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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of the hypnotic state.
Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Journal of Physiology - Paris (2006), 99(4-6), 463-9

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during ... [more ▼]

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state. Hypnosis relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in "normal alertness". The hypnotic state was related to the activation of a widespread set of cortical areas involving occipital, parietal, precentral, premotor, and ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. This pattern of activation shares some similarities with mental imagery, from which it mainly differs by the relative deactivation of precuneus. Second, we looked at the anti-nociceptive effects of hypnosis. Compared to the resting state, hypnosis reduced pain perception by approximately 50%. The hypnosis-induced reduction of affective and sensory responses to noxious thermal stimulation were modulated by the activity in the midcingulate cortex (area 24a'). Finally, we assessed changes in cerebral functional connectivity related to hypnosis. Compared to normal alertness (i.e., rest and mental imagery), the hypnotic state, significantly enhanced the functional modulation between midcingulate cortex and a large neural network involved in sensory, affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects of nociception. These findings show that not only pharmacological but also psychological strategies for pain control can modulate the cerebral network involved in noxious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional neuroanatomy of tinnitus: insights from resting-state fMRI
Maudoux, Audrey ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy underlying the clinical subcategorization of minimally conscious state patients.
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology (2012), 259(6), 1087-98

Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted signs of awareness but are unable to communicate. We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism in MCS patients and tested the hypothesis that this ... [more ▼]

Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted signs of awareness but are unable to communicate. We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism in MCS patients and tested the hypothesis that this entity can be subcategorized into MCS- (i.e., patients only showing nonreflex behavior such as visual pursuit, localization of noxious stimulation and/or contingent behavior) and MCS+ (i.e., patients showing command following).Patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism were studied using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in 39 healthy volunteers (aged 46 +/- 18 years) and 27 MCS patients of whom 13 were MCS- (aged 49 +/- 19 years; 4 traumatic; 21 +/- 23 months post injury) and 14 MCS+ (aged 43 +/- 19 years; 5 traumatic; 19 +/- 26 months post injury). Results were thresholded for significance at false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05.We observed a metabolic impairment in a bilateral subcortical (thalamus and caudate) and cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal) network in nontraumatic and traumatic MCS patients. Compared to MCS-, patients in MCS+ showed higher cerebral metabolism in left-sided cortical areas encompassing the language network, premotor, presupplementary motor, and sensorimotor cortices. A functional connectivity study showed that Broca's region was disconnected from the rest of the language network, mesiofrontal and cerebellar areas in MCS- as compared to MCS+ patients.The proposed subcategorization of MCS based on the presence or absence of command following showed a different functional neuroanatomy. MCS- is characterized by preserved right hemispheric cortical metabolism interpreted as evidence of residual sensory consciousness. MCS+ patients showed preserved metabolism and functional connectivity in language networks arguably reflecting some additional higher order or extended consciousness albeit devoid of clinical verbal or nonverbal expression. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Neuroimaging Approaches to the Changing Borders of Consciousness
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Soddu, Andrea ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg et al

in Journal of Psychophysiology (2010), 24(2), 68-75

The bedside diagnosis of vegetative and minimally conscious patients is extremely challenging, and prediction of individual long-term outcome remains difficult. State-of the art neuroimaging methods could ... [more ▼]

The bedside diagnosis of vegetative and minimally conscious patients is extremely challenging, and prediction of individual long-term outcome remains difficult. State-of the art neuroimaging methods could help disentangle complex cases and offer new prognostic criteria. These methods can be divided into to three categories: First, new anatomical MRI neuroimaging methods, like diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) or spectroscopy, and passive functional imaging methods (looking at the brain’s activation induced by external stimuli), could provide new diagnostic and prognostic markers. Second, neuroimaging methods based on active collaboration from the patient could help to detect clinically unnoticed signs of consciousness. Third, developments in brain-computer interfaces based on EEG, functional MRI, or EMG offer communication possibilities in brain-damaged patients who can neither verbally nor nonverbally express their thoughts or wishes. These new approaches raise important issues not only from a clinical and ethical perspective (i.e., patients’ diagnosis, prognosis and management) but also from a neuroscientific standpoint, as they enrich our current understanding of the emergence and function of the conscious human mind. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Neuroimaging during Human Sleep
Kussé, Caroline ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg

in Barrett, Deirdre; McNamara, Patrick (Eds.) Encyclopedia of sleep and dreams (2 volumes): the evolution, function, nature and mysteries of slumber (2012)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging in sleep, sleep deprivation, and sleep disorders.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg

in Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Montagna, Pasquale (Eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Sleep Disorders, Part I (2011)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg

in NeuroRehabilitation (2004), 19(4), 335-341

The interest of functional imaging in patients in a vegetative state is twofold. First, the vegetative state continues to represent a major clinical and ethical problem, in terms of diagnosis, prognosis ... [more ▼]

The interest of functional imaging in patients in a vegetative state is twofold. First, the vegetative state continues to represent a major clinical and ethical problem, in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, everyday management and end-of-life decisions. Second, it offers a lesional approach to the study of human consciousness and adds to the international research effort on identifying the neural correlate of consciousness. Cerebral metabolism has been shown to be massively reduced in the vegetative state. However, recovery of consciousness from vegetative state seems not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. Recent PET data indicate that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but due to an altered activity in a critical fronto-parietal cortical network and to abolished functional connections within this network and with non-specific thalamic nuclei. Recovery of consciousness was shown to be paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induces neuronal activation as shown by both auditory and noxious stimuli. However, this activation is limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep
Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin ULg et al

in Sleep (2010), 33(12), 1589-1603

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of auditory processing
Laureys, Steven ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Goldman, Serge et al

in Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica (2003), 57(4), 267-273

There is a complex functional organization of the central auditory system from the brainstem to primary and associative auditory cortices. Functional neuroimaging has been used to visualize and confirm ... [more ▼]

There is a complex functional organization of the central auditory system from the brainstem to primary and associative auditory cortices. Functional neuroimaging has been used to visualize and confirm the spatial distribution of brain activation in temporal areas for the processing of simple acoustic stimuli. Brain activity is much more complex for words, and different networks can be recruited when phonological, lexical and semantic levels of processing are engaged. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of human REM sleep
Meyer, Christelle ULg; Jedidi, Zayd ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Nofzinger, Eric; Maquet, Pierre; Thorpy, Michael J. (Eds.) Neuroimaging of sleep and sleep disorders (2013)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of semantic and episodic forms of self-knowledge
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2009, January 15)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of the reciprocal influences between sleep and wakefulness.
Jedidi, Zayd ULg; Rikir, Estelle ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology (2011), 463(1), 103-9

The activity patterns adopted by brain neuronal populations differ dramatically between wakefulness and sleep. However, these vigilance states are not independent and they reciprocally interact. Here, we ... [more ▼]

The activity patterns adopted by brain neuronal populations differ dramatically between wakefulness and sleep. However, these vigilance states are not independent and they reciprocally interact. Here, we provide evidence that in humans, regional brain activity during wakefulness is influenced by sleep regulation, namely by the interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian signals. We also show that, by contrast, regional brain activity during sleep is influenced by the experience acquired during the preceding waking period. These data reveal the dynamic interactions by which the succession of vigilance states support normal brain function and human cognition. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional organization of the nucleolus in eucaryotic cells
Thiry, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2010)

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See detailThe functional proof of the diaphragm's specific type of motor innervation in Ongulae
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (1994), 426

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See detailFunctional properties of phospholipids and proteins from rapeseed as native tensioactives
Vaca Medina, Guadalupe; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Deleu, Magali ULg et al

Poster (2008)

