salvatore ULg; Vidal, Pia M; Dear, T Neil et al

in Cell Reports (2013)

Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical ... [more ▼]

Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis. [less ▲]

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