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See detailGenetic structuralism, psychological sociology and pragmatic social actor theory, Proposals for a convergence of French sociologies
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Theory, Culture & Society (2004), 21(3), 85-99

This paper would like to show that Wittgenstein and Freud have exerted a considerable - though narrow - influence on Bourdieu's sociology. But they also pervade the theoretical development of two other ... [more ▼]

This paper would like to show that Wittgenstein and Freud have exerted a considerable - though narrow - influence on Bourdieu's sociology. But they also pervade the theoretical development of two other currents, which have emerged in French Sociology in the last few years, and were developed by L. Boltanski and L. Thevenot, on the one hand, and B. Lahire, on the other. Although they do not make it explicit, the advocates of these two currents have nevertheless been influenced by Wittgenstein and Freud. Thus Boltanski has drawn on Wittgenstein to develop a sociology which gives primacy to the social actor's interpretation of his or her situation through lay theorising. Lahire's work clearly pays a debt to Freud with his psychological sociology. It would therefore be interesting, in the first instance, to tease out how Wittgenstein and Freud, respectively, have influenced these two systems to demonstrate that they can indeed be used to generate new sociological currents, other than Bourdieu's own. This would then allow us to explore how they could be used to fill any gaps in Bourdieu's work, thus giving the latter renewed relevance and staunching its stagnating tendencies. But, ultimately, this analysis aims to show how Wittgenstein’s and Freud's theoretical influences can lead the way towards a theoretical synthesis between Bourdieu's critical sociology, Boltanski's social actor theory and Lahire's psychological sociology. Currently, these three currents operate independently of each other, without any kind of dialogue. And yet, far from being incompatible, these sociologies offer opportunities for exploring how they might complement each other and for mutual enrichment. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Structure Of A Lima Bean Base Collection Using Allozyme Markers
Maquet, A.; Bi, Iz.; Delvaux, M. et al

in Theoretical & Applied Genetics = Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik (1997), 95(5-6),

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See detailGenetic structure of Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica).
Dardenne, Sophie ULg; Stevens, Virginie ULg; Hollander, F. et al

Poster (2009)

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See detailGenetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer)
Smitz, Nathalie ULg; Cornelis, Daniel; Chardonnet, Philippe et al

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2014), 14

Background African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic ... [more ▼]

Background African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the “genetic health” of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites. Results The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (Pa) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean FIS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (FIS = 0.062, mean Ar = 6.160, Pa = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century. Conclusions We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Structure Of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) From The Bolivian Altiplano As Revealed By Rapd Markers
Del Castillo, C.; Winkel, T.; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

in Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2007), 54(4), 897-905

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal originated from the Andes important for small farmers’ food security as well as for commercial production. Recently, it has been claimed that in ... [more ▼]

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal originated from the Andes important for small farmers’ food security as well as for commercial production. Recently, it has been claimed that in Bolivia genetic erosion could result from the marginalization of the crop in the north and from its commercial standardization in the south. The aim of this study was to quantify the hierarchical structure of the genetic variation present in eight quinoa field populations, consisting of cultivated and weedy individuals, representative of the altiplano and interandean valleys of Bolivia. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers show that quinoa has a strong population structure and a high intra-population variation. An effect of geographical structure of the populations was highlighted, due to population isolation, not simply linked to distance but more probably to climatic and orographic barriers present in the studied zone. The population structure is also reinforced by the limited seed exchanges among farmers as revealed by field interviews. This population structure appears related to three major biogeographic zones: the northern and central altiplano, the interandean valley, and the southern Salar. Intrapopulation genetic diversity was higher than that expected for a mainly autogamous species, and higher than that reported in anterior studies based on germplasm collections. These results are commented in view of current knowledge on phylogeny and reproductive biology of the species, and their implications regarding genetic resources management are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic susceptibility in pituitary adenomas : from pathogenesis to clinical implications
Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Daly, Adrian ULg; Angelini, Mariolina et al

in Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism (2011)

Pituitary adenomas (PA) usually present sporadically, with a multifactorial pathogenesis including somatic mutational events in cancer-related genes. Genetic predisposition implies the presence of ... [more ▼]

