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See detailFractal analysis of intraflow unidirectional delay over w-lan and w-wan environments
Pezaros, D. P.; Sifalakis, M.; Mathy, Laurent ULg

in Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks and Workshops, 2007. WiOpt 2007. 5th International Symposium on (2007)

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See detailFractal Analysis of Mercury Porosimetry Data in the Framework of the Thermodynamic Method
Sahouli, B; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (1999), 214(2), 450-454

The thermodynamic method for fractal analysis is applied to mercury intrusion data. The results for representative commercial carbon black samples and a series of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) freeze-dried ... [more ▼]

The thermodynamic method for fractal analysis is applied to mercury intrusion data. The results for representative commercial carbon black samples and a series of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) freeze-dried gels for different values of the molar ratio of resorcinol (R) to catalyst (C) are discussed in relation with the type of behavior exhibited by the samples during mercury porosimetry measurements. The obtained surface fractal dimensions are compared with those derived previously from the small-angle X ray scattering (SAXS) and the nitrogen adsorption. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailFractal characterization of wide pore range catalysts: Application to Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogels
Blacher, Silvia ULg; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg; Sahouli, Bendida et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2000), 226(1), 123-130

Fractal analysis has been applied to characterize the structure of Pd-Ag/SiO2 catalysts dried under vacuum (150 degrees C and 12 hPa) with different concentrations of Pd-Ag, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption ... [more ▼]

Fractal analysis has been applied to characterize the structure of Pd-Ag/SiO2 catalysts dried under vacuum (150 degrees C and 12 hPa) with different concentrations of Pd-Ag, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, mercury porosimetry, and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements have been used. The different approaches to fractal analysis and their conditions of applicability are briefly described. Results are discussed in relation to those derived previously from classical interpretations. This analysis shows that Pd-Ag/SiO2 xerogels exhibit a very open self-similar pore structure analogous to the structure of supercritically dried aerogels and that the micropore texture can be tailored by varying the silver content. (C) 2000 Academic Press. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fractal dimension as a measure of the quality of habitats.
Imre, A; Bogaert, Jan ULg

in Acta Biotheoretica (2004), 52(1), 41-56

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See detailFractal dimension of patches based on area and perimeter: evaluation of the non-regression technique
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Moermans, R; Van Hecke, P

in Ceulemans, R; Bogaert, Jan; Deckmyn, G (Eds.) et al Topics in Ecology: Structure and Function in Plants and Ecosystems (2000)

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See detailFractal grain boundaries in growth competition
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg

in Journal of Crystal Growth (1996), 169(1), 79-82

Evidence of fractal grain boundaries is found in polycrystals when radial patterns are found to result from a geometrical competition between different grains that have nucleated on the same center. A ... [more ▼]

Evidence of fractal grain boundaries is found in polycrystals when radial patterns are found to result from a geometrical competition between different grains that have nucleated on the same center. A simple statistical model presented herein predicts the universal fractal dimension 2.33 of such natural patterns grown through internal competition. The application to material patterns having constrained front propagation involving many components is obvious. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fractal nature of the power spectrum as an indicator of chaos in the Bianchi-IX cosmological model
Demaret, Jacques; De Rop, Yves ULg

in Physics Letters B (1993), 299(3-4), 223-228

Using two different methods, we compute the fractal dimension of the power spectrum associated with numerical solutions of the spatially homogeneous Bianchi IX cosmological model in Misner-Chitre ... [more ▼]

Using two different methods, we compute the fractal dimension of the power spectrum associated with numerical solutions of the spatially homogeneous Bianchi IX cosmological model in Misner-Chitre coordinates. According to Perdang's criterion, the noninteger character of this dimension is reflection of chaos and can be used to measure it, in the same spirit as the Lyapunov exponent of the Kolmogorov entropy. The results obtained indicate the chaotic nature of the behaviour of the Bianchi IX model near the cosmological singularity. [less ▲]

