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See detailHeterogeneity of the eae Genes in Attaching/Effacing Escherichia Coli from Cattle: Comparison with Human Strains
China, B.; Jacquemin, E.; Devrin, A. C. et al

in Research in Microbiology (1999), 150(5), 323-332

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli isolated from cattle were studied by DNA colony hybridization to subtype their intimin-encoding (eae) gene with probes derived from ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli isolated from cattle were studied by DNA colony hybridization to subtype their intimin-encoding (eae) gene with probes derived from the variable parts of the eae alpha gene of the human EPEC strain E2348/69, the eae gamma gene of the human O157:H7 EHEC strain ATCC43888, and the eae beta gene of the bovine O26:H- EHEC strain 193, whose eae gene was first cloned and sequenced during this work. The EPEC and EHEC had been isolated from diarrhoeic calves (143 EPEC and 48 EHEC) and from healthy animals at the slaughterhouse (10 EPEC and 34 EHEC). The 191 bovine EPEC and EHEC isolated from diseased calves were positive with the Eae beta probe (55 and 27% respectively) and with the Eae gamma probe (9 and 73% respectively), whereas 52 EPEC (36%) were negative with the Eae alpha, Eae beta, and Eae gamma probes. The results were different for the 44 bovine EPEC and EHEC isolated from healthy cattle at slaughterhouses: most tested positive with the Eae gamma probe (80 and 82% respectively) and the remaining (20 and 18% respectively) with the Eae beta probe. Nine O26 human EHEC tested positive with the Eae beta probe and seven O111 with the Eae gamma probe. The bovine and human EPEC and EHEC belonging to these two serogroups gave identical results: the 18 bovine and human O26 isolates tested positive with the Eae beta probe, whereas the 13 O111 isolates were positive with the Eae gamma probe. In contrast, the isolates belonging to other serogroups (O5, O15, O18, O20, and O118) gave more variable results. The eae beta and eae gamma, but not the eae alpha, variants were thus distributed amongst bovine EPEC and EHEC. The eae beta variant seemed to be more frequently associated with the presence of clinical signs in calves, but one third of EPEC from diarrhoeic calves carried an eae gene variant other than the alpha, beta, or gamma variants. In addition, the use of these gene probes did not enable differentiation between bovine and human EHEC belonging to the same O serogroup. [less ▲]

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See detailHETEROGENEITY OF ZOOXANTHELLAE DENSITY IN THE CORAL ACROPORA GLOBICEPS AROUND MOOREA (FRENCH POLYNESIA)
Ladrière, Ophélie ULg; van Lierde, Elodie; Penin, Lucie et al

Poster (2008)

Understanding the natural heterogeneity of coral zooxanthellae density appears as very important to understand variations in coral survival due to bleaching (the loss of these micro-algal symbionts ... [more ▼]

Understanding the natural heterogeneity of coral zooxanthellae density appears as very important to understand variations in coral survival due to bleaching (the loss of these micro-algal symbionts). Heterogeneity of coral bleaching at different observation scales (within a colony, among neighbouring colonies of the same species or on a wider scale) remains largely misunderstood. The present work explores intracolonial, spatial and temporal variations of zooxanthellae density in the coral Acropora globiceps Dana 1846, over a period of three months on the forereef of Moorea, French Polynesia. In our study, intracolonial zooxanthellae densities did not vary significantly. However, zooxanthellae densities differed slightly between inner and outer branches but this trend was not significant at 6, 12 and 18 meters depth. On a wider scale, zooxanthellae densities also vary spatially : a positive correlation was observed between depth and symbiont density (density increases when light intensity decreases, so according to depth). Moreover, the location of colonies exposed to different hydrodynamical conditions was not a parameter controling the concentration of zooxanthellae. Finally, the temporal variation of zooxanthellae densities did not show significant variations even if it decreased slightly over the study period. The results of this study highlight the importance of accounting for variations within and among colonies to determine zooxanthellae densities and to assess the evolution of zooxanthellae populations. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity of zooxanthellae density in the coral Acropora globiceps around Moorea (French Polynesia)
Ladrière, Ophélie ULg; van Lierde, Elodie; Penin, Lucie et al

Poster (2008)

Understanding the natural heterogeneity of coral zooxanthellae density appears as very important to understand variations in coral survival due to bleaching (the loss of these micro-algal symbionts ... [more ▼]

