How does the age of hoverfly females affect their reproduction?
; Verheggen, François ; Francis, Frédéric et al
in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2007), 72(3),Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
How does the efficacy of Protelos translate into patient benefits ?
in Osteoporosis International (2009, March), 20(Suppl.1), 178Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)
How does the ocean surrounding the Greenland ice sheet impact its surface mass balance ?
; Watelet, Sylvain ; Fettweis, Xavier et al
Poster (2013, April)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (6 ULg)
How does the organizational context influence the Competitive Intelligence process among Walloon SMEs?
Master's dissertation (2012)
In this increasingly turbulent, global and competitive context, it becomes critical for companies to create and sustain a competitive advantage. Competitive Intelligence (CI), defined as “the process by ... [more ▼]
In this increasingly turbulent, global and competitive context, it becomes critical for companies to create and sustain a competitive advantage. Competitive Intelligence (CI), defined as “the process by which organizations gather information on competitors and the competitive environment [...]” (Wright, Eid & Fleisher, 2009, p.942), can contribute to do so by enabling managers to be aware of and respond to changes in their competitive environment. The CI process includes four steps: (a) planning and focus, (b) data collection, (c) data analysis and (d) communication. First, this paper assesses the level of deployment of CI among Walloon SMEs. Second, it examines the influence of context variables on the CI process. A questionnaire was distributed to 423 Walloon SMEs’ executives, of whom 81 answered. SMEs’ executives were surveyed about their companies’ CI practices as well as their perception of their company’s formal structure, employee involvement and organizational awareness. We found that Walloon SMEs are not very active to conduct CI effectively. Indeed, while Walloon SMEs have recognized that, theoretically, CI is a necessary activity for maintaining a competitive advantage, in practice, most of them do not have yet a well-established CI process in their company. Then, we established the influence of the context in which CI takes place on the success of the CI process. Specifically, we supported that better formal structure, employee involvement and organizational awareness improve the CI process. Finally, we examined the impact of two extra potential antecedents, namely the innovation orientation and the company’s size. We found that innovation-oriented companies tend to exploit CI more than followers. The results lead to several recommendations for SMEs. First, managers should be aware that CI is critical for their company’s survival since the context in which they operate is increasingly competitive. Second, businesses, especially those that are innovation-oriented, should note that an improvement in their formal infrastructure, organizational awareness and employee involvement processes could significantly enhance their CI efficiency. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 95 (14 ULg)
How dynamical clustering triggers Maxwell's demon in microgravity
Opsomer, Eric ; Noirhomme, Martial ; Vandewalle, Nicolas et al
in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2013), 88
In microgravity, the gathering of granular material can be achieved by a dynamical clustering whose existence depends on the geometry of the cell that contains the particles and the energy that is ... [more ▼]
In microgravity, the gathering of granular material can be achieved by a dynamical clustering whose existence depends on the geometry of the cell that contains the particles and the energy that is injected into the system. By compartmentalizing the cell in several subcells of smaller volume, local clustering is triggered and the so formed dense regions act as stable traps. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations were performed in order to reproduce the phenomenon and to analyze the formation and the stability of such traps. Depending on the total number N of particles present in the whole system, several clustering modes are encountered and a corresponding bifurcation diagram is presented. Moreover, an iterative model based on the measured particle flux F as well as a theoretical model giving the asymptotical steady states are used to validate our results. The obtained results are promising and can provide ways to manipulate grains in microgravity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg)
How ergodic is the Fragmentation of the Pyridine Cation ? A Maximum Entropy Ananlysis
; Locht, Robert ; Lorquet, Andrée et al
in Anton, J.; Cederquist, H.; Larsson, M. (Eds.) et al 23rd International Conference on the Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions: Book of Abstracts. (2003)
The experimental KER and the statistical distributions are compared by the Maximum Entropy Method. An Ergodicity Index F(E) is defined to measure the phase space sampling efficiency. This is applied to ... [more ▼]
The experimental KER and the statistical distributions are compared by the Maximum Entropy Method. An Ergodicity Index F(E) is defined to measure the phase space sampling efficiency. This is applied to the KERD of C4H4+ cation produced by the C5H5N+ -> HCN+C4H4+ fragmentation path. In this particular case the F(E) is found to decrease steadily with increasing internal energy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULg)
How ergodic is the fragmentation of the pyridine cation? A maximum entropy analysis
; Locht, Robert ; Lorquet, Andrée et al
in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry (2003), 228(2-3), 389-402
The kinetic energy released to the C4H4+ and HCN fragments produced by the dissociation of the pyridine ion has been determined by a retarding field technique up to an internal energy of 4eV above the ... [more ▼]
The kinetic energy released to the C4H4+ and HCN fragments produced by the dissociation of the pyridine ion has been determined by a retarding field technique up to an internal energy of 4eV above the reaction threshold. This extends our previous study limited to the metastable domain [Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Process. 185/186/187 (1999) 155]. Retarding potential curves resulting from dissociative photoionization using the He(I), Ne(I), and Ar(II) resonance lines have been analyzed by the maximum entropy method. The comparison between the experimentally measured curves and those calculated for the prior (i.e., most statistical) situation reveals the existence of dynamical constraints that prevent phase space from being fully explored. The "ergodicity index" F(E) that measures the efficiency of phase space sampling as a function of the internal energy E of the molecular ion is found to decrease steadily as a function of E and to level off at a value of about 50% when E greater than or equal to 2.5 eV At these high internal energies where phase space exploration no longer decreases, spontaneous intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (i.e., resulting from the anharmonicity of the molecular vibrations) is thought to contribute to internal energy randomization to a limited extent only. When the lifetime is short, phase space exploration is believed to result instead from the relaxation of the electronic energy via a cascade of non-radiative transitions, which leads to a great diversity of initial conditions, and thus, contributes to statisticity. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 ULg)
How eye movements and expertise can explain memory of visual items of central or marginal interest
Blavier, Adelaïde ; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie
in Journal of Vision (2009)
In complex scene, memory for central interest items is better than memory for marginal interest items and this difference remains stable independently of the scene presentation duration (Melcher, 2006 ... [more ▼]
In complex scene, memory for central interest items is better than memory for marginal interest items and this difference remains stable independently of the scene presentation duration (Melcher, 2006). However, without eye movement recording, it is not possible to know whether central interest items are better remembered because they are more fixated or because they are more meaningful. In order to answer this question, we analysed the memory of complex scenes (paintings) according to the eye movements and subjects’ expertise. 15 novice subjects and 15 art historians (experts) were asked to look at 6 paintings that were separately and randomly presented for 10 seconds. After each painting presentation, subjects were asked questions about painting knowledge (author’s name, painting’s name) in order to evaluate their painting knowledge and about pictorial details of 3 categories: details of central or marginal interest and background information. If the expert and novice groups significantly differed concerning the knowledge they had about all paintings, the accuracy of answers about the painting details did not differ between both groups. Moreover, we showed novice’s answers were more accurate when they looked longer at the asked detail and when this detail was watched early on in the presentation while in the expert group, the accuracy of the answer was not influenced by the duration and moment they watched the asked detail. These findings suggest experts have some wrong representations which are not influenced by eye movements contrary to novices whom memory accuracy is influenced by their eye movements. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (7 ULg)
How far and how fast do bryophytes travel at the landscape scale?
Hutsemekers, Virginie ; Dopagne, Claude ; Vanderpoorten, Alain
in Diversity & Distributions (2008), 14(3), 483-492
Dispersal ability is a factor of prime importance to explain biotic distributions. Yet, it is extremely difficult to measure directly. In this study, we take advantage of the natural experimental design ... [more ▼]
Dispersal ability is a factor of prime importance to explain biotic distributions. Yet, it is extremely difficult to measure directly. In this study, we take advantage of the natural experimental design of slag heap colonization in Belgium to document the timing and range of dispersal of bryophytes at the landscape scale. On the basis of a species atlas with a 4 × 4 km grid, the minimum distance separating species found on 52 slag heaps from potential source populations was determined. Minimum dispersal rates were inferred by coupling the information on minimum distance between slag heap and source populations with time since colonization. The number of species per slag heap is significantly correlated with time since colonization and area size. The frequency distribution of the longest dispersal events is highly skewed, with 44% of the species recruited within the nearest 6 km. In the remaining 56% of the species, recruitments from source populations located within a range of at least 6–86 km occurred within a period of less than 50 years. The majority of the species that are not recruited within the nearest vicinity of the slag heaps, including rare species at the regional scale, occur on slag heaps that have been colonized for 25–50 years. Most recently colonized slag heaps are indeed characterized by 'fugitive', weedy species, whereas slag heaps that have been colonized for > 50 years tend to accumulate perennial species with a 'stayer' life strategy. These observations suggest that rare species may display the dispersal ability to travel across the landscape, but are subsequently limited by their ability to establish a viable community because of more competitive neighbours. Rare species therefore tend to accumulate at intermediate colonization stages, which represent a trade-off between an increasing probability of colonization with time and a decreasing probability of establishment due to competition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 ULg)
How fertilizer and soil nitrogen are distributed into winter wheat plant
; Destain, Jean-Pierre ; Bodson, Bernard et al
(2007, September 16)Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
How good are we at extracting personal information from voices?
Dehon, Hedwige ;
Poster (2009, June)Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
How HTLV-1 may subvert miRNAs for persistence and transformation.
Bouzar, Amel ; Willems, Luc
in Retrovirology (2008), 5
Distinct mechanisms are used by viruses to interact with cellular miRNAs. The role of microRNAs in viral replication and persistence ranges from viral-encoded microRNAs to suppressors of RNA interference ... [more ▼]
Distinct mechanisms are used by viruses to interact with cellular miRNAs. The role of microRNAs in viral replication and persistence ranges from viral-encoded microRNAs to suppressors of RNA interference. Viruses can also exploit cellular miRNAs for influencing cellular metabolism to ensure efficient replication or latency. In particular, two recent studies provide examples of how HTLV-1 may co-opt or subvert cellular miRNAs for persistent replication and oncogenic purposes. The pathways modulated by these described miRNAs are critically involved in apoptosis, proliferation and innate immune response. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (29 ULg)
How I explore the benefit of 3D/4D ultrasound in obstetrics
Chantraine, Frédéric ; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre ; Foidart, Jean-Michel
in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(3), 153-7
During recent years, 3D has become an important tool in ultrasound. In obstetrics, the classic 2D examination with Doppler is now often completed by 3D. In this article the strengths and weaknesses of ... [more ▼]
During recent years, 3D has become an important tool in ultrasound. In obstetrics, the classic 2D examination with Doppler is now often completed by 3D. In this article the strengths and weaknesses of this technique are discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (3 ULg)
How institutional theory can contribute to understand social entrepreneurship. Illustrations from microfinance
Conference (2009)Detailed reference viewed: 66 (1 ULg)
How Intellectual Capital Influences Innovation in Belgian Luxury Houses
Riguelle, France ; Van Caillie, Didier
Conference (2013, June)
Since almost three decades, luxury houses have been tackling the increasing importance of groups and of private investment funds specialized in the luxury sector (Roux & Floch, 1996). Therefore innovation ... [more ▼]
Since almost three decades, luxury houses have been tackling the increasing importance of groups and of private investment funds specialized in the luxury sector (Roux & Floch, 1996). Therefore innovation has become an important source of value creation and of competitive advantage for them (Chevallier & Mazzalovo, 2008; Kapferer & Bastien, 2009). Reciprocally, luxury houses usually demonstrate a strong intellectual capital according to the definitions of Bontis (1998). Although the impact of intellectual capital on innovation has been widely demonstrated by scholars in a general scope (Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005), the existence and the nature of this influence has not been investigated in the luxury sector yet. The aim of our research is to highlight if a causal relationship exists in Belgian luxury houses, in order to validate or invalidate the results obtained by Subramaniam & Youndt (2005) and by Wu, Chang, & Chen (2008) within the luxury sector. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg)
How King Leopold II used Emile de Laveleye’s intellectual network for the benefit of his African project…
Conference (2010, May 20)
The “Belle Epoque” saw the revival of the colonial idea in new forms. A second European colonization wave washed over Africa. King Leopold II unfolded his activities in Congo from 1876 onwards. There, his ... [more ▼]
The “Belle Epoque” saw the revival of the colonial idea in new forms. A second European colonization wave washed over Africa. King Leopold II unfolded his activities in Congo from 1876 onwards. There, his efforts to develop a so-called “philanthropic” enterprise soon evolved in a process of state formation, overshadowed by intrigues and tensions that were a consequence of colonial competition between the western powers. Only a decade later, at the Berlin Conference of 1885, a definite arrangement was adopted. Everywhere in Europe, a disputed transition was made from liberal to more conservative ways of government. Of course this tension field also dominated intellectual life. There was an intense debate between partisans of colonialism and supporters of worldwide free trade. For the development of his colonial doctrine Leopold II had been inspired by intellectuals that supported economic expansionism. Most of them were active in the field of economic geography. But the King also searched for support in other academic circles and mobilized one of Europe’s brightest minds to join him in his quest for the most adequate economic, social and political model of a future state in the heart of Africa. In his books, articles and pamphlets, the liberal minded political economist Emile de Laveleye (1822-1892) – an opinion maker of European renown – showed himself an unshakable opponent of colonization and imperialism. However, in the period 1875-1885 – a decade so crucial for Congo – a surprising intellectual rapprochement between de Laveleye and Leopold II was established. For a certain time, this competent man of science advised the King, for example at the International Geographical Conference in Brussels, putting into royal service an intellectual network of European range. This paper investigates how, in the complex and constantly evolving public discussion about Congo, two apparently opposing minds attracted each other. Analyzing de Laveleye’s publications and correspondence we focus on his important pleas for a “neutral and international formula” that would place Leopold II in a conflicting situation with Portugal and France, countries that claimed Congo’s estuary for their own benefit. De Laveleye believed that Leopold was sincere about his civilizing mission and crusade against slavery. This study shows how, in the years preceding the Berlin Conference, de Laveleye got actively involved in a carefully orchestrated European media campaign in support of Leopold’s initiative. It was there that his intellectual circle became extremely useful and was fully implicated. His contacts in the world of law, especially among experts of international law, contributed to the important discussions about Congo’s juridical status. De Laveleye’s colleague Sir Travers Twiss, one of the most reputed jurists of that time, as well as the influential Institut de Droit international, of which de Laveleye had been one of the founders, entered the debate zone and took positions that were favorable for Leopold’s project. With this new approach, our paper also aims to give insight in the way Leopold II transformed his own reasoning into a more authoritative set of practical standards that were shared by an intellectual elite. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (5 ULg)
How landscapes change: human disturbance and ecosystem fragmentation in the Americas (G.A. Bradshaw, P.A. Marquet).
in Landscape Research (2004), 29(1), 101-102Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
How large is the Io UV footprint?
Bonfond, Bertrand ; Grodent, Denis ; Gérard, Jean-Claude et al
Located close to the feet of the magnetic field lines connecting Io to each Jovian hemisphere, the Io footprint is the auroral signature of the electromagnetic interaction between Io and Jupiter's ... [more ▼]
Located close to the feet of the magnetic field lines connecting Io to each Jovian hemisphere, the Io footprint is the auroral signature of the electromagnetic interaction between Io and Jupiter's magnetosphere. It consists of several spots followed downstream by an extended tail. The size of the main spot is expected to scale to the size of the interaction region close to Io. Consequently, this quantity is crucial to understand the processes involved. However, the main spot size is a controversial issue as previously published values range from ~400 km to ~10000 km, leading to contradictory conclusions. Based on observations carried on with the Hubble Space Telescope STIS and ACS FUV instruments from 1997 to 2009, we estimate the size of the main footprint spot on a much larger image sample than previously. Additionally, we carefully selected the images in order to avoid viewing geometry ambiguities when measuring the spatial extent of the different features. The main spot length along the footpath is ~900 km while its width perpendicular to the footpath is <200 km. The spot length is larger than the projected diameter of Io along unperturbed magnetic field lines, which appears to be consistent with recent simulations. The vertical extent and the peak altitude of the main spot are similar to those measured in the tail. Nevertheless, the secondary spot attributed to trans-hemispheric electron beams has been measured to peak at ∼200 km below the main spot and the tail, which confirms their different origins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)