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See detailFractal Quantification of the Microvasculature Heterogeneity in Cutaneous Melanoma
Heymans, O.; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Brouers, François ULg et al

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (1999), 198(2), 212-7

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in angiogenesis research have led to the introduction of new prognosis factors. Although the vessel count is effective in breast cancer, the prognosis of primary cutaneous ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in angiogenesis research have led to the introduction of new prognosis factors. Although the vessel count is effective in breast cancer, the prognosis of primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM) does not seems to be directly influenced by this parameter. However, the microscopic examination of PCM suggests variability in the repartition of the microvasculature. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: To explore the possibility of extracting information about the vessel distribution by performing a textural analysis on the grey level of histological sections by means of fractal characterization by both Fourier spectrum and multifractal analysis. RESULTS: Three different patterns of vasculature were identified according to the vessel density and distribution. CONCLUSION: It is possible to differentiate and quantify clearly the differences in the microvessel profile organization using the fractal and multifractal methods. [less ▲]

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See detailFractals and wavelets: What can we learn on transcription and replication from wavelet-based multifractal analysis of DNA sequences?
Arneodo, A.; Audit, B.; Brodie of Brodie, E. B. et al

in Meyers, Robert A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science (2009)

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See detailLa Fraction Armée Rouge et ses représentations cinématographiques (1972-1979)
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Scientific conference (2012, April 24)

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See detailFractional cover data retrieval using eCognition
Wellens, Joost ULg; Denis, Antoine ULg

Report (2012)

For the overall calibration and validation of the AquaCrop model decent information on the development of the canopy cover is crucial. Throughout the growing season overhead canopy pictures were taken ... [more ▼]

For the overall calibration and validation of the AquaCrop model decent information on the development of the canopy cover is crucial. Throughout the growing season overhead canopy pictures were taken. Different image treatment programs have been evaluated on their capacity to retrieve the fractional cover data from these images. The findings are presented in this technical note. The objectives (and/or constraints) were manifold: - determine for each image the percentage of canopy cover of the monitored crop (maize or cabbage); - in case of mixed-cropping, calculate a separate canopy cover for each crop; - weeds are to be excluded; - mask all non-desired items (camera operator, field borders, …). [less ▲]

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See detailFractionated irradiation combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide of two human glioblastomas grafted in nude mice
SUN, Lin-Quan; BUCHEGGER, Franz; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in Radiation Research (2001), 155(1),

This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions ... [more ▼]

This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions over 12 days or 5 fractions over 5 days in air-breathing mice, mice injected with nicotinamide, mice breathing carbogen, or mice receiving nicotinamide plus carbogen. The responses to treatment were assessed using local control and moist desquamation. In U-87MG tumors, the enhancement ratios (ERs) at the radiation dose required to produce local tumor control in 50% of the treated mice (TCD50) with nicotinamide and/or carbogen ranged from 1.13 to 1.24 for irradiation in 20 fractions over 12 days. In LN-Z308 tumors, the ERs at the TCD50 with nicotinamide and/or carbogen ranged from 1.22 to 1.40 for irradiation in 5 fractions over 5 days and from 1.11 to 1.30 in 20 fractions over 12 days, respectively. Skin injury was slightly enhanced, with ERs ranged from 1.06 to 1.15 when radiation was combined with carbogen and/or nicotinamide. Thus carbogen and nicotinamide can slightly improve the radiation response of human glioblastoma xenografts. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionated stereotactic radiotherapy : treatment of 24 pituitary adenoma
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Kaschten, Bruno ULg; Rutten, I. et al

in 5th European Congress of Endocrinology - Abstract book (2001)

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See detailFRACTIONATED STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY TREATMENT OF CAVERNOUS SINUS MENINGIOMAS: A STUDY OF 100 CASES
Litré, Claude Fabien ULg; COLIN, P; NOUDEL, R et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2009), 74(4), 1012-7

Purpose:We discuss our experiences with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSR) in the treatment of cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2006, we monitored 100 patients ... [more ▼]

Purpose:We discuss our experiences with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSR) in the treatment of cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2006, we monitored 100 patients diagnosed with cavernous sinus meningiomas; 84 female and 16 male patients were included. The mean patient age was 56 years. The most common symptoms were a reduction in visual acuity (57%), diplopia (50%), exophthalmy (30%), and trigeminal neuralgia (34%). Surgery was initially performed on 26 patients. All patients were treated with FSR. A total of 45 Gy was administered to the lesion, with 5 fractions of 1.8 Gy completed each week. Patient treatment was performed using a Varian Clinac linear accelerator used for cranial treatments and a micro-multileaf collimator. Results: No side effects were reported. Mean follow-up period was 33 months, with 20% of patients undergoing follow-up evaluation of more than 4 years later. The tumor control rate at 3 years was 94%. Three patients required microsurgical intervention because FSR proved ineffective. In terms of functional symptoms, an 81% improvement was observed in patients suffering from exophthalmy, with 46% of these patients being restored to full health. A 52% improvement was observed in diplopia, together with a 67% improvement in visual acuity and a 50% improvement in type V neuropathy. Conclusions: FSR facilitates tumor control, either as an initial treatment option or in combination with microsurgery. In addition to being a safe procedure with few side effects, FSR offers the significant benefit of superior functional outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionation and partial characterization of proteins extracted from the bovine fallopian tube: preparation of tools for further purifications
Remy, Benoît ULg; Rabahi, F.; Duwez, L. et al

in Theriogenology (1995), 44(1), 95-107

Described in the present paper is a combined biochemical and immunological approach to study oviductal proteins in the bovine. Antisera were raised against semi-purified proteins extracted from bovine ... [more ▼]

Described in the present paper is a combined biochemical and immunological approach to study oviductal proteins in the bovine. Antisera were raised against semi-purified proteins extracted from bovine tubal mucosal tissue and were characterized. These antisera are available to monitor puritications of specific oviductal proteins in the future. Oviducts from 170 cyclic cows were collected at a slaughterhouse, and high amounts of mucosal proteins were extracted. The proteins were fractionated after precipitation with ammonium sulfate, anti-bovine serum albumin (bSA) and anti-bovine immunoglobulins bIg) afiinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Each of the 12 fractions obtained after ion exchange chromatography was used to immunize a rabbit. Conditioned media were recovered from bovine oviduct cell monolayers cultured without serum to cot&m the oviductal origin of the extracted proteins. After Western blot analysis, 15 proteins were detected in the bovine oviductal extracts, and their molecular weights and isoelectric points were determined by 2 dimensional electrophoresis. Among these 15 proteins, 11 were also detected in conditioned media of bovine oviductal cells. These results demonstrate an oviductal origin of the 11 detected proteins and strongly suggest their secretion by the oviductal cells. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionation and reconstitution experiments provide insight into the role of gluten and starch interactions in pasta quality
Delcour, Jan; Vansteelandt, J.; Hythier, M. C. et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2000), 48(9), 3767-3773

Commercial durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.) semolina was fractionated into starch, gluten, and water extractables. Starch surface proteins and surface lipids were removed, and two starches with ... [more ▼]

Commercial durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.) semolina was fractionated into starch, gluten, and water extractables. Starch surface proteins and surface lipids were removed, and two starches with manipulated granule size distributions were produced to influence starch properties, affecting its interaction with other semolina components. Reconstituted spaghetti was made with untreated (control) or treated starches. The pasta made from the starting semolina material had lower cooking time and was of lower quality than the samples made from reconstituted material. This was not due to changes in gluten properties as a result of the first step of the fractionation process. For the reconstituted samples, starch interaction behavior was not changed after surface protein or surface lipid removal. Starch surface properties thus do not influence the starch interaction behavior, indicating that starch-gluten interaction in raw (uncooked) pasta is mainly due to physical inclusion. All reconstituted pasta samples also had generally the same cooking quality. It was concluded that the small changes in starch gelatinization behavior, caused by the above;mentioned starch modifications, are of little importance for pasta quality. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionation of apple by-products as source of new ingredients: Current situation and perspectives
Rabetafika, Holy-Nadia ULg; Bchir, Brahim; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Trends in Food Science & Technology (2014), 40(1), 99-114