Understanding the natural heterogeneity of coral zooxanthellae density appears as very important to understand variations in coral survival due to bleaching (the loss of these micro-algal symbionts). Heterogeneity of coral bleaching at different observation scales (within a colony, among neighbouring colonies of the same species or on a wider scale) remains largely misunderstood. The present work explores intracolonial, spatial and temporal variations of zooxanthellae density in the coral Acropora globiceps Dana 1846, over a period of three months on the forereef of Moorea, French Polynesia. In our study, intracolonial zooxanthellae densities did not vary significantly. However, zooxanthellae densities differed slightly between inner and outer branches but this trend was not significant at 6, 12 and 18 meters depth. On a wider scale, zooxanthellae densities also vary spatially : a positive correlation was observed between depth and symbiont density (density increases when light intensity decreases, so according to depth). Moreover, the location of colonies exposed to different hydrodynamical conditions was not a parameter controling the concentration of zooxanthellae. Finally, the temporal variation of zooxanthellae densities did not show significant variations even if it decreased slightly over the study period. The results of this study highlight the importance of accounting for variations within and among colonies to determine zooxanthellae densities and to assess the evolution of zooxanthellae populations. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity Reduces Sensitivity of Cell Death for TNF-Stimuli
Schliemann, Monica ULg; Bullinger, Eric ULg; Borchers, Steffen et al

in BMC Systems Biology (2011), 5

Background Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death essential for the maintenance of homeostasis and the removal of potentially damaged cells in multicellular organisms. By binding its cognate ... [more ▼]

Background Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death essential for the maintenance of homeostasis and the removal of potentially damaged cells in multicellular organisms. By binding its cognate membrane receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1), the proinflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) activates pro-apoptotic signaling via caspase activation, but at the same time also stimulates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-mediated survival pathways. Differential dose-response relationships of these two major TNF signaling pathways have been described experimentally and using mathematical modeling. However, the quantitative analysis of the complex interplay between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways is an open question as it is challenging for several reasons: the overall signaling network is complex, various time scales are present, and cells respond quantitatively and qualitatively in a heterogeneous manner. Results This study analyzes the complex interplay of the crosstalk of TNF-R1 induced pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways based on an experimentally validated mathematical model. The mathematical model describes the temporal responses on both the single cell level as well as the level of a heterogeneous cell population, as observed in the respective quantitative experiments using TNF-R1 stimuli of different strengths and durations. Global sensitivity of the heterogeneous population was quantified by measuring the average gradient of time of death versus each population parameter. This global sensitivity analysis uncovers the concentrations of Caspase-8 and Caspase-3, and their respective inhibitors BAR and XIAP, as key elements for deciding the cell's fate. A simulated knockout of the NF-kappaB-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling reveals the importance of this pathway for delaying the time of death, reducing the death rate in the case of pulse stimulation and significantly increasing cell-to-cell variability. Conclusions Cell ensemble modeling of a heterogeneous cell population including a global sensitivity analysis presented here allowed us to illuminate the role of the different elements and parameters on apoptotic signaling. The receptors serve to transmit the external stimulus; procaspases and their inhibitors control the switching from life to death, while NF-kappaB enhances the heterogeneity of the cell population. The global sensitivity analysis of the cell population model further revealed an unexpected impact of heterogeneity, i.e. the reduction of parametric sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity versus variability in Neuhauser megalocornea-mental retardation (MMR) syndromes: Report of new cases and delineation of 4 probable types
Verloes, Alain ULg; Journel, H.; Elmer, C. et al

in American Journal of Medical Genetics (1993), 46(2), 132-137

Megalocornea (corneal diameter > or = 13 mm) is associated with mental and neurological impairment, and minor anomalies in Neuhauser syndrome (megalocornea-mental retardation syndrome). Here we report 4 ... [more ▼]

Megalocornea (corneal diameter > or = 13 mm) is associated with mental and neurological impairment, and minor anomalies in Neuhauser syndrome (megalocornea-mental retardation syndrome). Here we report 4 new cases of megalocornea and mental retardation. Those unrelated patients have a consistent pattern of anomalies with possible recessive inheritance which clearly differs from that of the original patients of Neuhauser et al. [1975]. We discuss the heterogeneity of the syndromes with megalocornea and mental retardation. Based on these cases and on a review of the literature, we suggest a provisional clinically oriented classification in 5 subtypes: (1) a recessive form type Neuhauser (with iris hypoplasia and minor anomalies), (2) a recessive form type Frank-Temtamy (with camptodactyly, scoliosis and growth retardation), (3) a recessive type 3, including our 4 personal cases (with normal irides, severe hypotonia, relative or absolute macrocephaly and minor anomalies), (4) a possible Frydman type (with normal irides, megalencephaly and obesity), and (5) provisionally unclassifiable cases. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous alkenylation of aromatics under oxygen
Hajek, Jan; Dams, Mieke; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Catalysis Communications (2007), 8(7), 1047-1051

