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See detailGroundwater pollution in an agricultural catchment on sandstone : evaluation of water and nitrogen losses from soils.
Lecomte, Marielle; Salvia, Merce; Iffly, Jean-François et al

Conference (2000)

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See detailGroundwater quality assessment of one former industrial site in Belgium using a TRIAD-like approach.
Crévecoeur, Sophie; Debacker, Virginie ULg; Joaquim-Justo, Célia ULg et al

in Environmental Pollution (2011), 159(10), 2461-2466

Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and ... [more ▼]

Contaminated industrial sites are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological effects on terrestrial, aquatic and groundwater ecosystems. An effect-based approach to evaluate and assess pollution-induced degradation due to contaminated groundwater was carried out in this study. The new concept, referred to as “Groundwater Quality TRIAD-like” (GwQT) approach, is adapted from classical TRIAD approaches. GwQT is based on measurements of chemical concentrations, laboratory toxicity tests and physico-chemical analyses. These components are combined in the GwQT using qualitative and quantitative (using zero to one subindices)integration approaches. The TRIAD approach is applied for the first time on groundwater from one former industrial site located in Belgium. This approach will allow the classification of sites into categories according to the degree of contaminant-induced degradation. This new concept is a starting point for groundwater characterization and is open for improvement and adjustment. [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater quality mapping in the Belgian and Dutch provinces of Limburg and Liège: availability of data and methodology
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Peters, Valérie; Rutten, J. et al

in Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Quality, Management and Availability of Data for Hydrology and Water Resources Management (1999)

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See detailGroundwater vulnerability assessment using physically based modelling: from challenges to pragmatic solutions
Popescu, Ileana Cristina; Gardin, Nicolas; Brouyère, Serge ULg et al

in Refsgaard, J. C.; Kovar, K.; Haarder, E. (Eds.) et al Calibration and Reliability in Groundwater Modelling: Credibility in Modelling (2008)

Numerous groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping techniques have been developed taking into consideration a variable number of factors. The most common techniques are based on calculation of an index ... [more ▼]

Numerous groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping techniques have been developed taking into consideration a variable number of factors. The most common techniques are based on calculation of an index expressing the protective effect of underground formations overlying the groundwater resource. The limitation of most of these methods is related to their use of a qualitative definition of groundwater vulnerability, as opposed to a definition based on a quantitative description of contaminant migration. A physically-based point of view and definition of the vulnerability is proposed and based on three factors describing a pollution event, which are the contaminant transfer time from the hazard location to the 'target', the contamination duration at the 'target' and the level of contaminant concentration reached at the 'target'. This concept allows a clear distinction between conventional aspects and physically-based results in the building of a final vulnerability indicator. This methodology has the further advantage to consider the possible impact of runoff conditions occurring at the land surface and possibly leading to lateral contamination of groundwater through downstream preferential infiltration features. Practically, this method needs to describe and simulate the pollutant migration in the unsaturated zone and possibly in the saturated zone in order to assess the breakthrough curve at the 'target'. Preliminary application is illustrated on a case-study located in a limestone basin in Belgium. Perspectives are proposed towards a generalisation of the vulnerability concept for risk assessment within a pressure - state - impact framework. [less ▲]

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See detailGroup B Streptococcal Disease in Belgium: Culture and Rapid screening
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Conference (1999, February 25)

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See detailGroup B Streptococcal Disease in the Newborn: Maternal GBS-Screening Methods and Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
Melin, Pierrette ULg

in European Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Touch Briefings (2008), 3

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See detailGroup B streptococcal epidemiology and vaccine needs in developed countries
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; EFSTRATIOU, Androulla

in Vaccine (2013), 31(Supplement 4), 31-42

Development of a group B streptococcal vaccine (GBS) vaccine is the most promising approach for the prevention of GBS infections in babies, given the potential adverse effects of intrapartum antibiotic ... [more ▼]

Development of a group B streptococcal vaccine (GBS) vaccine is the most promising approach for the prevention of GBS infections in babies, given the potential adverse effects of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis as well as the need for effective prevention of both adult and late perinatal disease. There are numerous prevention strategies at this time but none are 100% effective in the eradication of neonatal early onset GBS disease and there are no preventative strategies for late onset disease. The need for a GBS vaccine is therefore, of utmost importance. Efforts applying genomics to GBS vaccine development have led to the identification of novel vaccine candidates. The publication of GBS whole genomes coupled with new technologies including multigenome screening and bioinformatics has also allowed researchers to overcome the serotype limitation of earlier vaccine preparations in the search of a universal effective vaccine against GBS. This review brings together the key arguments concerning the potential need of a GBS vaccine in developed countries and describes the current status with GBS epidemiology and microbiology in these countries. [less ▲]

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See detailGroup B Streptococcal infections
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Scientific conference (2001, November 17)

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See detailGroup B Streptococcal infections in Belgium
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2001, December)

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See detailGroup B Streptococcal Infections in Belgium
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2001, November 30)

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See detailGroup B Streptococcal Infections in Belgium
Melin, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2002, March 13)

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See detailGroup B streptococcal policies in the French Community of Belgium
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Scientific conference (2001, November 17)

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See detailGroup B streptococcal Screening
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

Scientific conference (2001, November 17)

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See detailGroup B streptococcal Screening, Diagnosis and Clinically Relevant Resistance
Melin, Pierrette ULg

Conference (2010, June 17)

In the setting of a maternal GBS-screening program and successful implementation of the strategy, efforts to improve screening for GBS status remain important. Critical factors that influence the accuracy ... [more ▼]

In the setting of a maternal GBS-screening program and successful implementation of the strategy, efforts to improve screening for GBS status remain important. Critical factors that influence the accuracy of detecting GBS maternal colonization are the choice of culture media, the body sites sampled, and the timing of sampling. The evolution of the different culture options to improve the GBS-screening strategy will be reviewed. Despite efforts related to sampling and culture procedures, false-negative GBS-screening contributing to continuing EOGBS cases and false-positive screening leading to unecessary IAP, occur. As GBS carriage is highly variable, the predictive values of GBS antenatal cultures are not always good predictors of the maternal GBS status at presentation for delivery. Rapid non-cultural GBS screening methods have been developed: antigenic tests are not sensitive enough to replace antenatal screening cultures but available real-time PCR have faired better in the detection of GBS. Real-time PCR tests could improve effectiveness of the screening-based strategy and lead to a further reduction of the incidence of EOGBS disease. However questions of costs and logistics remain unanswered. Either for therapy or for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, penicillin G for its bactericidal activity and narrow spectrum, remains the agent of choice. But in the true penicillin allergic patients, clindamycin or erythromycin have been recommended as alternative drugs. However, probably as a consequence of the important use of macrolides, related drug resistance among streptococcal isolates is currently recognized in many countries. Epidemiology of resistance to antimicrobial agents will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailGroup B streptococcal Screening, Diagnosis and Clinically Relevant Resistance
Melin, Pierrette ULg

in DEVANI Training (Ed.) European Workshop Current Insights into Group B Streptococcal Diseases (2009, May)

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See detailGroup B Streptococci colonization in mothers and babies
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; Osterrieth, Paul; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (1987, April)

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See detailGroup B streptococci, a European perspective with results of the DEVANI project
MELIN, Pierrette ULg

in DUCOFFRE, GENEVIèVE (Ed.) Abstract book of 27th Annual Meeting "Diagnostic et surveillance des maladies infectieuses" (2011, November)

In 2011, neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases remain a global public health concern. Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely ... [more ▼]

In 2011, neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) diseases remain a global public health concern. Where consensus guidelines to detect and treat intrapartum women with GBS colonization have been widely adopted, incidence of neonatal early onset disease (EOD) has dramatically declined, however despite preventive strategies cases still occur. The strategy was not expected to prevent all cases and there are challenges and limitations to this preventive approach. The best strategy for European countries is still a matter of debate and intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) is not widely recommended. To adopt the best preventive strategy, we first need better data assessing more accurately the true burden of GBS diseases in the different countries. Furthermore, as the current screening-based strategy for prevention is highly effective but imperfect, given the challenges, limitations and potential complications of maternal IAP, a new approach is still needed. Maternal immunization against GBS is an attractive alternative for the prevention of not only neonatal diseases but also stillbirths and maternal diseases. Vaccines against GBS may likely become the most effective and sustainable long-term preventive strategy. But the development of vaccines with global relevance has been hampered by changes in the distribution of GBS serotypes of strains causing diseases over time and in different parts of the world. A multivalent vaccine to cover against the more prevalent serotypes suitable for European populations might not be suitable for Asian or African populations. To overcome type-specificity, new developments target vaccines based on conserved surface antigenic proteins, such as Sip protein located at the cell surface of all GBS and on immunogenic proteins from GBS pili. A pilus-based GBS vaccine is appealing and could become a globally relevant reality. The DEVANI (DEsign of a Vaccine Against Neonatal Infections) programme funded through the European Commission Seventh Framework was launched on 1 January 2008 with the key objective being the assessment of European GBS epidemiology to facilitate the design of a new vaccine that will confer neonatal immunity through a durable maternal immune response. A major component was to undertake pan European surveillance of maternal colonisation, maternal GBS antibody responses and neonatal diseases in eight European countries. Through 2009 and 2010, all Belgian laboratories sending any neonatal GBS invasive isolate to the National Reference Centre for GBS were invited to bring their contribution to this project. Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom established specific GBS screening studies during 2008/10. Maternal vaginal/rectal swabs and sera were taken between 34-37 weeks gestation and processed using a standardised microbiological screening protocol. Samples from neonatal cases were processed using local procedures. For each pregnant woman and each case of GBS neonatal disease, standardized case report forms were filled. GBS isolates were characterised using standardised serological and molecular typing methods for detection of all ten GBS capsular polysaccharide types (Ia to IX). Furthermore all the collected isolates were screened by multiplex PCR and FACS analysis to evaluate respectively gene presence and surface-exposure of pili. And clonal analysis of these isolates was performed using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The main microbiological results of this pan European surveillance are following. Carriage rates among pregnant women in all countries ranged from 8% to 26%. The most common GBS capsular types were III (33%), Ia (25%) and V (8%). Among GBS from EOD, the major serotypes were III (43%), V (21%) and Ia (18%). In contrast among GBS isolated from neonatal late onset disease (LOD), serotype III was highly predominant (80.6%) followed mainly by Ia (12.5%). Analysis of the pattern of pili genes showed that all isolates contained at least one gene coding for pili. The most common gene patterns found were PI-2a alone, PI 1+2a and PI 1+2b, while the PI-2b gene alone was very rare. The most prominent result was that a majority of isolates from neonatal infections carried the PI-1+2b gene pattern, while the most common pattern among pregnant women was PI-1+2a. Most of analyzed strains express at least one pilus on their surface. The clonal analysis showed that 66 sequence types were found to belong to nine clonal complexes (CC). Among these nine CCs, five were prevailing and covered 92 % of GBS isolates tested. The GBS population in pregnant women was found to be more heterogeneous than the GBS isolated from neonatal infection cases. Among neonatal isolates, the most frequent CC was CC17 (43 %) known as a highly virulent clone. Among participating countries, there were no significant differences in the occurrence of clonal complexes. The analysis of the levels of specific antibodies as surrogate markers of protection is still ongoing. More detailed and additional results as the main conclusions will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailGroup b streptococcus infection in the perinatal period: proposed scheme of prevention
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Vanclaire, J.; François, A. et al

Poster (1992)

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See detailA Group Communication Framework
Mathy, Laurent ULg; Leduc, Guy ULg; Bonaventure, Olivier et al

in Bauerfeld, Wulf; Spaniol, Otto; Williams, F. (Eds.) Broadband Islands '94: Connecting with the End-User (1994, June)

This paper presents a general architectural model for group communications which are communications that may involve more than two parties. The concept of group is presented and the concept of group ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a general architectural model for group communications which are communications that may involve more than two parties. The concept of group is presented and the concept of group association, which is an instance of group communication, is analysed. Those group associations are modeled as a set of basic components called multicast conversations. At the service boundery, new architectural concepts are introduced to identify a group association as well as its multicast conversations. Then, facilities to handle the group associations and the multicast conversations are defined and the properties of data transfer on a group association are examined. Finally, the paper deals with aspects of group management. [less ▲]

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