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See detailGenetic polymorphism in ethanol metabolism: acetaldehyde contribution to alcohol abuse and alcoholism
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Molecular Psychiatry (2004), 9(6), 570-581

Acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, has been speculated to be involved in many pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol. In particular, acetaldehyde has been suggested to ... [more ▼]

Acetaldehyde, the first product of ethanol metabolism, has been speculated to be involved in many pharmacological and behavioral effects of ethanol. In particular, acetaldehyde has been suggested to contribute to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In the present paper, we review current data on the role of acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in alcohol consumption and abuse. Ethanol metabolism involves several enzymes. Whereas alcohol dehydrogenase metabolizes the bulk of ethanol within the liver, other enzymes, such as cytochrome P4502E1 and catalase, also contributes to the production of acetaldehyde from ethanol oxidation. In turn, acetaldehyde is metabolized by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. In animal studies, acetaldehyde is mainly reinforcing particularly when injected directly into the brain. In humans, genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are also associated with alcohol drinking habits and the incidence of alcohol abuse. From these human genetic studies, it has been concluded that blood acetaldehyde accumulation induces unpleasant effects that prevent further alcohol drinking. It is therefore speculated that acetaldehyde exerts opposite hedonic effects depending on the localization of its accumulation. In the periphery, acetaldehyde is primarily aversive, whereas brain acetaldehyde is mainly reinforcing. However, the peripheral effects of acetaldehyde might also be dependent upon its peak blood concentrations and its rate of accumulation, with a narrow range of blood acetaldehyde concentrations being reinforcing. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 and microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Hadjadj, Samy; Bouhanick, Béatrice et al

in Diabetologia (2000), 43(1), 137

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See detailGenetic polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 and microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Hadjadj, S.; Bouhanick, B. et al

Conference (2000)

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See detailGenetic predictors of asthma exacerbations among children in the childhood asthma management program
Celedon, J. C.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Lange, C. et al

in Conference Abstract Book (2005)

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See detailGenetic regulation of hepatic steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities in inbred strains of mice.
Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Kolodzici, Claudine; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in Endocrinology (1984), 115

Steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities and properties were studied in C57Bl/6J, 129/J, AKR/R, DBA/2J, C3H/I, and BALB/c mouse liver using four different substrates. The highest enzymatic activities were ... [more ▼]

Steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities and properties were studied in C57Bl/6J, 129/J, AKR/R, DBA/2J, C3H/I, and BALB/c mouse liver using four different substrates. The highest enzymatic activities were measured in the female mice, with the exception of the 129/J females. As in the rat liver, the sexual differentiation of the steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylation observed in adult male and female mice took place at puberty. In the adult mouse liver, two steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities (forms I and II) could be differentiated on the basis of their relative affinities for the various steroid substrates and their relative proportions in male and female mouse livers. In the immature mouse liver, no sexual differences could be detected, and the mice of both sexes presented phenotypes identical to those of the adult female. The adult 129/J females appeared genetically deficient with respect to the form I of the steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase and presented a phenotype identical to that of the adult male mice of the various strains tested. Differences in hydroxylase activities between the C57Bl/6J and 129/J strains were investigated using standard genetic breeding protocols. Steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase seemed to be inherited additively in the liver of the female mice obtained by crossing the C57Bl/6J male and the 129/J female or the 129/J male and the C57Bl/6J female. In the male mice, regardless of genotype, the observed phenotype was always identical to the two male parental types. Both hormonal and genetic regulations were responsible for the different phenotypes occurring in adult male and female C57Bl/6J and 129/J mouse livers. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic regulation of hepatic steroid 16alpha-hydroxylase activities in inbred strains of mice.
Pasleau, Françoise ULg; Kolodzici, Claudine; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (1982, September)

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See detailGenetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.
Bastin, Catherine ULg; Loker, Sarah; Gengler, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2010), 93(5), 2215-28

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Quebec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent lactation were moderate and favorable, indicating that primiparous cows with a genetically high BCS over the lactation would have a greater chance of producing a calf that survived (maternal calf survival) and would transmit the genes that allowed the calf to be born more easily (maternal calving ease) and to survive (direct calving ease). [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Relationships between Bovine Herpesvirus 4 and the Gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr Virus and Herpesvirus Saimiri
Bublot, M.; Lomonte, P.; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

in Virology (1992), 190(2), 654-65

The overall arrangement of genes in the unique central part of the bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) genome has been deduced by analysis of short DNA sequences. Twenty-three genes conserved in at least ... [more ▼]

The overall arrangement of genes in the unique central part of the bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) genome has been deduced by analysis of short DNA sequences. Twenty-three genes conserved in at least one of the completely sequenced herpesviruses have been identified and localized. All of these genes encoded amino acid sequences with higher similarity to proteins of the gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) than to the homologous products of the alphaherpesviruses varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus type 1 or the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus. The genome organization of BHV-4 had also an overall colinearity with that of the gammaherpesviruses EBV and HVS. Furthermore, the BHV-4 genes content and arrangement were more similar to those of HVS than to those of EBV, suggesting that BHV-4 and HVS are evolutionarily more closely related to each other than either are to EBV. BHV-4 DNA sequences were generally deficient in CpG dinucleotide. This CpG deficiency is characteristic of gammaherpesvirus genomes and suggests that the BHV-4 latent genome is extensively methylated. Despite several biological features similar to those of betaherpesviruses, BHV-4 displays the molecular characteristics of the representative members of the gammaherpesvirinae subfamily. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic Resources of Togo
Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter (Rome, Italy : 1979) (1986), (66), 6-13

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See detailGenetic Risk in Natural and Medically Assisted Procreation
Koulischer, Lucien ULg; Verloes, Alain ULg; Lesenfants, S. et al

in Early Pregnancy (1997), 3(3), 164-71

Current in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), microepididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) clearly prevent any ... [more ▼]

Current in vitro fertilization techniques (IVF) including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), microepididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) clearly prevent any spontaneous choice of ova or spermatozoa. According to the widely admitted concept of gamete selection, pregnancies following IVF, when compared to natural fertilization, could therefore present a higher risk of genetic anomalies. However, no increased fetal or newborn abnormalities are noticed with IVF, except perhaps for sex chromosome aneuploidies. Data from the literature support the view that the uterus is, indeed, the organ where selection mechanisms occur (when they do so), as suggested by Carr in 1971. This selection concerns mainly autosome imbalances; unbalanced conceptuses are aborted. Sex chromosome aneuploidies, apparently, are less prone to natural abortion, but their higher rate of occurrence, as reported in a few series of studies, does not seem to be associated with the IVF procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic risk profiling and prediction of disease course in Crohn's disease patients.
Henckaerts, Liesbet; Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Verstreken, Isabel et al

in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology : the Official Clinical Practice Journal of The American Gastroenterological Association (2009), 7(9), 972-9802

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinical presentation at diagnosis and disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) are heterogeneous and variable over time. Early introduction of immunomodulators and/or biologicals might ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinical presentation at diagnosis and disease course of Crohn's disease (CD) are heterogeneous and variable over time. Early introduction of immunomodulators and/or biologicals might be justified in patients at risk for disease progression, so it is important to identify these patients as soon as possible. We examined the influence of recently discovered CD-associated susceptibility loci on changes in disease behavior and evaluated whether a genetic risk model for disease progression could be generated. METHODS: Complete medical data were available for 875 CD patients (median follow-up time, 14 years; interquartile range, 7-22). Fifty CD-associated polymorphisms were genotyped. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, multiple logistic regression, and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analyses (GMDR) were performed, correcting for follow-up time. RESULTS: Homozygosity for the rs1363670 G-allele in a gene encoding a hypothetical protein near the IL12B gene was independently associated with stricturing disease behavior (odds ratio [OR], 5.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-18.83; P = .007) and with shorter time to strictures (P = .01), especially in patients with ileal involvement (P = .0002). Male patients carrying at least one rs12704036 T-allele in a gene desert had the shortest time to non-perianal fistula (P < .0001). The presence of a C-allele at the CDKAL1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs6908425 and the absence of NOD2 variants were independently associated with development of perianal fistula (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.13-69.78; P = .04 and OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.83; P = .004, respectively), particularly when colonic involvement and active smoking were present. CONCLUSIONS: CD-associated polymorphisms play a role in disease progression and might be useful in identifying patients who could benefit from an early top-down treatment approach. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic screening for AIP mutations in Young patients with sporadic and Familial Pituitary Macroadenomas
Yaneva, M.; Elenkova, A.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Endocrinologia = Endokrinologiia (2011), 16(1), 41-48

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See detailGenetic screening in pituitary patients
Beckers, Albert ULg

Scientific conference (2014, May 04)

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See detailGenetic selection: Evaluation and methods
Wiggans, George R.; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Fuquay, J. W.; Fox, P. F.; McSweeney, P. L. H. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (6 ULg)