A novel heterogeneous Pd/polymer catalyst containing co-catalytic functional groups catalyses the direct alkenylation of anisole with ethyl trans-cinnamate under oxygen. The properties of the polymeric ... [more ▼]

A novel heterogeneous Pd/polymer catalyst containing co-catalytic functional groups catalyses the direct alkenylation of anisole with ethyl trans-cinnamate under oxygen. The properties of the polymeric catalyst were compared to other immobilised catalysts. The activity of the polymeric catalyst typically increased with temperature and oxygen pressure exhibiting the optimal activity up to 100 TON at 383 K under 1.2 MPa of O-2. The most abundant product was 3-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenylpropanoate (approximate to 45%). The reaction selectivity was practically independent of the conditions. Split-tests and AAS measurements confirm heterogeneous character of the catalyst. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 in the post-Mount Pinatubo eruption stratosphere
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Gunson, Michaël R.; Abrams, M. C. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1994), 99(D4), 8213-8219

Simultaneous stratospheric volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and nitric acid (HNO3) at sunrise between 25-degrees-N and 15-degrees-S latitude and profiles of HNO3 at sunset ... [more ▼]

Simultaneous stratospheric volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and nitric acid (HNO3) at sunrise between 25-degrees-N and 15-degrees-S latitude and profiles of HNO3 at sunset between 42-degrees-S and 53-degrees-S latitude have been derived from 0.01 cm-1 resolution infrared solar occultation spectra recorded 9 1/2 months after the massive eruption of the Mount Pinatubo volcano in the Philippine Islands. The measurements were obtained by the atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the ATLAS 1 shuttle mission (March 24 to April 2, 1992). The measured HNO3 VMRs are higher at all altitudes and latitudes than corresponding values measured by the limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere (LIMS) instrument during the same season in 1979, when the aerosol loading was near background levels. The largest relative increase in the HNO3 VMR occurred near the equator at 30-km altitude, where the ATMOS/ATLAS 1 values are about a factor of 2 higher than the LIMS measurements. Two-dimensional model calculations show that the increase in HNO3 and the ATMOS/ATLAS 1 measurement of a steep decrease in the N2O5 VMR below 30 km can be explained by the enhanced conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 on the surfaces of the Mount Pinatubo sulfate aerosols. Our profile results demonstrate the global impact of the N2O5 + H2O --> 2HNO3 heterogeneous reaction in altering the partitioning of stratospheric odd nitrogen after a major volcanic eruption. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous Integration and Fabrication of III-V MOS Devices in a 200mm Processing Environment
Waldron, Niamh; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Lin, Dennis et al

in ECS Transactions (2011), 35

We report on the fabrication of MOS capacitors on 200 mm virtual GaAs substrates using a Si CMOS processing environment. The fabricated capacitors were comparable to those processed on bulk GaAs material ... [more ▼]

We report on the fabrication of MOS capacitors on 200 mm virtual GaAs substrates using a Si CMOS processing environment. The fabricated capacitors were comparable to those processed on bulk GaAs material. Topside contact was made to the GaAs using a novel CMOS compatible self-aligned NiGe contact scheme resulting in a measured contact resistance of 0.26 [ohm sign].cm. Cross-contamination from various III-V substrates was investigated and it was found that by limiting the thermal budget to <= 300C cross-contamination from the outgassing of In, Ga and As could be eliminated. For wet processing the judicious choice of recipe and processing conditions resulted in no significant cross-contamination being detected as determined by TXRF monitoring. This achievement enables III-V device production using state-of-the-art Si processing equipment. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous Integration and Fabrication of III-V MOS Devices in a 200mm Processing Environment
Waldron, Niamh; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Lin, Dennis et al

in 219th ECS Meeting (2011)

As CMOS continues to scales to more advanced nodes, new higher mobility channel materials will have to be introduced as an alternative to Si in order to meet power and performance requirements [1]. III-V ... [more ▼]

As CMOS continues to scales to more advanced nodes, new higher mobility channel materials will have to be introduced as an alternative to Si in order to meet power and performance requirements [1]. III-V and Ge materials have emerged as an attractive option for nMOS and pMOS respectively. However, from an economical and technological standpoint it must be possible to implement III-V devices in a Si CMOS fabrication environment to leverage the advantages of both large scale wafers and state-of-the-art Si equipment. The integration challenges of introducing III-V into a Si line include safety risk assessments from toxic materials, maintenance of tools after processing III-V, cross-contamination from high- temperature and wet etch steps, and modifying standard recipes where III-V is exposed on the surface. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of processing III-V virtual substrates in a Si line following a CMOS based approach that seeks to minimize any potential cross- contamination from the III-V. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins as targets of autoantibodies in systemic rheumatic diseases.
Op De Beeck, Katrijn; Maes, Liesbeth; Van den Bergh, Karolien et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2012), 64(1), 213-221

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) are abundant nucleoplasmic pre-mRNA-binding proteins. The aim of this study was to unravel the mosaic of autoantibodies to hnRNP's in systemic ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) are abundant nucleoplasmic pre-mRNA-binding proteins. The aim of this study was to unravel the mosaic of autoantibodies to hnRNP's in systemic rheumatic diseases. METHODS: Recombinant human hnRNP A1, B1, C1, E1, F, Gi, H1, I, K, and P2 were prepared. Antibodies to these antigens were determined by Western blotting and ELISA (for hnRNP B1, E1, F, and H1) in controls (chronic fatigue syndrome) and in patients with various connective tissue disorders. RESULTS: Western blotting analysis on 106 controls and 298 patients with a connective tissue disorder revealed that antibodies to all tested hnRNP antigens, except hnRNP Gi, were significantly more prevalent in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) than in controls. The highest reactivity was found for hnRNP B1, E1, F, and H1 (reactivity in >45% of patients with SS and in 2.8% of controls). Reactivity to hnRNP B1, E1, F, and H1 was also evaluated by ELISA in controls and in 228 patients with a connective tissue disease. Reactivity to at least 2 of the 4 tested antigens was found in 1.1% of controls, 16% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 18% of patients with SS. Reactivity to at least 3 of the 4 antigens was found in none of the controls, in 3.2% of patients with SLE, and in 15% of patients with SS. CONCLUSIONS: several hnRNP's are target antigens in SS. The combined presence of antibodies to several hnRNP's was strongly associated with connective tissue disease in general and SS in particular. [less ▲]

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See detailHETEROGENOUS CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PRESENTATIONS IN MAD DEFICIENCY
BOEMER, François ULg; SCHOOS, Roland ULg; ACQUAVIVA, Cécile et al

Poster (2013, September)

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See detailHeterograft copolymers of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) prepared by combination of ATRA "grafting onto" and ATRP "grafting from" processes
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Rieger, Jutta ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2006), 44(20), 6015-6024

This paper aims at reporting on the synthesis of a heterograft copolymer by combining the "grafting onto" process based on atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) and the "grafting from" process by atom ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at reporting on the synthesis of a heterograft copolymer by combining the "grafting onto" process based on atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) and the "grafting from" process by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The statistical copolymerization of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) and alpha-chloro-epsilon-caprolactone (alpha-Cl-epsilon-CL) was initiated by 2,2-dibutyl-2-stanna-1,3-dioxepane (DSDOP), followed by ATRA of parts of the chlorinated units of poly(alpha-Cl-epsilon-CL-co-epsilon CL) on the terminal double bond of alpha-MeO,omega-CH2=CH-CH2-CO2-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The amphiphilic poly(epsilon CL-g-EO) graft copolymer collected at this stage forms micelles as supported by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The unreacted pendant chloro groups of poly(epsilon-CL-g-EO) were used to initiate the ATRP of styrene with formation of copolymer with two populations of randomly distributed grafts, that is PEO and polystyrene [less ▲]

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See detailHeterologously expressed formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) does not respond to lipoxin A4
Hanson, Julien ULg; Ferreiros, Nerea; Pirotte, Bernard ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2013), 85

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See detailHeterology and homology between the ribonucleic acid species of plant viruses as evaluated by molecular hybridizations.
Kummert, Jean; Demeure, M.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Biochemical Society Transactions (1977), 5(4), 946-947

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See detailHeterosexual men and women both show a hypothalamic response to the chemo-signal androstadienone.
Burke, Sarah M.; Veltman, Dick J.; Gerber, Johannes et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(7), 40993

The odorous steroid compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), found in axillary sweat, was previously reported to evoke hypothalamic activation in heterosexual women, but not in heterosexual men ... [more ▼]

