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See detailGenetic linkage between the bovine plasma protease inhibitor 2 (Pi-2) and S blood group loci.
Georges, Michel ULg; Swillens, S.; Bouquet, Y. et al

in Animal Genetics (1987), 18(4), 311-6

A linkage relationship has been detected between the bovine plasma protease inhibitor 2 (Pi-2) and S blood group loci by linkage study within a single pedigree. Using the sequential lodscore test, the ... [more ▼]

A linkage relationship has been detected between the bovine plasma protease inhibitor 2 (Pi-2) and S blood group loci by linkage study within a single pedigree. Using the sequential lodscore test, the recombination fraction (theta) with maximum likelihood has been estimated at 0.200 +/- 0.043, with a maximum lodscore value of 3.466 at theta = 0.200. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic management of infectious diseases: An heterogeneous epidemio-genetic model illustrated with S. aureus mastitis
Detilleux, Johann ULg

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2005), 37(4), 437-453

Given that individuals are genetically heterogeneous in their degree of resistance to infection, a model is proposed to formulate appropriate choices that will limit the spread of an infectious disease ... [more ▼]

Given that individuals are genetically heterogeneous in their degree of resistance to infection, a model is proposed to formulate appropriate choices that will limit the spread of an infectious disease. The model is illustrated with data on S. aureus mastitis and is based on parameters characterizing the spread of the disease (contact rate, probability of infection after contact, and rate of recovery after infection), the demography (replacement and culling rates) and the genetic composition (degree of relationship and heritability of the disease trait) of the animal population. To decrease infection pressure, it is possible to apply non-genetic procedures that increase the culling (e.g., culling of chronically infected cows) and recovery (e.g., antibiotic therapy) rates of infected cows. But the contribution of the paper is to show that genetic management of infectious disease is also theoretically possible as a control measure complementary to non-genetic actions. Indeed, the probability for an uninfected individual to become infected after contact with an infected one is partially related to their degree of kinship: the more closely they are related, the more likely they are to share identical genes like those associated to the non-resistance to infection. Different prospective genetic management procedures are proposed to decrease the contact rate between infected and uninfected relatives and keep the number of secondary cases generated by one infected animal below 1. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic manipulations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Use of the antisense strategy to inhibit the alternative oxidase
Baurain, Denis ULg; Dinant, Monique; Loppes, Roland ULg et al

Poster (1998, May)

Besides the cytochrome pathway (CP), mitochondria of higher plants and many microeukaryotes possess a second electron pathway, the alternative pathway (AP), that bypasses complexes III and IV and ... [more ▼]

Besides the cytochrome pathway (CP), mitochondria of higher plants and many microeukaryotes possess a second electron pathway, the alternative pathway (AP), that bypasses complexes III and IV and catalyzes the oxidation of the ubiquinol pool by molecular oxygen. Electrons transferred by this way are not coupled to ATP production and free energy is lost as heat. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is the sole enzyme implicated in this process. Despite a great research effort during these last years, the exact role of AP is poorly understood, except in Araceae (such as Sauromatum guttatum, the ‘voodoo lily’) in which it is implicated in the thermogenesis of the inflorescence. In order to investigate the physiological role of AOX in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, two different plasmids derived from pSP105 (Stevens et al., 1996) were constructed by placing in antisense orientation an AOX cDNA from this species under the control of the regulatory regions of the Chlamydomonas RBCS2 gene. The first plasmid possessed the full promoter, while the second one had a truncated promoter, supposed to be more efficient (Purton, personal communication). Cell wall-deficient arginine-requiring strains were co-transformed by the glass beads method with linearized pASL plasmid (complementing the arginine requirement) and linearized first or second construction. More than 1100 transformants able to grow on an arginine-free medium were screened for AOX alteration by growth tests in the presence of the two complex III inhibitors antimycin A and myxothiazol. Out of seventeen clones selected for their sensitivity to these inhibitors, only one (A1 clone) was totally unable to grow in the presence of antimycin A and myxothiazol. A PCR analysis showed that the seventeen selected clones had integrated the antisense construction. The A1 cell line was further investigated for its mitochondrial respiration activity. The cells grown under mixotrophic conditions (light + acetate as a carbon source), showed a 70% drop of the AP capacity. Moreover, the total respiration rate represented only 60% of the wild-type rate. Interestingly, despite these alterations, the A1 transformant displayed a 25% faster growth rate than the wild-type cultivated under the same mixotrophic conditions. This work was supported by grants from the Belgian FRFC (2.4527.97). Actions de recherches concertées (ARC 93-98/170) and Fonds spéciaux pour la recherche dans les universités. Reference STEVENS D.R., ROCHAIX J.D., and PURTON S. (1996), Mol. Gen. Genet. 251, 23-30 [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Mapping of Mitochondrial Markers by Recombinational Analysis in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii
Remacle, Claire ULg; Colin, Martine ULg; Matagne, René-Fernand ULg

