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See detailFunctional nanoobjects by means of polymers
Van Butsele, Kathy; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg

Conference (2008, September 08)

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of disorders of consciousness
Di Perri, Carol; Stender, Johan; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in CAVANNA, Andrea (Ed.) Epilepsy and behavior Alteration of Counsciousness in Epilepsy (2013)

Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients ... [more ▼]

Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with chronic disorders of consciousness and subjects undergoing general anesthesia present a complex dysfunctionality in the architecture of brain connectivity. At present, the global hallmark of impaired consciousness appears to be amultifaceted dysfunctional connectivity pattern with both within-network loss of connectivity in awidespread frontoparietal network and between-network hyperconnectivity involving other regions such as the insula and ventral tegmental area. Despite ongoing efforts, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of consciousness after severe brain injury are not thoroughly understood. Important questions remain unanswered:What triggers the connectivity impairment leading to disorders of consciousness? Why do some patients recover from coma, while others with apparently similar brain injuries do not? Understanding these mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of brain function and, hopefully, lead to new therapeutic strategies in this challenging patient population. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of hypnotic state
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Biological Psychiatry (1999), 45(3), 327-333

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state (HS) in humans, using positron-emission tomography (PET) and statistical ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state (HS) in humans, using positron-emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping. METHODS: The hypnotic state relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in "normal alertness." A group of 9 subjects under polygraphic monitoring received six H215O infusions and was scanned in the following order: alert-HS-HS-HS with color hallucination-HS with color hallucination-alert. PET data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM95). RESULTS: The group analysis showed that hypnotic state is related to the activation of a widespread, mainly left-sided, set of cortical areas involving occipital, parietal, precentral, premotor, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and a few right-sided regions: occipital and anterior cingulate cortices. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of activation during hypnotic state differs from those induced in normal subjects by the simple evocation of autobiographical memories. It shares many similarities with mental imagery, from which it differs by the relative deactivation of precuneus. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of the hypnotic state.
Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Journal of Physiology - Paris (2006), 99(4-6), 463-9

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during ... [more ▼]

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state. Hypnosis relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in "normal alertness". The hypnotic state was related to the activation of a widespread set of cortical areas involving occipital, parietal, precentral, premotor, and ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. This pattern of activation shares some similarities with mental imagery, from which it mainly differs by the relative deactivation of precuneus. Second, we looked at the anti-nociceptive effects of hypnosis. Compared to the resting state, hypnosis reduced pain perception by approximately 50%. The hypnosis-induced reduction of affective and sensory responses to noxious thermal stimulation were modulated by the activity in the midcingulate cortex (area 24a'). Finally, we assessed changes in cerebral functional connectivity related to hypnosis. Compared to normal alertness (i.e., rest and mental imagery), the hypnotic state, significantly enhanced the functional modulation between midcingulate cortex and a large neural network involved in sensory, affective, cognitive and behavioral aspects of nociception. These findings show that not only pharmacological but also psychological strategies for pain control can modulate the cerebral network involved in noxious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional neuroanatomy of tinnitus: insights from resting-state fMRI
Maudoux, Audrey ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy underlying the clinical subcategorization of minimally conscious state patients.
Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology (2012), 259(6), 1087-98

Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted signs of awareness but are unable to communicate. We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism in MCS patients and tested the hypothesis that this ... [more ▼]

Patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) show restricted signs of awareness but are unable to communicate. We assessed cerebral glucose metabolism in MCS patients and tested the hypothesis that this entity can be subcategorized into MCS- (i.e., patients only showing nonreflex behavior such as visual pursuit, localization of noxious stimulation and/or contingent behavior) and MCS+ (i.e., patients showing command following).Patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism were studied using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in 39 healthy volunteers (aged 46 +/- 18 years) and 27 MCS patients of whom 13 were MCS- (aged 49 +/- 19 years; 4 traumatic; 21 +/- 23 months post injury) and 14 MCS+ (aged 43 +/- 19 years; 5 traumatic; 19 +/- 26 months post injury). Results were thresholded for significance at false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05.We observed a metabolic impairment in a bilateral subcortical (thalamus and caudate) and cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal) network in nontraumatic and traumatic MCS patients. Compared to MCS-, patients in MCS+ showed higher cerebral metabolism in left-sided cortical areas encompassing the language network, premotor, presupplementary motor, and sensorimotor cortices. A functional connectivity study showed that Broca's region was disconnected from the rest of the language network, mesiofrontal and cerebellar areas in MCS- as compared to MCS+ patients.The proposed subcategorization of MCS based on the presence or absence of command following showed a different functional neuroanatomy. MCS- is characterized by preserved right hemispheric cortical metabolism interpreted as evidence of residual sensory consciousness. MCS+ patients showed preserved metabolism and functional connectivity in language networks arguably reflecting some additional higher order or extended consciousness albeit devoid of clinical verbal or nonverbal expression. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Neuroimaging Approaches to the Changing Borders of Consciousness
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Soddu, Andrea ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg et al

in Journal of Psychophysiology (2010), 24(2), 68-75

The bedside diagnosis of vegetative and minimally conscious patients is extremely challenging, and prediction of individual long-term outcome remains difficult. State-of the art neuroimaging methods could ... [more ▼]

The bedside diagnosis of vegetative and minimally conscious patients is extremely challenging, and prediction of individual long-term outcome remains difficult. State-of the art neuroimaging methods could help disentangle complex cases and offer new prognostic criteria. These methods can be divided into to three categories: First, new anatomical MRI neuroimaging methods, like diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) or spectroscopy, and passive functional imaging methods (looking at the brain’s activation induced by external stimuli), could provide new diagnostic and prognostic markers. Second, neuroimaging methods based on active collaboration from the patient could help to detect clinically unnoticed signs of consciousness. Third, developments in brain-computer interfaces based on EEG, functional MRI, or EMG offer communication possibilities in brain-damaged patients who can neither verbally nor nonverbally express their thoughts or wishes. These new approaches raise important issues not only from a clinical and ethical perspective (i.e., patients’ diagnosis, prognosis and management) but also from a neuroscientific standpoint, as they enrich our current understanding of the emergence and function of the conscious human mind. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Neuroimaging during Human Sleep
Kussé, Caroline ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg

in Barrett, Deirdre; McNamara, Patrick (Eds.) Encyclopedia of sleep and dreams (2 volumes): the evolution, function, nature and mysteries of slumber (2012)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging in sleep, sleep deprivation, and sleep disorders.
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg; Maquet, Pierre ULg

in Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Montagna, Pasquale (Eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Sleep Disorders, Part I (2011)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg

in NeuroRehabilitation (2004), 19(4), 335-341

The interest of functional imaging in patients in a vegetative state is twofold. First, the vegetative state continues to represent a major clinical and ethical problem, in terms of diagnosis, prognosis ... [more ▼]

The interest of functional imaging in patients in a vegetative state is twofold. First, the vegetative state continues to represent a major clinical and ethical problem, in terms of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, everyday management and end-of-life decisions. Second, it offers a lesional approach to the study of human consciousness and adds to the international research effort on identifying the neural correlate of consciousness. Cerebral metabolism has been shown to be massively reduced in the vegetative state. However, recovery of consciousness from vegetative state seems not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. Recent PET data indicate that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but due to an altered activity in a critical fronto-parietal cortical network and to abolished functional connections within this network and with non-specific thalamic nuclei. Recovery of consciousness was shown to be paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induces neuronal activation as shown by both auditory and noxious stimuli. However, this activation is limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep
Dang Vu, Thien Thanh ULg; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin ULg et al

in Sleep (2010), 33(12), 1589-1603

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of auditory processing
Laureys, Steven ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Goldman, Serge et al

in Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica (2003), 57(4), 267-273

There is a complex functional organization of the central auditory system from the brainstem to primary and associative auditory cortices. Functional neuroimaging has been used to visualize and confirm ... [more ▼]

There is a complex functional organization of the central auditory system from the brainstem to primary and associative auditory cortices. Functional neuroimaging has been used to visualize and confirm the spatial distribution of brain activation in temporal areas for the processing of simple acoustic stimuli. Brain activity is much more complex for words, and different networks can be recruited when phonological, lexical and semantic levels of processing are engaged. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of human REM sleep
Meyer, Christelle ULg; Jedidi, Zayd ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Nofzinger, Eric; Maquet, Pierre; Thorpy, Michael J. (Eds.) Neuroimaging of sleep and sleep disorders (2013)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of semantic and episodic forms of self-knowledge
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2009, January 15)

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See detailFunctional neuroimaging of the reciprocal influences between sleep and wakefulness.
Jedidi, Zayd ULg; Rikir, Estelle ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology (2011), 463(1), 103-9

The activity patterns adopted by brain neuronal populations differ dramatically between wakefulness and sleep. However, these vigilance states are not independent and they reciprocally interact. Here, we ... [more ▼]

The activity patterns adopted by brain neuronal populations differ dramatically between wakefulness and sleep. However, these vigilance states are not independent and they reciprocally interact. Here, we provide evidence that in humans, regional brain activity during wakefulness is influenced by sleep regulation, namely by the interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian signals. We also show that, by contrast, regional brain activity during sleep is influenced by the experience acquired during the preceding waking period. These data reveal the dynamic interactions by which the succession of vigilance states support normal brain function and human cognition. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional organization of the nucleolus in eucaryotic cells
Thiry, Marc ULg

Scientific conference (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg)
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See detailThe functional proof of the diaphragm's specific type of motor innervation in Ongulae
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Leroy, Pascal ULg et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (1994), 426

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See detailFunctional properties of phospholipids and proteins from rapeseed as native tensioactives
Vaca Medina, Guadalupe; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Deleu, Magali ULg et al

Poster (2008)

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See detailFunctional Redundancy and Complementarities of Seed Dispersal by the Last Neotropical Megafrugivores
Bueno, Rafael; Guevara, Roger; Ribeiro, Milton C. et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(2), 56252

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg)