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See detailGlucose, insulin and myocardial ischaemia
Devos, P.; Chiolero, R.; Van den Berghe, G. et al

in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care (2006), 9(2), 131-139

Purpose of review The importance of glucose metabolism and insulin therapy during myocardial ischaemia is increasingly being investigated. Insulin is used to achieve a tight glucose control or as part of ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The importance of glucose metabolism and insulin therapy during myocardial ischaemia is increasingly being investigated. Insulin is used to achieve a tight glucose control or as part of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy. We have reviewed (1) the physiological and physiopathological consequences of hyperglycaemia focusing on potential machanisms of myocardial ischaemia, (2) the effects of insulin on vascular tone, on the release of free fatty acids, on inflammatory pathways, on the switch of energy source and on apoptosis, and (3) clinical data reporting the effects of intensive insulin therapy and glucose-insulin-potassium solutions during myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic heart failure. Recent findings In addition to its known toxic cellular effects, hyperglycaemia increases the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promotes inflammation. Conversely insulin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Glucose-insulin-potassium solutions could improve survival after acute myocardial infarction or after surgery, according to recent meta-analyses, but confirmation of these data is eagerly awaited. Summary Hyperglycaemia is toxic, while insulin is beneficial during acute myocardial ischaemia. Some recent evidence confirms a substantial benefit of insulin administered either alone to achieve a tight glucose control or as a component of glucose-insulin-potassium therapy. Further research is needed to confirm that tendency and to define the threshold of tight glucose control. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-, pH- and thermo-responsive nanogels crosslinked by functional superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles as innovative drug delivery systems
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(8), 1009-1023

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery ... [more ▼]

Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery systems (DDS). The crosslinking was formed via boronate/diol bonding from the surfacefunctionalized superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, endowing the DDS with thermo-, pH- and glucose-responsiveness. The capability to load a hydrophobic drug model Nile red (NR) within the RCL nanogels was evaluated, and stimuli-triggered drug release behaviours under different conditions were tested. Zero premature release behaviour was detected at physiological pH in the absence of glucose, whereas triggered release was observed upon exposure to acidic pH (5.0) and/or in the presence of glucose. In light of the superparamagnetic properties of the maghemite nanoparticles and RCL nanogels, magnetically-induced heating, MR imaging performance, as well as remotely magnetically-triggered drug release under alternating magnetic field (AMF), were investigated. Cytotoxicity against fibroblast-like L929 and human melanoma MEL-5 cell lines was assessed via the MTS assay. In vitro stimuli-triggered release of tamoxifen, a chemotherapeutic drug, was also studied within MEL-5 cell cultures under different conditions. These innovative RCL nanogels, integrating different stimuli-responsive components, hydrophobic chemotherapeutic moieties and also diagnostic agents together via reversible crosslinking, are promising new theranostic platforms. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-galactose transporter DEFICIENCY: a diagnosis based on clinical observations.
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; poskin, julie; etienne, isabelle et al

Poster (2009, March)

Dehydration and major diarrhea in young infants is mainly linked to infectious diseases. However in case leading to denutrition and growth retardation, metabolic causes or malabsorption should be evocated ... [more ▼]

Dehydration and major diarrhea in young infants is mainly linked to infectious diseases. However in case leading to denutrition and growth retardation, metabolic causes or malabsorption should be evocated. We report here the case of a few days old infant admitted for early recurrence of liquid stools and vomiting. XX is born at term (3450 grams, 51 cm) after an uneventful pregnancy. Consanguinity has been reported in the family. He was breastfed but presented rapidly liquid stools and vomiting. At 10 days old he was first admitted for dehydration, loss of weight below his birth weight (2900 grams) and severe hypernatremia. Semi elementary diet led to some improvement but he was readmitted at the age of one month for similar even worse symptoms including abdominal distension and explosive stools. Complementary investigations have excluded infection, parasitosis, malformation and immune deficits. Different diet formulas were tried with no significant benefit what led to the placement of parenteral nutrition thanks to which weight was gained. Hypothesis of peculiar carbohydrate malabsorption was made and the following tests have been carried out: -Clinitest: presence of reducing substances in the stools. -Lactose Breath test: between 15 and 90 ppm H2 with a peak value at 90 ppm H2 after 90 minutes. -Duodenal biopsy: normal histology; normal activity of lactase, maltase, saccharase-isomaltase. Considering the normality of these enzyme activities, hypothesis of “Na-dependant glucose-galactose transporter” deficit was put forward. This was confirmed according to the results of HGPO and glucose breath test. Search for SGTL1 gene mutation is still in progress. In conclusion despite of the huge progresses made at molecular biology level, clinical observation remain essential to the diagnosis of malabsorption. Precise reporting of the used milk formula and comparative analysis of their composition can orient the diagnosis and help to select the most accurate molecular test. Here, analyses exclude every enzyme activity deficiencies. Carbohydrate malabsorption from first days of live can be linked to a glucose-galactose transporter deficiency due to a SGLT1 mutation (chr 22). This autosomal recessive disorder has only been reported 200 times until now. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucose-responsive layer-by-layer microcapsules as self-regulated insulin delivery system
Alaimo, David ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

Poster (2011, September 03)

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See detailGlucose-responsive layer-by-layer microcapsules: a potential route to self-regulated insulin delivery
Alaimo, David ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Auzély-Velty, Rachel et al

Conference (2010, May 25)

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See detailGlucosinolates and their measurement
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2009)

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See detailGlucosinolates and their measurement
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2001)

Glucosinolates belong to a structurally homogeneous family of more than 110 miscellaneous secondary metabolites mostly contained in Brassicaceae. They are easily hydrolyzed into isothiocyanates ... [more ▼]

Glucosinolates belong to a structurally homogeneous family of more than 110 miscellaneous secondary metabolites mostly contained in Brassicaceae. They are easily hydrolyzed into isothiocyanates, oxazolidinethiones, cyanides, D-glucose, sulphate ion… by an endogenous enzyme called myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.3.1). Glucosinolates and their breakdown compounds are partly or mainly responsible of the flavor of some foods (mustard, radish, horse-radish….) and are also suspected to play a role in cancer prevention (glucoraphanin in Broccoli). On an other hand, when present in rapeseed or canola, these molecules are easily broken down during animal digestion, leading to compounds with detrimental and antinutritional characteristics. They are known to interfere with the thyroid and to damage vital organs. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates in isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tubers: qualitative and quantitative content and changes after maturity
Ramallo, R.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Le Boulenge, E. et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2004), 84(7), 701-706

Six varieties of isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), an Andean edible tuber, were analysed. The aim was to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively their content of glucosinolates and to determine ... [more ▼]

Six varieties of isano (Tropaeolum tuberosum), an Andean edible tuber, were analysed. The aim was to characterise qualitatively and quantitatively their content of glucosinolates and to determine concentration changes of these compounds upon delayed harvest. Additionally, exploratory assays were carried out on the effect of postharvest cold storage of the tubers as well as of a drying process imposed on blanched tuber slices. Only one glucosinolate (p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate) was found in the six domestic varieties analysed. Its concentration varied between 36.5 and 90.0 mumolg(-1) dry matter. This range is relatively high when compared with other edible glucosinolate-containing vegetables. 'Dark' coloured tuber varieties showed higher levels than 'light' coloured tuber varieties at normal harvest time. Of the two varieties on which the effect of delayed harvest was studied, one showed increasing and then decreasing changes until 44 days after maturity, while the other did not show any significant change with time. Postharvest cold stored samples showed similar changes to tubers kept in soil, and glucosinolate levels in dried blanched tubers did not differ significantly from those in fresh samples. Taken together, the data indicate that the glucosinolate content of isano is highly dependent on both the variety and the time of harvest. These parameters should be taken into account when considering isano as a promising food source with medicinal properties for humans and animals, but also with possible adverse biological effects, all related to the presence of glucosinolates. (C) 2004 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucosinolates in Rapeseeds: Analytical Aspects
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg

Book published by Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (1987)

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See detailGlucosinolates metabolites in plasma, milk and thyroid of gestating and lactating ewes
Mabon, N.; Mandiki, S.; Derycke, G. et al

Poster (2003)

The effects of high level of rapeseed meal in the diet on the concentration of antinutritional factors (glucosinolates metabolites) in blood plasma, milk and thyroid were studied in 90 ewes. From the ... [more ▼]

The effects of high level of rapeseed meal in the diet on the concentration of antinutritional factors (glucosinolates metabolites) in blood plasma, milk and thyroid were studied in 90 ewes. From the 100th day of gestation, ewes bearing two foetuses were divided into three groups and were fed with pasture hay ad libitum and 500 g/d of diet containing 0 or 40% rapeseed meal obtained from either Apex or Synergy variety. During the 47 first days of lactation, 1200 g/d of the same meal were given. Thereafter, during 3 weeks, the ewes were only fed with hay. Blood and milk samples were taken fortnightly for the determination of SCN- and 5-vinyl-1,3- oxazolidine-2-thione (5-VOT) concentrations. One ewe from each group was slaughtered at the end of rapeseed meal distribution and another one three weeks later for thyroid analyses. SCN- and 5-VOT concentrations in blood plasma increased significantly (P<0.05) and regularly until one month of rapeseed supplementation to the withdrawal of rapeseed in the diet. One to three weeks after the end of rapeseed meal distribution, the SCN- and 5-VOT plasma concentrations came back at the basal level. Some changes were also observed for SCN- and 5-VOT contents in milk. The results indicated a great capacity of the ewes to excrete SCN- and 5-VOT by the milk. A 5-VOT accumulation was observed in the thyroid according to the level of progoitrin in the diet, but no SCN- accumulation. The 5-VOT concentration in thyroid of the ewes fed during three weeks with hay came back to zero. The thyroid analysis showed the reversible aspect of the thyroid hypertrophy due to 5-VOT accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes glucosinolates, leur dosage.
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Marlier, M.; Severin, M. et al

in Revue de l’Agriculture = Landbouwtijdschrift (1986), 39

Mis en évidence depuis le siècle dernier,les glucosinolates sont présents dans toutes les espèces végétales appartenant à la famille des crucifères (Lerin, 1980). lls se dégradent facilement sous I'action ... [more ▼]

Mis en évidence depuis le siècle dernier,les glucosinolates sont présents dans toutes les espèces végétales appartenant à la famille des crucifères (Lerin, 1980). lls se dégradent facilement sous I'action de la myrosinase en isothiocyanates (lTC), vinyl-thio-oxazolidones (VOT), nitriles, thiocyanates, amines ...Ces produits de dégradation sont physiologiquement actifs. Dans le domaine de l'alimentation humaine, ils contribuent à la flaveur de différentes plantes comme les choux, les radis et au goût particulier du raifort et de la moutarde (Mc Gregor et al., 1975). Initialement présents dans le parenchyme des graines de colza, ils subsistent dans les tourteaux obtenus après extraction de l'huile et provoquent des effets toxiques chez les animaux d'élevage. Ceci limite I'utilisation des tourteaux de colza notamment pour les animaux à croissance rapide comme le porc et les volailles. En vue de valoriser au mieux le colza, plante riche en matière grasse (40 à 46 o/ol (Godin et al., 1971) présentant une composition en acides aminés très équilibrée (tableau 1) et un pourcentage de protéines variant entre 22 et 24 o/o (Diem et al., 1975), il est impératif d'une part de diminuer le taux en glucosinolates par sélection (Robbelen et al., 1980) et d'autre oart de les doser avec orécision. Cet article a pour objet de mieux faire connaître les glucosinolates et de faire une mise au point quant à leur dosage. [less ▲]

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See detailGlucotoxicite et lipotoxicite, deux complices impliques dans le cercle vicieux du diabete de type 2.
Scheen, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(6), 535-8

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a dynamic disease whose natural history is characterized by a progressive aggravation leading to a progressively severe hyperglycaemia, which generally requires a more complex ... [more ▼]

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a dynamic disease whose natural history is characterized by a progressive aggravation leading to a progressively severe hyperglycaemia, which generally requires a more complex therapy as time progresses. Such an evolution results from a vicious circle where both glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity contribute to reduce insulin secretion and the action of insulin on cell glucose metabolism. These new concepts are able to modify the strategies of prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gluon condensate in the chiral phase transition
Ripka, Georges; Jaminon, Martine ULg

in Fried, H. M.; Mueller, B. (Eds.) QCD Vacuum Structure (1993)

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See detailGluonic content of the scalar meson nonet in a scaled effective Lagrangian
Jaminon, Martine ULg; Van den Bossche, Bruno

in Nuclear Physics A (1997), 619

A scaled SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Lagrangian is used to compute the mass of the nine scalar mesons in the vacuum and the mass of the glueball. This chiral model provides a gluonic content to the scalar ... [more ▼]

A scaled SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Lagrangian is used to compute the mass of the nine scalar mesons in the vacuum and the mass of the glueball. This chiral model provides a gluonic content to the scalar mesons as well as a quark content to the glueball. It is shown that a suitable choice of the vacuum gluon condensate allows reproduction of the experimental masses of the scalar mesons except for K*0(1430). This choice corresponds to a weak coupling between the gluon and quark condensates, giving f0(1500) or fJ(1710) which is nearly a pure glueball. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutamine, a life-saving nutrient, but why?
Preiser, Jean-Charles ULg; Wernerman, J.

in Critical Care Medicine (2003), 31(10), 2555-2556

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See detailGlutathione S-transferase isoenzymes in the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Dierickx, Paul

in Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology (2002), 49(3), 158-66

Isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in adult Adalia bipunctata, an aphidophagous predator, were studied. Cytosolic GST activity was studied in each beetle developmental stage. The highest ... [more ▼]

Isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in adult Adalia bipunctata, an aphidophagous predator, were studied. Cytosolic GST activity was studied in each beetle developmental stage. The highest activities towards both 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 2,4-dinitro-1-iodobenzene (DNIB) occurred in adults. The enzyme distribution was investigated in adults. While most of the enzymatic activity was found in the abdomen (40-50 and 34-63% respectively) using several concentrations of both CDNB and DNIB, significant differences were observed for the head and the thorax depending on the substrate. Activities were more abundant in the thorax with DNIB (37-47%) compared to the 13-19% obtained with CDNB. Some GST activity was also detected in the elytra. GSTs were purified by epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography and applied to an HPLC column to determine the native molecular weight (69 kDa). Three isoenzymes were separated by chromatofocusing at pH ranges 7-4. Three bands with molecular mass from 23 to 26 kDa were visualised on SDS-PAGE. Their isoelectric points were 6.66, 6.36, and 6.21. The substrate specificities and the kinetic parameters (Vm and Km) of the isoenzymes showed large differences depending on the isoenzyme. Arch. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione S-transferases in the adaptation to plant secondary metabolites in the Myzus persicae aphid.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric ULg

in Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology (2005), 58(3), 166-74

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in insects play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Induction of GST activity in Myzus persicae in response ... [more ▼]

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in insects play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Induction of GST activity in Myzus persicae in response to secondary metabolites from Brassica plants was determined using different host plant species and confirmed using artificial diet with pure allelochemicals added. The 2,4-dinitro-1-iodobenzene (DNIB) was found to be a useful substrate for identifying particular GSTs in insects. GSTs from M. persicae were purified using different affinity chromatography columns and related kinetic parameters were calculated. GST isoenzymes were characterised using electrophoretic methods. Although SDS-PAGE results indicated similarity among the purified enzymes from each affinity column, biochemical studies indicated significant differences in kinetic parameters. Finally, the GST pattern of M. persicae was discussed in terms of insect adaptation to the presence of plant secondary substances such as the glucosinolates and the isothiocyanates, from Brassicaceae host plants. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione S-transferases of Aulacorthum solani and Acyrthosiphon pisum: partial purification and characterization.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B (2001), 129(1), 165-71

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile ... [more ▼]

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile isothiocyanates which affect the GST system. A comparison of the GST of two aphid species, the generalist Aulacorthum solani found on Brassicaceae and the Fabaceae specialist Acyrthosiphon pisum, was made to try to explain their respective feeding behaviour. Differences of GST were determined among the two aphid species based on purification by affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE and on kinetic studies. Purification yields using an epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B column were highly different for the two aphid species (18% and 34% for A. solani and A. pisum, respectively). These variations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. While only a 27-kDa band was observed for A. pisum, two bands of approximately 25-kDa were visualized for the generalist aphid, A. solani. Considering the kinetic results, differences of Km and Vmax were observed following the aphid species when a range of substrates (CDNB and DCNB) and GSH concentrations were tested. Studies on the detoxification enzymes of generalist and specialist herbivores would be undertaken to determine accurately the effect of the host plant on the organisms eating them, particularly in terms of biochemical and ecological advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailGlutathione system deficiency in racehorses
De Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, N.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Handbook of the 43rd Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association (2004)

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