in Molecular & General Genetics [=MGG] (1995), 249(2), 185-90

The mitochondrial genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a 15.8 kb linear DNA molecule present in multiple copies. In crosses, the meiotic products only inherit the mitochondrial genome of the mating type ... [more ▼]

The mitochondrial genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a 15.8 kb linear DNA molecule present in multiple copies. In crosses, the meiotic products only inherit the mitochondrial genome of the mating type minus (paternal) parent. In contrast mitotic zygotes transmit maternal and paternal mitochondrial DNA copies to their diploid progeny and recombinational events between molecules of both origins frequently occur. Six mitochondrial mutants unable to grow in the dark (dk- mutants) were crossed in various combinations and the percentages of wild-type dk+ recombinants were determined in mitotic zygotes when all progeny cells had become homoplasmic for the mitochondrial genome. In crosses between strains mutated in the COB (apocytochrome b) gene and strains mutated in the COX1 (subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase) gene, the frequency of recombination was 13.7% (+/- 3.2%). The corresponding physical distance between the mutation sites was 4.3 kb. In crosses between strains carrying mutations separated by about 20 bp, a recombinational frequency of 0.04% (+/- 0.02%) was found. Two other mutants not yet characterized at the molecular level were also used for recombinational studies. From these data, a linear genetic map of the mitochondrial genome could be drawn. This map is consistent with the positions of the mutation sites on the mitochondrial DNA molecule and thereby validates the method used to generate the map. The frequency of recombination per physical distance unit (3.2% +/- 0.7% per kilobase) is compared with those obtained for other organellar genomes in yeasts and Chlamydomonas. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic markers and the risk of complicated disease behaviour in Crohn’s disease patients
Henckaerts, L.; Verstreken, I.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg et al

in Gut (2007)

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See detailGenetic markers and the risk of complicated disease behaviour in Crohn's disease patients
Henckaerts, Liesbet; Verstreken, Isabel; Van Steen, Kristel ULg et al

in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis [=JCC] (2007), 1(1), 41-42

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See detailGenetic markers and the risk of complicated disease behaviour in Crohn's disease patients
Henckaerts, L.; Cleynen, I.; Joossens, M. et al

in Gastroenterology (2008), 134(4), 349-349

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See detailGenetic markers and the risk of complicated disease behaviour in Crohn's disease patients
Henckaerts, L.; Verstreken, I.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg et al

in Gastroenterology (2007), 132(4), 17-18

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See detailGenetic markers in breeding programs
Druet, Tom ULg; Fritz, S.; Colleau, J. J. et al

in Proceeding of the 26th European Holstein and Red Holstein Conference (2005)

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See detailGenetic markers may predict disease behavior in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Roussomoustakaki, M.; Satsangi, J.; Welsh, K. et al

in Gastroenterology (1997), 112(6), 1845-53

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that HLA DRB1*0103 and allele 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) gene predict severe and extensive ulcerative colitis, respectively. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that HLA DRB1*0103 and allele 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) gene predict severe and extensive ulcerative colitis, respectively. The aim of this study was to test these hypotheses in patients undergoing surgery for their colitis. METHODS: HLA DRB1 and DQB1 genotyping was performed in 99 patients and 472 controls. Genotyping for polymorphisms of genes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1RA was performed in 107 patients and 89 controls. Measurement of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was performed in 72 patients and 58 healthy subjects by fixed neutrophil enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The DRB1*0103 allele was increased in patients (14.1% vs. 3.2% in controls; P < 1 x 10[-5]). This association was greatest in patients with extensive disease (15.8%; P < 0.0001) or extraintestinal manifestations (22.8%; P < 0.0001): mouth ulcers (25.8%; P < 0.0001), arthritis (27.2%; P < 0.0001), and uveitis (35.7%; P < 0.0001). The DRB1*04 alleles were reduced in patients (P = 0.005). Differences were noted between extensive and distal disease in the frequency of allele 2 of IL-1RA (10.9% in distal vs. 28.6% in extensive; P = 0.01) and allele 2 homozygosity. ANCA was detected in 76.4% of patients. Carriage of IL-1RA allele 2 and tumor necrosis factor 2 allele was increased in ANCA-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic markers may predict disease behavior in ulcerative colitis. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic markers of osteoarticular disorders: facts and hopes.
Brandi, M L; Gennari, L; Cerinic, M M et al

in Arthritis Research (2001), 3(5), 270-80

Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are the two most common age-related chronic disorders of articular joints and skeleton, representing a major public health problem in most developed countries. Apart from ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are the two most common age-related chronic disorders of articular joints and skeleton, representing a major public health problem in most developed countries. Apart from being influenced by environmental factors, both disorders have a strong genetic component, and there is now considerable evidence from large population studies that these two disorders are inversely related. Thus, an accurate analysis of the genetic component of one of these two multifactorial diseases may provide data of interest for the other. However, the existence of confounding factors must always be borne in mind in interpreting the genetic analysis. In addition, each patient must be given an accurate clinical evaluation, including family history, history of drug treatments, lifestyle, and environment, in order to reduce the background bias. Here, we review the impact of recent work in molecular genetics suggesting that powerful molecular biology techniques will soon make possible both a rapid accumulation of data on the genetics of both disorders and the development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic organisation of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosynthesis region of brucella melitensis 16M (wbk).
Godfroid, F.; Cloeckaert, A.; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Research in Microbiology (2000), 151(8), 655-68

Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause a zoonotic world-wide disease. As in other Gram-negative bacteria, its S-LPS (smooth lipopolysaccharide) is a major ... [more ▼]

Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause a zoonotic world-wide disease. As in other Gram-negative bacteria, its S-LPS (smooth lipopolysaccharide) is a major determinant of virulence. The Brucella melitensis 16M LPS O-antigen is a homopolymer of 4-formamido-4,6, dideoxymannose. In this study, the previously cloned 14-kb wbk gene cluster was sequenced, and seven open reading frames (ORFs) as well as four insertion sequences were identified. Six of the seven ORFs are homologous to LPS biosynthesis genes from other organisms. The gmd, per and wbkC gene products are predicted to be involved in 4-formamido-4,6,dideoxymannose synthesis. By deletion experiments, we demonstrated that the putative formyltransferase WbkC is absolutely required for the O-side-chain production. The wbkA gene product is similar to several mannosyltransferases and is probably involved in the polymerisation of the B. melitensis O-side-chain. We also identified two genes (wzm and wzt) encoding proteins with high similarity to several two-component ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters. Their implication in O-antigen translocation across the inner membrane was confirmed by gene replacement. Finally, no function has been assigned to the wbkB gene either by homology search or functionally, because deletion of wbkB did not interfere with the O-antigen structure. The seven ORFs have a low G + C content, indicating that they might have been acquired by lateral transfer from a progenitor with more A + T rich DNA. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters and evaluation of rear legs (rear view) for Brown Swiss and Guernseys
Wiggans, G. R.; Thornton, L. L. M.; Neitzel, R. R. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2006), 89(12), 4895-4900

Genetic parameters were estimated for rear legs (rear view; RLRV) and 15 current linear type traits of Brown Swiss and Guernsey dairy cattle. The Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association of the USA and ... [more ▼]

Genetic parameters were estimated for rear legs (rear view; RLRV) and 15 current linear type traits of Brown Swiss and Guernsey dairy cattle. The Brown Swiss Cattle Breeders' Association of the USA and the American Guernsey Association began scoring RLRV in 2004. For Brown Swiss, 8,502 records were available for 7,676 cows in 417 herds; Guernsey data included 5,437 records for 4,749 cows in 229 herds. Nine unknown-parent groups were defined for each breed, each with 2 birth years. The model included fixed effects for the interaction of herd, appraisal date, and parity; appraisal age within parity; and lactation stage within parity and random effects for animal, permanent environment, and residual error. The multitrait analysis for RLRV and the 15 linear type traits used canonical transformation, multiple diagonalization, and a decelerated expectation-maximization REML algorithm. For Brown Swiss, heritability was 0.102 for RLRV and ranged from 0.099 for rear legs (side view) to 0.453 for stature. For Guernseys, heritability ranged from 0.078 for RLRV to 0.428 for stature. For Brown Swiss, the highest genetic correlation with RLRV was 0.71 for rear udder width; the most negative correlation was -0.19 with rump angle. For Guernseys, the highest genetic correlations with RLRV were 0.43 for rear udder width and 0.42 for body depth; the most negative correlation was -0.46 with rear legs (side view). With heritability near 0.10, RLRV should be useful in selection for improved locomotion. Release of genetic evaluations for RLRV began in May 2006 for Brown Swiss and Guernseys. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters estimation for spirometric performances in Belgian Blue calves
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Michaux, C. et al

in Proceedings: 17th Symposium of the Comparative Respiratory Society (1999)

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See detailGenetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models
Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Troch, Thibault ULg; Gillon, Alain et al

in Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics (2014), in press

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were ... [more ▼]

Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a dataset including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf age of dam classes group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was about 8% with linear models and about 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were about 2% and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17% and 23 % greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters for individual weights at birth, weaning and 60 days of stress negative Piétrain pigs in the tropics: the case of Vietnam
Do Duc, Luc ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg; Dang Vu, Binh et al

Poster (2012, November 28)

Data recorded between 2008 and 2012 from Dong Hiep pig farm, Vietnam, was used to stimate genetic parameters for weights at birth (WB), weaning (WW) and 60 days (W60) of stress negative Piétrain pigs ... [more ▼]

Data recorded between 2008 and 2012 from Dong Hiep pig farm, Vietnam, was used to stimate genetic parameters for weights at birth (WB), weaning (WW) and 60 days (W60) of stress negative Piétrain pigs using restricted maximum likelihood methodology. WB, WW and W60 were recorded from 1146, 839 and 610 animals respectively. The data were analyzed according to a mixed model including 4 fixed effects, parity, season, sex, and interaction between halothane genotype and country of origin (Belgium and Vietnam) of sows. Additionally, 3 random effects (maternal common environment for litter, direct and maternal additive genetic) for WB and 2 random effects (maternal common environment for litter and direct additive genetic) for WW and W60 were included in the model. Estimates of direct heritability and proportion of the maternal common environmental variance for WB, WW and W60 were 0.20, 0.13; 0.22, 0.21 and 0.19, 0.30 respectively. In addition, the estimate of maternal heritability for WB was 0.14. These genetic parameters suggest that WB, WW and W60 could be improved by selection using both direct and maternal effects. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic parameters for methane emission predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra in dairy cows
Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULg; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Vanlierde, Amélie et al

in Advances in Animal Biosciences (2013)

N/A

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See detailGenetic parameters for methane emission predicted from milk mid-infrared spectra in dairy cows
Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULg; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Vanlierde, Amélie et al

in Advances in Animal Biosciences (2013), 4(2),

N/A

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (24 ULg)