Pituitary adenomas (PA) usually present sporadically, with a multifactorial pathogenesis including somatic mutational events in cancer-related genes. Genetic predisposition implies the presence of germline DNA alterations with a variety of impacts on pituitary cell biology, translating into a variable penetrance of the disease. Genetic causes must be considered in the presence of specific clinical settings, such as familial occurrence of PA, with or without extrapituitary diseases, and may also be suspected in young patients with macroadenomas. We <br />review the clinical implications of genetic predisposition, with special attention to Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney’s complex (CNC) and FIPA (Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma), and the scenario of genetic screening in selected patients with an apparently sporadic disease is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic transformation of Anthemis nobilis L. (Roman chamomille)
Jaziri, M.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Guo, Y. W. et al

in Bajaj, Y. P. S. (Ed.) Transgenic Medicinal Plants (1999)

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See detailGenetic transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondria
Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Remacle, Claire ULg; Fox, Thomas D

in Methods in Cell Biology (2007), 80

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See detailGenetic variability in the Skyros pony and its relationship with other Greek and foreign horse breeds
Bömcke, Elisabeth ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Cothran, E Gus

in Genetics and Molecular Biology (2011), 34

In Greece, seven native horse breeds have been identified so far. Among these, the Skyros pony is outstanding through having a distinct phenotype. In the present study, the aim was to assess genetic ... [more ▼]

In Greece, seven native horse breeds have been identified so far. Among these, the Skyros pony is outstanding through having a distinct phenotype. In the present study, the aim was to assess genetic diversity in this breed, by using different types of genetic loci and available genealogical information. Its relationships with the other Greek, as well as foreign, domestic breeds were also investigated. Through microsatellite and pedigree analysis it appeared that the Skyros presented a similar level of genetic diversity to the other European breeds. Nevertheless, comparisons between DNA-based and pedigree-based results revealed that a loss of genetic diversity had probably already occurred before the beginning of breed registration. Tests indicated the possible existence of a recent bottleneck in two of the three main herds of Skyros pony. Nonetheless, relatively high levels of heterozygosity and Polymorphism Information Content indicated sufficient residual genetic variability, probably useful in planning future strategies for breed conservation. Three other Greek breeds were also analyzed. A comparison of these with domestic breeds elsewhere, revealed the closest relationships to be with the Middle Eastern types, whereas the Skyros itself remained isolated, without any close relationship, whatsoever. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2008), 12(2), 203-210

Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well ... [more ▼]

Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of lactoferrin content estimated by mid-infrared spectrometry in bovine milk
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Arnould, Valérie ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2007), 90(9), 4443-4450

The effects of lactoferrin (LF) on the immune system have already been shown by many studies. Unfortunately, the current methods used to measure LF levels in milk do not permit the study of the genetic ... [more ▼]

The effects of lactoferrin (LF) on the immune system have already been shown by many studies. Unfortunately, the current methods used to measure LF levels in milk do not permit the study of the genetic variability of lactoferrin or the performance of routine genetic evaluations. The first aim of this research was to derive a calibration equation permitting the prediction of LF in milk by mid-infrared spectrometry (MIR). The calibration with partial least squares on 69 samples showed a ratio of standard error of cross-validation to standard deviation equal to 1.98. Based on this value, the calibration equation was used to establish an LF indicator trait (predicted LF; pLF) on a large number of milk samples (n = 7,690). A subsequent study of its variability was conducted, which confirmed that stage of lactation and lactation number influence the overall pLF level. Small differences in mean pLF among 7 dairy breeds were also observed. The pLF content of Jersey milk was significantly higher than that in Holstein milk. Therefore, the choice of breed could change the expected LF level. Heritability estimated for pLF was 19.7%. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between somatic cell score and pLF were 0.04 and 0.26, respectively. As somatic cell score increases in presence of mastitis, this observation seems to indicate that pLF, or a function of observed pLF, compared with expected LF might have potential as an indicator of mastitis. The negative genetic correlation (−0.36) between milk yield and pLF could indicate an undesirable effect of selection for high milk production on the overall LF level. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of milk components based on mid-infrared spectral data.
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Misztal, I.; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Journal of Dairy Science (2010), 93(4), 1722-1728

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of the mid-infrared (MIR) milk spectrum represented by 1,060 data points per sample. The dimensionality of traits was reduced by principal ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of the mid-infrared (MIR) milk spectrum represented by 1,060 data points per sample. The dimensionality of traits was reduced by principal components analysis. Therefore, 46 principal components describing 99.03% of the phenotypic variability were used to create 46 new traits. Variance components were estimated using canonical transformation. Heritability ranged from 0 to 0.35. Twenty-five out of 46 studied traits showed a permanent environment variance greater than genetic variance. Eight traits showed heritability greater than 0.10. Variances of original spectral traits were obtained by back transformation. Heritabilities for each spectral data points ranged from 0.003 to 0.42. In particular, 3 MIR regions showing moderate to high heritability estimates were of potential genetic interest. Heritabilities for specific wave numbers, linked with common milk traits (e.g., lipids, lactose), were similar to those estimated for these traits. This research confirms the genetic variability of the MIR milk spectrum and, therefore, the genetic variation of milk components. The objective of this study was to better understand the genetics of milk composition and, maybe in the future, to select animals to improve milk quality. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of milk fatty acids.
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg

in Journal of Applied Genetics (2009), 50(1), 29-39

The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. The natural sources of variation, such as feeding or genetics, could be used to increase the ... [more ▼]

The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. The natural sources of variation, such as feeding or genetics, could be used to increase the concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. The impact of feeding is well described. However, genetic effects on the milk FA composition begin to be extensively studied. This paper summarizes the available information about the genetic variability of FAs. The greatest breed differences in FA composition are observed between Holstein and Jersey milk. Milk fat of the latter breed contains higher concentrations of saturated FAs, especially short-chain FAs. The variation of the delta-9 desaturase activity estimated from specific FA ratios could explain partly these breed differences. The choice of a specific breed seems to be a possibility to improve the nutritional quality of milk fat. Generally, the proportions of FAs in milk are more heritable than the proportions of these same FAs in fat. Heritability estimates range from 0.00 to 0.54. The presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms could explain partly the observed individual genetic variability. The polymorphisms detected on SCD1 and DGAT1 genes influence the milk FA composition. The SCD1 V allele increases the unsaturation of C16 and C18. The DGAT1 A allele is related to the unsaturation of C18. So, a combination of the molecular and quantitative approaches should be used to develop tools helping farmers in the selection of their animals to improve the nutritional quality of the produced milk fat. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of test-day stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase 9 activity
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg

in Journal of Dairy Science (2009), 92(E-suppl.1), 353-354

Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. Different natural sources of variation such as feeding or genetics could be used to modify the contents of ... [more ▼]

Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. Different natural sources of variation such as feeding or genetics could be used to modify the contents of unsaturated fatty acids. The impact of feeding is well described; however, genetics effects on the milk FA composition are not well studied. Increasing the unsaturated fatty acids contents of bovine milk could have the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products. The stearoyl Coenzyme-A desaturase 9 (delta-9) gene was identified as a potential functional candidate gene affecting milk fat composition in dairy cattle. The objective of this research was to study the genetic variability on this enzyme activity across lactations. A total of 199,977 test-day records were obtained from 29,603 Holstein cows in first lactation, 154,267 records from 23,453 Holstein cows in second lactation, and 173,244 records from 75,887 Holstein cows in third and later lactations. The used model was a multiple-trait random regressions test-day model. Fixed effects were: herd × date of test, and class of age. Random effects were: herd × year of calving, permanent environmental, additive genetic, and residual effects. The studied traits were milk yield, protein content, percentage of fat, monounsaturated fatty acids estimated by mid-infrared spectrometry, and the ratios reflecting the delta-9 activity. Obtained heritability estimates of delta-9 as well as the genetic and phenotypic correlations varied across lactations. These results suggest potential improvements of milk fat composition based on delta-9 activity using animal selection and appropriate management practices. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of test-day stearoyl coenzyme-A desaturase 9 activity
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg

Conference (2009, July)

Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. Different natural sources of variation such as feeding or genetics could be used to modify the contents of ... [more ▼]

Milk fatty acid (FA) profile is far from the optimal fat composition in regards to human health. Different natural sources of variation such as feeding or genetics could be used to modify the contents of unsaturated fatty acids. The impact of feeding is well described; however, genetics effects on the milk FA composition are not well studied. Increasing the unsaturated fatty acids contents of bovine milk could have the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products. The stearoyl Coenzyme-A desaturase 9 (delta-9) gene was identified as a potential functional candidate gene affecting milk fat composition in dairy cattle. The objective of this research was to study the genetic variability on this enzyme activity across lactations. A total of 199,977 test-day records were obtained from 29,603 Holstein cows in first lactation, 154,267 records from 23,453 Holstein cows in second lactation, and 173,244 records from 75,887 Holstein cows in third and later lactations. The used model was a multiple-trait random regressions test-day model. Fixed effects were: herd × date of test, and class of age. Random effects were: herd × year of calving, permanent environmental, additive genetic, and residual effects. The studied traits were milk yield, protein content, percentage of fat, monounsaturated fatty acids estimated by mid-infrared spectrometry, and the ratios reflecting the delta-9 activity. Obtained heritability estimates of delta-9 as well as the genetic and phenotypic correlations varied across lactations. These results suggest potential improvements of milk fat composition based on delta-9 activity using animal selection and appropriate management practices. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of the mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in milk for Walloon Holstein first-parity cows
Leclercq, Gil ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Livestock Science (2013), 151(2-3), 158-162

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability of the mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in milk (pLF) in Holstein first-parity cows. Variance components were estimated by ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability of the mid-infrared prediction of lactoferrin content in milk (pLF) in Holstein first-parity cows. Variance components were estimated by Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood using a single-trait test-day random regression animal model. The dataset included 395,287 test-day records from 67,178 cows in 1190 herds from the Walloon Region of Belgium. Average pLF was 164.89. mg/L and the standard deviation was 76.07. mg/L. Frequency distribution for pLF was slightly asymmetrical, and pLF seemed to increase almost linearly all along the first lactation after a sharp decrease in early lactation. Genetic variance of pLF increased with days in milk within lactation while the permanent environmental variance was the highest in early lactation, then decreased to become lower than genetic variance at 50 days in milk, and finally increased in the last lactation stages. The pLF was a moderately heritable trait. Daily heritability of pLF was the lowest at 5 days in milk (0.19), then increased to reach a maximum at 260 days in milk (0.44), and finally decreased for the last stages of lactation (0.35 at 365 days in milk). Results from this study indicated that pLF is variable and heritable over the lactation and therefore it could be changed by genetic selection. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic variability of the Skyros pony breed and its relationship with other Greek and foreign horse breeds
Bömcke, Elisabeth ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Cothran, E. G.

in Book of Abstracts of the 59th Annual Meeeting of the European Association for Animal Production (EAAP) (2008, August)

On the basis of phenotypes and genotypes, seven native breeds were identified in Greece. The Skyros pony is the more distinctive of these breeds. Using blood group and microsatellite loci, the aim of this ... [more ▼]

On the basis of phenotypes and genotypes, seven native breeds were identified in Greece. The Skyros pony is the more distinctive of these breeds. Using blood group and microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of Skyros breed, using also available genealogical information, and to investigate its relationships with the other Greek and foreign horse breeds. Results showed that the Skyros breed presented similar level of genetic diversity to other European breeds. Comparisons between DNA-based and pedigree-based results showed that the loss of genetic diversity has probably occurred before the beginning of breed registration. However, the relatively high levels of heterozygosity and Polymorphism Information Content values indicated still sufficient residual genetic variability that could be useful for planning future breeding strategies for the breed conservation. Relationship study showed no association between genetic variation of native Greek breed and population size or degree of geographic isolation. Compared to other domestic breeds, most of the Greek breed showed closest relationships with Middle Eastern breeds, while the Skyros breed clustered surprisingly with Lithuanian horses. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg)