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See detailGlipizide increases plasma insulin but not C-peptide level after a standardized breakfast in type 2 diabetic patients.
Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Luyckx, A. S.

in European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (1984), 26(4), 471-4

Peripheral blood glucose, plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were investigated after giving a standardized breakfast (500 kcal, 60 g carbohydrates) to 10 nonobese Type 2 diabetic patients previously ... [more ▼]

Peripheral blood glucose, plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were investigated after giving a standardized breakfast (500 kcal, 60 g carbohydrates) to 10 nonobese Type 2 diabetic patients previously treated by diet alone. Each patient received at random, at 1 week intervals, either 5 mg glipizide (meal + glipizide) or a placebo (meal alone) 30 min before breakfast. Basal values of blood glucose, plasma insulin and C-peptide were similar on both occasions. After meal + glipizide, the blood glucose increase was sharply limited whereas the rise in plasma insulin was steeper and reached twice as high a level. In contrast, the rise in plasma C-peptide was similar in both conditions. Consequently, the areas under the curves (0-300 min) showed a marked reduction in blood glucose after meal + glipizide (2289 +/- 149 versus 3101 +/- 169 mmol X min/1; 2p less than 0.001), associated with a significant increase in plasma insulin (14219 +/- 3261 versus 7591 +/- 1173 microU X min/ml; 2p less than 0.025) but no significant change in plasma C-peptide (342 +/- 45 versus 326 +/- 34 pmol X min/ml; N.S.). The insulin/C-peptide molar ratio was thus significantly increased after meal + glipizide (0.41 +/- 0.06 versus 0.23 +/- 0.04 at the 60th min; 2p less than 0.02). The dissociation between the responses of insulin and C-peptide suggests that a single dose of 5 mg glipizide in Type 2 diabetic subjects may enhance availability of peripheral insulin by extrapancreatic mechanism(s). This phenomenon may result in a higher circulating level of the hormone and therefore represent a further mode of action of sulphonylureas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailGliptin versus a sulphonylurea as add-on to metformin.
SCHEEN, André ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg

in Lancet (2012), 380

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See detailLes gliptines, une nouvelle mode?
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue du Praticien (La) (2013), 63(3), 304-5

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See detailGliptins (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) and risk of acute pancreatitis.
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Expert Opinion on Drug Safety (2013), 12(4), 545-57

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) play an increasing role in the management of type 2 diabetes. Such incretin-based therapies offer some advantages over other glucose ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) play an increasing role in the management of type 2 diabetes. Such incretin-based therapies offer some advantages over other glucose-lowering agents, but might be associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Areas covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze clinical cases of acute pancreatitis reported in the literature or to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in randomized clinical trials, and in observational studies with five DPP-4 inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, and linagliptin. Expert opinion: An increased risk of pancreatitis has been reported in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. Several anecdotal clinical cases of pancreatitis have been reported with sitagliptin and vildagliptin and an increased relative risk reported to the FDA with sitagliptin versus other comparators, but reporting bias cannot be excluded. In rather short-term clinical trials with well-selected diabetic patients, no increased risk of acute pancreatitis has been observed with any of the five commercialized DPP-4 inhibitors: sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, and linagliptin. Similarly, real-life cohort studies showed no increased incidence of pancreatitis with gliptins compared with other glucose-lowering agents, a finding recently challenged by a case- control study. These results must be confirmed in postmarketing surveillance programs and in ongoing large prospective trials with cardiovascular outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailGlissement progressif de l’analyse et de la gestion des risques des autorités publiques aux opérateurs industriels
Brunet, Sébastien ULg; Michel, Quentin ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2006), 2006/1-2

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See detailGlitazones et insuffisance cardiaque: resultats des etudes PROactive, ADOPT, DREAM et RECORD.
De Flines, Jenny ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2007), 3(122), 18761878-83

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but are associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure (CHF). The odds ratio of ICC was 1.43 ... [more ▼]

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but are associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure (CHF). The odds ratio of ICC was 1.43 (pioglitazone vs placebo) in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk in the PROactive trial while it averaged 1.22 (rosiglitazone vs metformin) and 2.20 (rosiglitazone vs metformin) in the ADOPT study. In the interim analysis of the ongoing RECORD trial, the odds ratio averaged 2.15 (rosiglitazone vs metformin or sulfonylureas). In four real life registries, the relative risk of CHF with TZDs varied between 1.06 and 1.76 (between 1.10 and 1.44 combined with insulin) as compared to a treatment without TZDs. Such higher CHF risk should be appreciated according to the potential benefits of glitazones in the management of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailGlnR-mediated regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the actinomycete Saccharopolysporaerythraea
Li-Li, Yao; Cheng-Heng, Liao; Gang, Huang et al

in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2014)

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See detailGlobal adaptive stabilization of cascade nonlinear systems
Jankovic, M.; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg; Kokotovic, Petar V.

in Automatica (1997), 33(2), 263-368

An adaptive controller is developed for a class of nonlinear systems for which other approaches (e.g. backstepping) may fail to be applicable. The new design employs feedback passivation and an explicit ... [more ▼]

An adaptive controller is developed for a class of nonlinear systems for which other approaches (e.g. backstepping) may fail to be applicable. The new design employs feedback passivation and an explicit construction of a Lyapunov function for the zero dynamics with respect to a relative degree 1 output. As an illustration a longstanding "nonlinear benchmark problem" is solved. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal agricultural monitoring systems by integration of earth observation and modelling techniques (globam project).
Defourny, Pierre; Bériaux, Emilie; Tychon, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2008, February 12)

Nowadays, food security and crop production variability become a major concern. Moreover, in spite of major technological and methodological EO improvements observed since the late 1990’s, very little ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, food security and crop production variability become a major concern. Moreover, in spite of major technological and methodological EO improvements observed since the late 1990’s, very little change has been observed in the operational systems. A major gap exists between the remote sensing operationally used and the current scientific state of the art in EO crop monitoring. There is a lack of relevant field data over large areas, and these data are very much needed to gain a better understanding of potential improvements of the operational systems. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal analysis of a continuous-time flow whith computes time-optimal switchings
Grognard, F.; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2001, December)

The minimum-time bounded control of linear systems is generically bang-bang and the number of switchings does not exceed the dimension of the system if the eigenvalues of the system matrix are real. This ... [more ▼]

The minimum-time bounded control of linear systems is generically bang-bang and the number of switchings does not exceed the dimension of the system if the eigenvalues of the system matrix are real. This paper proposes a synthesis method for such problems based on dynamical systems that "compute" the optimal sequence of switching times. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal analysis of a continuum model for monotone pulse-coupled oscillators
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2013), 58(5), 1154-1166

We consider a continuum of phase oscillators on the circle interacting through an impulsive instantaneous coupling. In contrast with previous studies on related pulse-coupledmodels, the stability results ... [more ▼]

We consider a continuum of phase oscillators on the circle interacting through an impulsive instantaneous coupling. In contrast with previous studies on related pulse-coupledmodels, the stability results obtained in the continuum limit are global. For the nonlinear transport equation governing the evolution of the oscillators, we propose (under technical assumptions) a global Lyapunov function which is induced by a total variation distance between quantile densities. The monotone time evolution of the Lyapunov function completely characterizes the dichotomic behavior of the oscillators: either the oscillators converge in finite time to a synchronous state or they asymptotically converge to an asynchronous state uniformly spread on the circle. The results of the present paper apply to popular phase oscillators models (e.g., the well-known leaky integrate-and-fire model) and show a strong parallel between the analysis of finite and infinite populations. In addition, they provide a novel approach for the (global) analysis of pulse-coupled oscillators. © 2012 IEEE. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Analysis of Firing Maps
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Hendrickx, Julien; Megretski, Alexandre et al

in Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems (2010, July)

In this paper, we study the behavior of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators. Each oscillator is characterized by a state evolving between two threshold values. As the state reaches the upper ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the behavior of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators. Each oscillator is characterized by a state evolving between two threshold values. As the state reaches the upper threshold, it is reset to the lower threshold and emits a pulse which increments by a constant value the state of every other oscillator. The behavior of the system is described by the so-called firing map: depending on the stability of the firing map, an important dichotomy characterizes the behavior of the oscillators (synchronization or clustering). The firing map is the composition of a linear map with a scalar nonlinearity. After briefly discussing the case of the scalar firing map (corresponding to two oscillators), the stability analysis is extended to the general n-dimensional firing map (for n +1 oscillators). Different models are considered (leaky oscillators, quadratic oscillators,...), with a particular emphasis on the persistence of the dichotomy in higher dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal analysis of gene expression in the skin of mice after a 92 days journey in microgravity.
Neutelings, Thibaut ULg; Liu, Y.; Cancedda, R et al

Conference (2012)

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See detailGlobal analysis of gene expression in the skin of mice after a 92 days journey in microgravity.
Neutelings, Thibaut ULg; Liu, Y.; Cancedda, R. et al

Poster (2012, May 04)

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See detailA global analysis of Spitzer and new HARPS data confirms the loneliness and metal-richness of GJ 436 b
Lanotte, Audrey ULg; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Demory, B.-O. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (in press)

Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further ... [more ▼]

Context. GJ 436b is one of the few transiting warm Neptunes for which a detailed characterisation of the atmosphere is possible, whereas its non-negligible orbital eccentricity calls for further investigation. Independent analyses of several individual datasets obtained with Spitzer have led to contradicting results attributed to the different techniques used to treat the instrumental effects. Aims. We aim at investigating these previous controversial results and developing our knowledge of the system based on the full Spitzer photometry dataset combined with new Doppler measurements obtained with the HARPS spectrograph. We also want to search for additional planets. Methods. We optimise aperture photometry techniques and the photometric deconvolution algorithm DECPHOT to improve the data reduction of the Spitzer photometry spanning wavelengths from 3-24 {\mu}m. Adding the high precision HARPS radial velocity data, we undertake a Bayesian global analysis of the system considering both instrumental and stellar effects on the flux variation. Results. We present a refined radius estimate of RP=4.10 +/- 0.16 R_Earth, mass MP=25.4 +/- 2.1 M_Earth and eccentricity e= 0.162 +/- 0.004 for GJ 436b. Our measured transit depths remain constant in time and wavelength, in disagreement with the results of previous studies. In addition, we find that the post-occultation flare-like structure at 3.6 {\mu}m that led to divergent results on the occultation depth measurement is spurious. We obtain occultation depths at 3.6, 5.8, and 8.0 {\mu}m that are shallower than in previous works, in particular at 3.6 {\mu}m. However, these depths still appear consistent with a metal-rich atmosphere depleted in methane and enhanced in CO/CO2, although perhaps less than previously thought. We find no evidence for a potential planetary companion, stellar activity, nor for a stellar spin-orbit misalignment. [ABRIDGED] [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal and regional parameters of dyssynchrony in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy
Van de Veire, N.; De Sutter, J.; Van Camp, G. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2005), 95(3), 421-423

In this study, color tissue Doppler imaging was used to assess global and regional mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and those with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy ... [more ▼]

In this study, color tissue Doppler imaging was used to assess global and regional mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and those with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Potential differences in the area of latest mechanical activation could have practical implications regarding lead positioning and the success rate of biventricular pacemaker implantation.. (C) 2005 by Excerpta Medica Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailA global approach of the unsteady surface flows computations including shocks, by finite elements
Pirotton, Michel ULg

in Cerrolaza; Gajardo; Brebbia (Eds.) Numerical Methods in Engineering Simulation (1996, March 25)

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See detailA Global Approach to Mutual Funds Market Timing Ability
Bodson, Laurent ULg; Sougné, Danielle ULg; Cavenaile, Laurent

in Journal of Empirical Finance (2013)

• We propose a generalized specification to study market timing. Instead of considering an average market exposure for mutual funds, we allow mutual fund market betas to follow a random walk in the ... [more ▼]

• We propose a generalized specification to study market timing. Instead of considering an average market exposure for mutual funds, we allow mutual fund market betas to follow a random walk in the absence of market timing ability. As a consequence, we capture market exposure dynamics which is effectively due to manager market timing skills while allowing exposure dynamics to come from other sources than market timing. • We find that on average 6% of mutual funds display return market timing abilities while this percentage amounts to respectively 13% and 14% for volatility and liquidity market timing. We also analyse market timing by investment strategies and for surviving and dead funds. Dead fund exhibit lower volatility and liquidity timing skills than live funds. [less ▲]

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See detailA Global Approach to Mutual Funds Market Timing Ability
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Bodson, Laurent ULg; Cavenaile, Laurent

E-print/Working paper (2012)

In this paper, we globally investigate market timing abilities of mutual fund managers from the three perspectives: market return, market-wide volatility and aggregate liquidity. We propose a new ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we globally investigate market timing abilities of mutual fund managers from the three perspectives: market return, market-wide volatility and aggregate liquidity. We propose a new specification to study market timing. Instead of considering an average market exposure for mutual funds, we allow mutual fund market betas to follow a random walk in the absence of market timing ability. As a consequence, we capture market exposure dynamics which is really due to manager market timing skills while allowing dynamics to come from other sources than market timing. We find that on average 6% of mutual funds display return market timing abilities while this percentage amounts to respectively 13% and 14% for volatility and liquidity market timing. We also analyze market timing by investment strategies and for surviving and dead funds. Dead fund exhibit lower volatility and liquidity timing skills than live funds. [less ▲]

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