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See detailDe God Bedrogen Bedrogen de God. Een speurtocht door W.F. Hermans' filosofisch universum
Yans, Baudoin ULg

Book published by Collège Erasme / Editions Nauwelaerts (1992)

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See detailGodefroid de Huy
George, Philippe ULg

in Dictionnaire d’Histoire de l’art du Moyen Age occidental (2009)

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See detailGODIVA: a 4-dimension implementation of DIVA
Troupin, Charles ULg; Ouberdous, Mohamed ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

Poster (2010, March 29)

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See detailGoing along the river by the bend; entering the village by the country: A spatial planning perspective to enhance community-based natural resource management in Cambodia
Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg; Sem, Thol

in Beaupre, Pauline; Taylor, Janet; Carson, Toby (Eds.) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia (2009)

This paper suggests that new decentralized and de-concentration reforms, which set out a framework to bring important governance functions to the sub-national level, have opened new spaces to explore ... [more ▼]

This paper suggests that new decentralized and de-concentration reforms, which set out a framework to bring important governance functions to the sub-national level, have opened new spaces to explore complementary approaches for environmental governance. Using the Battambang spatial planning framework as a basis, the paper reviews some of the limitation of CBNRM implementation of the last ten years and then focuses on detailing the methodology used to develop and build the framework and how it can be beneficial to current CBNRM. The argument continually defended is that the integration of CBNRM initiatives into a comprehensive spatial planning framework at the provincial level can reinforce local actions and give communities stronger recognition. In a discussion of the three dimensions of the spatial planning framework which include land use planning, territorial policy, and territorial governance, the analysis does not negate the important contribution of local support to rural communities but tries to identify complementary (and not substitutive) approaches that might strengthen communities in their daily livelihood issues. [less ▲]

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See detailGoing green: Aggies could be more eco-conscious (opinion)
Attia, Shady ULg

Article for general public (2008)

After passing my first semester as an Aggie, I realized how different a student’s lifestyle can be. Actually, I obtained my previous degree from a European University and in particular from Holland before ... [more ▼]

After passing my first semester as an Aggie, I realized how different a student’s lifestyle can be. Actually, I obtained my previous degree from a European University and in particular from Holland before attending Texas A&M. Since my arrival at Texas A&M, I kept comparing the different lifestyles as a student. I wanted to know if Aggies are ecologically-conscious and embracing a green lifestyle. I guess I ought to summarize what I have seen and point to what can be improved. [less ▲]

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See detailGold and silver nanomaterials based biosensors : a comparative study
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Lismont, Marjorie ULg

Poster (2011, April)

Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied due to their particular optical properties, mainly high optical absorption and diffusion yields, leading to interesting applications in biochemical ... [more ▼]

Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied due to their particular optical properties, mainly high optical absorption and diffusion yields, leading to interesting applications in biochemical sensing, molecular tracking and imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapies [1]. These unique optical properties arise from a physical process named surface plasmon resonance (SPR) which is a resonant coupling of incident light to the collective motion of electrons along the nanoparticles surface [2]. Optical SPR biosensors are able to measure complex formation in real time. Indeed, the SPR absorption spectrum band of the NPs is sensitive to the shape, size, inter-particle distance and composition of the NP as well as the dielectric properties of the surrounding medium [2]. Due to the sensitivity of SPR to the local dielectric environment, plasmonic NPs can thus act as transducers that convert small changes in the local refractive index or in the inter-particle distance into spectral shifts and broadenings of the absorption spectral bands [3]. Among metals, silver and gold NPs have received considerable interest for many reasons. For instance, they are stable in ambient atmosphere and exhibit good biocompatibility even if particular surface treatments are sometimes required. The Ag and Au NPs are also relatively easy to fabricate with different sizes and shapes allowing the tuning of the SPR optical absorption band from the near ultraviolet (400 nm) to the near infrared (1000 nm) wavelengths. In this study, our aim is to characterize two biosensors based on silver and gold spherical NPs in order to detect which one seems the best. Both NPs have a diameter close to 15 nm. We use the well-known biocytin-avidin complex as a model system because the bonding of avidin with biocytin is extremely strong with a dissociation constant three order of magnitude higher than the typical constants of antigen-antibody interactions. More precisely, we compare the intensities, the band shapes and the spectral locations of the SPR adsorption bands before and after the biomolecular recognition of avidin by biocytin molecules adsorbed on the Ag and Au NPs. The kinetic of the interaction is also discussed. Before surface treatment with biocytin, the NPs SPR bands are located around 390 and 520 nm for Ag and Au NPs, respectively. The SPR band intensity is higher for silver than for gold. Biocytin adsorption does not significantly modify the SPR spectral features. NPs do not therefore form aggregates and the local refraction index has not significantly changed. After avidin addition, a SPR red-shift and a broadening of the SPR bands are observed with both NPs as shown on Figure 1. These parameters evolved with time and reach their final values after around 45 min for each system. The aforementioned spectral changes arise from the biomolecular recognition process between biotin and avidin which leads to the NPs aggregation. The recognition process also induces a variation of the local refractive index around these NPs which contributes to the red-shift. The maximum SPR shifts are equal to 25 nm and 12 nm for silver NPs and gold NPs, respectively. Our results highlight the smaller dielectric sensitivity of gold NPs compared to the silver NPs one for a same particles’ size and for an equivalent concentration of avidin. The detection limit, described as the lowest concentration for clear identification of wavelength shift due to biomolecular recognition, is equal to 4 nM for both silver and gold NPs. With this protein concentration, 3 nm is the typical wavelength shift. The specificity of the biocytin - avidin biosensors is verified by replacing avidin by Bovine Serum Albumina (BSA). When BSA is added, we observe a SPR band shift which is smaller than the detection limit of 3 nm attesting the biosensor selectivity. Our work demonstrates the superiority of Ag over Au NPs for the elaboration of biosensors based on SPR. However, it is well-known that Ag NPs are less biocompatible than gold. This problem can be circumvented by an appropriate coating of the NPs surface prior ligand adsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods coated with a thermo-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) corona as drug delivery systems for remotely near infrared-triggered release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(3), 799-813

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT ... [more ▼]

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The well-defined PEG114-b-PNVCL237 copolymer with a cloud point temperature of 39 °C is used for the formation of a thermo-responsive polymer corona on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs) via a “grafting-to” approach. Thermo-responsiveness and thermo-dependent optical properties of the as-obtained GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are studied with dynamic light scattering and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. Near infrared (NIR)-induced heating of GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL is also explored in aqueous suspension under NIR laser irradiation (802 nm, up to 250 mW). The potential of these GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles to be used as smart drug delivery systems (DDS) is then studied. A hydrophilic drug model, Rhodamine ® B, is used to assess the guest loading capacity, and triggered release behaviours are then evaluated under conventional external heating or internal heating induced by remote NIR irradiation. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL against the fibroblast-like L929 cell line is carried out via the MTS assay in order to confirm the improved biocompatibility of the GNRs after polymer coating. These thermo-responsive GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are promising DDS that combine the chemotherapeutic and phototherapeutic functions. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods with phase-changing polymer corona for remotely near-infrared-triggered drug release
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Chemistry : An Asian Journal (2014), 9(1), 275-288

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol ... [more ▼]

Herein, we report a new drug-delivery system (DDS) that is comprised of a near-infrared (NIR)- light-sensitive gold-nanorod (GNR) core and a phase-changing poly(e-caprolactone)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) polymer corona (GNR@PCL-b-PEG). The underlying mechanism of the drugloading and triggered-release behaviors involves the entrapment of drug payloads among the PCL crystallites and a heat-induced phase change, respectively. A low premature release of the pre-loaded doxorubicin was observed in PBS buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 °C (<10% of the entire payload after 48 h). However, release could be activated within 30 min by conventional heating at 50 °C, above the Tm of the crystalline PCL domain (43.5 °C), with about 60% release over the subsequent 42 h at 37 °C. The NIR-induced heating of an aqueous suspension of GNR@PCL-b- PEG under NIR irradiation (802 nm) was investigated in terms of the irradiation period, power, and concentrationdependent heating behavior, as well as the NIR-induced shape-transformation of the GNR cores. Remotely NIR-triggered release was also explored upon NIR irradiation for 30 min and about 70% release was achieved in the following 42 h at 37°C, with a mild warming (<4 °C) of the surroundings. The cytotoxicity of GNR@PCL-b-PEG against the mouse fibroblastic-like L929 cell-line was assessed by MTS assay and good compatibility was confirmed with a cell viability of over 90% after incubation for 72 h. The cellular uptake of GNR@PCL-b-PEG by melanoma MEL-5 cells was also confirmed, with an averaged uptake of 1250 ( ± 110) particles cell-1 after incubation for 12 h (50 mg mL-1). This GNR@PCL-b-PEG DDS is aimed at addressing the different requirements for therapeutic treatments and is envisaged to provide new insights into DDS targeting for remotely triggered release by NIR activation. [less ▲]

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See detailGold(I) complexes bearing mixed-donor ligands derived from N-heterocyclic carbenes
Chia, Eugene Y; Naeem, Saira; Delaude, Lionel ULg et al

in Dalton Transactions (2011), 40(25), 6645-6658

The new 2-phenylthiocarbamoyl-1,3-dimesitylimidazolium inner salt (IMes•CSNPh) reacts with [AuCl(L)] in the presence of NH4PF6 to yield [(L)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]+ (L = PMe3, PPh3, PCy3, CNBut). The carbene ... [more ▼]

The new 2-phenylthiocarbamoyl-1,3-dimesitylimidazolium inner salt (IMes•CSNPh) reacts with [AuCl(L)] in the presence of NH4PF6 to yield [(L)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]+ (L = PMe3, PPh3, PCy3, CNBut). The carbene-containing precursor [(IDip)AuCl] reacts with IMes•CSNPh under the same conditions to afford the complex [(IDip)Au(SCNPh•IMes)] + (IDip = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). Treatment of the diphosphine complex [(dppm)(AuCl)2] with one equivalent of IMes•CSNPh yields the digold metallacycle, [(dppm)Au 2(SCNPh•IMes)]2+, while reaction of [L 2(AuCl)2] with two equivalents of IMes•CSNPh results in [(L2){Au(SCNPh•IMes)}2]2+ (L2 = dppb, dppf, or dppa; dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane, dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, dppa = 1,4- bis(diphenylphosphino)acetylene). The homoleptic complex [Au(SCNPh•IMes) 2]+ is formed on reaction of [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) with two equivalents of the imidazolium-2- phenylthiocarbamoyl ligand. This product reacts with AgOTf to yield the mixed metal compound [AuAg(SCNPh•IMes)2]2+. Over time, the unusual trimetallic complex [Au(AgOTf)2(SCNPh•IMes) 2]+ is formed. The sulfur-oxygen mixed-donor ligands IMes•COS and SIMes•COS (SIMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) imidazolin-2-ylidene) were used to prepare [(L)Au(SOC•IMes)]+ and [(L)Au(SOC•SIMes)]+ from [(L)AuCl] (L = PPh3, CNtBu). The bimetallic examples [(dppf){Au(SOC•IMes)} 2]2+ and [(dppf){Au(SOC•SIMes)}2] 2+ were synthesized from the reaction of [(dppf)(AuCl)2] with the appropriate ligand. Reaction of [(tht)AuCl] with one equivalent of IMes•COS or SIMes•COS yields [Au(SOC•IMes) 2]+ and [Au(SOC•SIMes)2]+, respectively. The compounds [(Ph3P)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]PF 6, [(Cy3P)Au(SCNPh•IMes)]PF6 and [Au(AgOTf)2(SCNPh•IMes)2]OTf were characterized crystallographically. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gold-ammonia bonding patterns of neutral and charged complexes Au m 0+/-1-(NH3)n. I. Bonding and charge alternation.
Kryachko, Eugène ULg; Remacle, Françoise ULg

in Journal of Chemical Physics (2007), 127(19), 194305

The gold-ammonia bonding patterns of the complexes which are formed between the ammonia clusters (NH/sub 3/)/sub 1<or=n<or=3/ and gold clusters of different sizes that range from one gold atom to the tri ... [more ▼]

The gold-ammonia bonding patterns of the complexes which are formed between the ammonia clusters (NH/sub 3/)/sub 1<or=n<or=3/ and gold clusters of different sizes that range from one gold atom to the tri-, tetra-, and 20-nanogold clusters are governed by two basic and fundamentally different ingredients: the anchoring Au-N bond and the nonconventional N-H ... Au hydrogen bond. The latter resembles, by all features, a conventional hydrogen bond and is formed between a typical conventional proton donor N-H group and the gold cluster that behaves as a nonconventional proton acceptor. We provide strong computational evidence that the gold-ammonia bonding patterns exhibit distinct characteristics as the Z charge state of the gold cluster varies within Z=0,+/-1. The analysis of these bonding patterns and their effects on the N-H ... N H-bonded ammonia clusters are the subject of this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailGold-loaded carbon nanoparticles from poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) non-shell-cross-linked micelles
Bryaskova, Rayna; Willet, Nicolas ULg; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

in Chemistry : An Asian Journal (2009), 4(8), 1338-1345

Herein we show that a new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) block copolymer dispersed in water can be easily loaded with gold nanoparticles by addition of chlorauric acid followed by ... [more ▼]

Herein we show that a new amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) block copolymer dispersed in water can be easily loaded with gold nanoparticles by addition of chlorauric acid followed by reduction by sodium borohydride. After deposition of the so-loaded micelles onto a silicon wafer, followed by an appropriate thermal treatment, the poly(acrylonitrile) core of the micelles is carbonized, while the poly(vinyl alcohol) shell is completely decomposed and volatilized, leading to gold encapsulated in carbon nanoparticles. The morphology of the micelles is maintained during thermal treatment without requiring shell-cross-linking of the micelles prior to pyrolysis. [less ▲]

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See detailGolden shares, droit des sociétés et marché intérieur
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Cahiers de Droit Européen (2003)

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See detailGolden-headed lion tamarin research in the 21st century: Recent advances and potential areas of future research
Raghunathan, Poornima ULg

in Neotropical Primates (2011), 18(2), 72-76

On 7 and 8 December 2011, students, researchers, and conservationists with a vested interest in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas; GHLTs) gathered at the State University of Santa ... [more ▼]

On 7 and 8 December 2011, students, researchers, and conservationists with a vested interest in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas; GHLTs) gathered at the State University of Santa Cruz (UESC; Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil) for the symposium `Golden-Headed Lion Tamarin Research in the 21st Century: Recent Advances and Potential Areas of Future Research´ with the aim of sharing recent work and discussing potential future avenues for research. Within the last 5 years, several doctoral dissertations and masters theses were completed that focused on the biology, ecology, and/or conservation of GHLTs in addition to the ongoing work of established scientists who have devoted their professional lives to the study of this species and the Atlantic Forest. However, language barriers and the fact that many members of the GHLT community are based at institutions throughout the world have complicated widespread access to these results and collaborations among researchers. The primary goals of this symposium were to (1) promote the exchange of existing information, (2) contribute towards a better synchronization of research efforts, and (3) identify important steps for more efficient/ collaborative conservation efforts for GHLTs and their habitat. This symposium brought together 30 participants from 12 institutions in Brazil, Belgium and the USA and allowed for the dissemination of information to the global GHLT community, compilation of recent advances in research, and identification of gaps in knowledge of GHLT biology, ecology and conservation, which ultimately fostered discussions on how attendees could collaborate to fill knowledge gaps. [less ▲]

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See detail'Gomorra' e l'estetica documentale nel nuovo millennio
Ricciardi, Stefania ULg; Boucharenc, Myriam; Martens, David et al

in Interférences Littéraires = Literaire Interferenties (2011), (7), 167-186

Turning truth into vision, Gomorra lays the foundations for a new way to narrate reality, a way which is only in part inspired by the poetics of the nonfiction novel. Journalistic inquiry becomes ... [more ▼]

Turning truth into vision, Gomorra lays the foundations for a new way to narrate reality, a way which is only in part inspired by the poetics of the nonfiction novel. Journalistic inquiry becomes literature by focusing on the power of the word and on the “self” of the author, an eyewitness in search of an element of attraction in order to give strength to the story and to ratify a truth that, otherwise, would be lost in the monotony of crime news. This method confirms Agamben’s idea, according to which the ethical result of testimony does not lie in the conformity between words and events, but in the guarantee that those words and those events will not be forgotten. Gomorra outlines a documentary aesthetics which, thanks to the expositive method of the novelist, turns statistics, objective data, personal experiences of everyday life into a story that combines literature, anthropology and sociology. In this way, Saviano’s self is closely related to the character around whom Marc Augé builds his ethnofiction: a witness and, at best, a symbol. [less ▲]

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See detailGonadal and thyroid hormones in the barbel (Barbus barbus) during and outside short reproductive cycles
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Kuhn, E. R.; Vandorpe, G. et al

in Folia Zoologica (1998), 47

Sex steroids with thyroid hormones were studied during reproduction in the European barbel Barbus barbus L., a new species for European aquaculture. In female barbel, the period between two successive ... [more ▼]

Sex steroids with thyroid hormones were studied during reproduction in the European barbel Barbus barbus L., a new species for European aquaculture. In female barbel, the period between two successive ovulations (every 12-18 days) was characterized by high estradiol-17 beta (E-2) levels (>300 pg.ml(-1)) and a sinusoidal variation of these levels. Outside the reproductive periods, the E-2 plasma concentration was significantly lower (100 pg.ml(-1)) and invariation. The spermiating males showed significantly higher testosterone (T) plasma values than non-spermiating ones. The opposite was noticed for the plasma thyroxine (T-4) concentrations: low values in males and females during reproduction, high values outside reproductive periods. Spermiating males had a higher triiodothyronine (T-3) plasma concentration compared to non-spermiating ones, whereas no significant difference is seen for the females. [less ▲]

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See detailGonadal cryopreservation in the young patient with gynaecological malignancy.
Donnez, Jacques; GODIN, Pierre-Arnaud ULg; Qu, Jianping et al

in Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2000), 12(1), 1-9

For patients who are planning to have chemotherapy, radiotherapy or to undergo bilateral oophorectomy, the loss of ovarian function will result in premature ovarian menopause and loss of fertility. Embryo ... [more ▼]

For patients who are planning to have chemotherapy, radiotherapy or to undergo bilateral oophorectomy, the loss of ovarian function will result in premature ovarian menopause and loss of fertility. Embryo preservation is not an option for single women or married women because delaying treatment for at least 2 months of in-vitro fertilization cycles is inappropriate and may be life-threatening. This study reports on the indications for ovarian tissue cryobanking and the state of the art of this method in preserving fertility in women with iatrogenic premature menopause. [less ▲]

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See detailGonadal pathology and tumor risk in relation to clinical characteristics in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism
Cools, M.; Pleskacova, J.; Stoop, H. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2011), 96(7), 1171-1180

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See detailGonadal-Independent Developmental Changes in Activation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Involved in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Gerard, Arlette ULg; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz ULg et al

in Neuroendocrinology (1992), 55(6), 634-41

Using hypothalamic explants of male rats, we have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors involved in a stimulatory control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion were transiently ... [more ▼]

Using hypothalamic explants of male rats, we have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors involved in a stimulatory control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion were transiently activated at 25 days around the time of onset of puberty. This was evidenced by studying the dose-related inhibition of veratridine-induced GnRH secretion by MK-801, a use dependent antagonist of NMDA receptors. An increase in sensitivity of GnRH secretion to the inhibitory effect of MK-801 was used as a marker of increased activation of NMDA receptors involved in stimulation of GnRH secretion. Here, we report on data obtained in intact and castrated rats at different ages. The aim was to determine whether the absence of gonads would affect the developmental changes in activation of NMDA receptors that we described recently. In pubertal (50-day-old) rats, orchidectomy resulted in an activation of NMDA receptors which was nonsignificant after 4 days but significant after 13 days. In prepubertal rats orchidectomized at 5 or 10 days and studied 10 days later, the NMDA receptors involved in GnRH secretion were also more activated than in intact animals. Using explants of intact and castrated animals, a similar increase in activation of NMDA receptors was observed between 15 and 25 days of age, a period preceding onset of puberty. Subsequently, between 25 and 50 days, a reduction in NMDA receptor activation was seen. This decrease was observed in intact rats showing normal sexual development and in castrated rats as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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