Apple (Malus sp.) is among the most processed fruit that generates high amount of wastes. Depending on processes, various by-products are available offering a great diversity of low-cost raw materials ... [more ▼]

Apple (Malus sp.) is among the most processed fruit that generates high amount of wastes. Depending on processes, various by-products are available offering a great diversity of low-cost raw materials. Biorefinery processes are expected to convert them into new added-value products such as hemicelluloses, oligosaccharides and polyphenols. This paper reviews the current uses of apple by-products as source of fibre and phytochemicals with special emphasis on recent fractionation processes. Future trends and challenges of apple by-product reuse are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionation of the DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase activities solubilized from membranes of Escherichia coli K12, strain 44
Pollock, Jerry J.; Nguyen-Disteche, Martine; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1974), 41(3), 439-446

A transpeptidase activity in Escherichia coli was measured independently of other enzymes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis by quantitating the formation of UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-y-d-glutamyl-(l ... [more ▼]

A transpeptidase activity in Escherichia coli was measured independently of other enzymes involved in peptidoglycan synthesis by quantitating the formation of UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-y-d-glutamyl-(l)-meso-diaminopimelyl-(l)-d-alanyl-[14C]glycine when UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-y-d-glutamyl-(l)-meso-diaminopimelyl-(l-d-alanyl-d-alanine was used as donor substrate and [14C]glycine as acceptor in a transfer reaction. After extraction of membrane envelopes with Brij-36T and subsequent ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography revealed two major fractions; one not adsorbed to the ion-exchange resin and the other adsorbed. The fraction which was bound to DEAE-cellulose was bound to and could be eluted from an ampicillin affinity chromatography system while the fraction not bound to DEAE-cellulose was also not bound to the ampicillin column. Both unbound and bound ampicillin fractions exhibited dd-carboxypeptidase and transpeptidase activities although for equivalent dd-carboxypeptidase activity, the bound ampicillin fraction required about five times more glycine acceptor to achieve the same amount of transpeptidation as the unbound ampicillin fraction. [less ▲]

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See detailFractionation of the reference inoculum of epizootic rabbit enteropathy in discontinuous sucrose gradient identifies aetiological agents in high density fractions
Szalo, Ioan Mihai ULg; Lassence, Cédric ULg; Licois, Dominique et al

in Veterinary Journal (2007), 173(3), 652-657

Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) is a major cause of economic loss in intensive rabbit production. Since its first recognition in 1997, much work has been done to determine the pathogenic mechanisms of ... [more ▼]

Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) is a major cause of economic loss in intensive rabbit production. Since its first recognition in 1997, much work has been done to determine the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease and to identify the aetiological agent(s). Unfortunately, the quest for aetiology has only met with limited success despite the ability to reproduce the syndrome by inoculation of intestinal contents from field cases. These intestinal inocula contain a huge number of microorganisms which could all be involved in the aetiology of ERE. To decrease the number of putative agents, the French reference inoculum TEC3 was fractionated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient so that seven fractions (supernatant, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and pellet) were obtained. Specific-pathogen-free rabbits were inoculated with three out of these seven fractions (supernatant, 30%, and pellet). The objectives were: (1) to characterise the seven fractions by bacteriological examination; (2) to verify whether the aetiological agent was present in the fractions by inoculation of rabbits; (3) to assign the aetiological agent of ERE to a morphological group of pathogens; (4) to identify a fraction which could replace the reference inoculum TEC3 in applications such as cell cultures or egg inoculation. The results strongly suggest that ERE is a bacterial disease and does not have a viral or parasitic aetiology. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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