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See detailFunctional Redundancy and Complementarities of Seed Dispersal by the Last Neotropical Megafrugivores
Bueno, Rafael; Guevara, Roger; Ribeiro, Milton C. et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(2), 56252

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See detailFunctional residual capacity measurement as a guide during Peep titration in ARDS
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; MOMMENS, Véronique et al

in ESICM (2007)

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See detailFunctional response to inhaled salbutamol and/or ipratropium bromide in Ascaris suum-sensitised cats with allergen-induced bronchospasms
Leemans, Jérôme; Kirschvink, N.; Clercx, Cécile ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2010)

Knowledge about the use of inhaled bronchodilators in cats with so-called 'feline asthma' is limited and relies on the experience of clinicians treating these patients. A randomised controlled four-way ... [more ▼]

Knowledge about the use of inhaled bronchodilators in cats with so-called 'feline asthma' is limited and relies on the experience of clinicians treating these patients. A randomised controlled four-way crossover study was therefore designed to compare the effects of salbutamol (SAL, 100 μg), ipratropium bromide (IB, 20 μg) and a combination of both (SAL/IB, 100 μg/20 μg), delivered through a pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) connected to a spacing chamber, on allergen-induced bronchospasms in five Ascaris suum (AS)-sensitised cats. Four AS bronchial provocation challenges were carried out at 1 week intervals, followed by one of four treatment protocols: SAL, IB, SAL/IB or control (untreated). Enhanced pause (Penh), an estimator of airflow limitation measured by barometric whole-body plethysmography, was repeatedly assessed within 120 min following the administration of each treatment protocol. Responses to inhaled medications were evaluated by calculating the area under the time-response curves (AUC) from 0 to 60 or 120 min after drug administration (AUC(0-60), AUC(0-120)), as well as the times required for half-recovery (T(50%)) or for returning to nearly basal conditions (T(20%)). No significant differences were found among the four study groups, with reference to the mean AUC(0-60), T(20%) and T(50%) values of Penh (P>0.05). Mean AUC(0-120) values of Penh were similar between the bronchodilators tested, but were significantly lower than those in the untreated group. It was concluded that inhalation of SAL, IB and SAL/IB via pMDI failed to improve most Penh-derived parameters, which suggested that these bronchodilators were of limited efficacy in reversing allergen-induced bronchospasm in cats. However, further studies using a larger number of animals are warranted to investigate if different drugs or delivery devices or higher dosages may be more effective [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional screening of a metagenomic library from algal biofilms
Martin, Marjolaine ULg

Conference (2013, February 08)

Macroalgae, and particularly their lignin-free polysaccharides, are increasingly used for their gelling and therapeutic properties and for the production of biofuels and renewable chemical compounds. To ... [more ▼]

Macroalgae, and particularly their lignin-free polysaccharides, are increasingly used for their gelling and therapeutic properties and for the production of biofuels and renewable chemical compounds. To extract, hydrolyze and purify this biomass, algae hydrolyzing enzymes are needed. Our work aims to identify and characterize algal biomass hydrolyzing enzymes expressed by microorganisms living on the surface of algae, by functional metagenomics. Therefore, a microbial DNA extraction method was developed to isolate the gDNA from the microorganisms of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum and a metagenomic library was constructed in Escherichia coli. The library was screened for diverse enzymatic activities (esterases, xylanases, cellulases, α-amylases, arabinanases, caseinases and β-glucosidases) on agar plates with specific enzymes substrates. Several new microbial enzymes (esterases, β-glucosidases, α-amylases and cellulases) were identified revealing the wealth of our library. Furthermore, those enzymes had less than 50% sequence identity with known protein sequences; meaning that our approach allows to identify new microbial enzymes expressed by uncultured microorganisms. Plate tests for medium-throughput screening of specific enzymes hydrolyzing algal polysaccharides (agarases, carrageenases and alginate lyases) are currently being developed. Our approach will probably allow us to identify new families of those ill-known enzymes, with particular enzymatic activities. [less ▲]

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