The odorous steroid compound 4,16-androstadien-3-one (androstadienone), found in axillary sweat, was previously reported to evoke hypothalamic activation in heterosexual women, but not in heterosexual men. However, subjects were exposed to the pure crystalline form of androstadienone, which raised the question whether the observed hypothalamic response is physiologically relevant. Therefore, in the present study, we asked whether sexually dimorphic hypothalamic responses could be measured when subjects were exposed to lower, more physiologically relevant concentrations of androstadienone. A total of 21 women and 16 men, all heterosexual, participated in our functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI). Three different concentrations of androstadienone diluted in propylene glycol (10 mM "high," 0.1 mM "medium" and 0.001 mM "low") were delivered to the subjects' nostrils using a computer-controlled stimulator. When exposed to the "high" androstadienone concentration, women showed stronger hypothalamic activation than men. By contrast, men showed more hypothalamic activation when exposed to the "medium" androstadienone concentrations in comparison to women. Thus, we replicated that smelling the chemo-signal androstadienone elicits a hypothalamic activation. However, this effect does not seem to be gender-specific, because androstadienone activated the hypothalamus in both men and women, suggesting that androstadienone exerts specific effects in heterosexual individuals of both sexes. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterosexuals’ Attitudes Towards Gay and Lesbian Couples and Families
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Green, Robert-Jay

Scientific conference (2014, February)

This presentation aims at highlighting Heterosexuals' Attitudes Towards Gay and Lesbian Couples and Families in the belgian context.

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See detailHeterotransplantation of Primary and Established Human Tumour Cells in Nude Mice
Noël, Agnès ULg; Borcy, V.; Bracke, M. et al

in Anticancer Research (1995), 15(1, Jan-Feb), 1-7

Previous successful transplantations of human tumour cells into athymic nude mice have been described when cells were injected with a reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel). We have compared the ... [more ▼]

Previous successful transplantations of human tumour cells into athymic nude mice have been described when cells were injected with a reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel). We have compared the development and the histology of tumours following injection with matrigel or with culture medium of a panel of tumour cells exhibiting different degrees of tumorigenicity. Two cell lines (MCF7 and MCF7/6) required matrigel in order to form tumours. When inoculated with matrigel, all the other cell lines tested [MCF7 gpt, MCF7ras, MCF7(AZ), MCF7(AZ)TD5, MDA-MB 231, HT1080] showed increased tumour take and reduced latency period. Human primary tumours (melanoma, breast and colon cancers) were transplanted successfully into nude mice, in the presence of matrigel. Breast primary tumours or cell lines gave rise to poorly differentiated carcinomas. The other tumours presented histopathological patterns typical of differentiated human cancers. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterozygous inactivation of the Na/Ca exchanger increases glucose-induced insulin release, β-cell proliferation, and mass.
Nguidjoe, E.; Sokolow, S.; Bigabwa, S. et al

in Diabetes (2011), 60

We have previously shown that overexpression of the Na-Ca exchanger (NCX1), a protein responsible for Ca(2+) extrusion from cells, increases β-cell programmed cell death (apoptosis) and reduces β-cell ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown that overexpression of the Na-Ca exchanger (NCX1), a protein responsible for Ca(2+) extrusion from cells, increases β-cell programmed cell death (apoptosis) and reduces β-cell proliferation. To further characterize the role of NCX1 in β-cells under in vivo conditions, we developed and characterized mice deficient for NCX1. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Biologic and morphologic methods (Ca(2+) imaging, Ca(2+) uptake, glucose metabolism, insulin release, and point counting morphometry) were used to assess β-cell function in vitro. Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured to assess glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in vivo. Islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule to assess their performance to revert diabetes in alloxan-diabetic mice. RESULTS: Heterozygous inactivation of Ncx1 in mice induced an increase in glucose-induced insulin release, with a major enhancement of its first and second phase. This was paralleled by an increase in β-cell proliferation and mass. The mutation also increased β-cell insulin content, proinsulin immunostaining, glucose-induced Ca(2+) uptake, and β-cell resistance to hypoxia. In addition, Ncx1(+/-) islets showed a two- to four-times higher rate of diabetes cure than Ncx1(+/+) islets when transplanted into diabetic animals. CONCLUSIONS: Downregulation of the Na/Ca exchanger leads to an increase in β-cell function, proliferation, mass, and resistance to physiologic stress, namely to various changes in β-cell function that are opposite to the major abnormalities seen in type 2 diabetes. This provides a unique model for the prevention and treatment of β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and after islet transplantation. [less ▲]

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See detailHeur(t)s et malheurs dans le contre-transfert
Naziri, Despina ULg

Conference (2012, September 06)

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See detailL'heure des projets
Durand, Pascal ULg

Article for general public (1997)

Entretiens avec Willy Legros, Bernard Rentier et Léopold Bragard, respectivement élus Recteur, Vice-Recteur et Administrateur de l'Université de Liège.

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